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• On account of the diffuse and heterogeneous character which the Dictionary of Calmet had thus been brought to assume, it was a judicious step to undertake a new revision, in which the Fragments should be incorporated with the Dictionary under one alphabet, and the whole condensed and reduced to a proper form and order. Such a work has been published in London, during the present year, in royal octavo, under the direction of the editor of the fifth quarto edition. In order to comprise the work within this compass, the plan appears to have been to leave out all articles not directly illustrative of the Scriptures themselves; and also many of the prolix and trivial critical discussions of the Fragments; omitting, however, nothing which it would be of any importance to retain. This plan appears to have been acted upon throughout-but with some exceptions, and, as it would seem, in great haste. I am not aware, at least, that any thing has been omitted, which it would have been in any degree advisable to have retained.

Such was the work which the enterprising Publishers put into my hands, with the request that I would revise it, and prepare an edition for the American public. On examining it, I found that many retrenchments might still be made, in my judgment, with advantage; while many additions also might be introduced, from sources with which the English editors appear to have been unacquainted.

The retrenchments which I have ventured to make, have been chiefly in respect to such critical, etymological, and mythological discussions of Mr. Taylor, as the English editor had retained. Believing that a much better system of Hebrew philology is beginning to be prevalent in our country, and also a more sober and correct view of Biblical interpretation in general, I felt unwilling to sanction the circulation among us of any such crude and fanciful speculations as could only tend to divert the mind of the Biblical student from the right way. I have, therefore, not hesitated to strike out every thing of this kind, which seemed to me positively wrong and of injurious tendency; although enough still remains to confirm to the sober-minded student the correctness of the preceding remarks. * In the place of these retrenchments, and to a much greater amount, I have made such additions as seemed to be desirable, from all the sources within my reach. The whole range of German labor, in the department of Biblical literature, appears to have been almost unknown to the English editors ; I have drawn copiously from it. The works of modern oriental travellers have also been extensively used. During the whole progress of the work, the latest quarto edition of the Dictionary has been open before me, as also the French edition of 1730, and the first English one of 1732; but I have not found occasion to draw from them to any great extent.

The present work contains very many things which I should never have inserted, but which, being once there, I did not feel myself at liberty to reject. Such a course would have resulted rather in the compilation of a new work; which it was neither my wish no duty to undertake. My province was merely to prepare a revised copy of the English work This I have done, and almost every page bears evidence of such revision. Of the very numerous Scripture references, many have been found wrong, and have been corrected ; bu no systematic collation of them has been made. Many errors also, which had come dowi through all the previous editions, have been corrected. At my request, the Publishers hav given a new and important map of the country south of Palestine ; and, at their own sug gestion, have introduced a better plan of Jerusalem, and also added another map, illustrativ of the passage of the Israelites through the Red sea.

In conclusion, I have to return my thanks to the guardians and officers of Harvard Un versity, and the Boston Athenæum, for the very liberal manner in which they met my wishe for the use of books from their respective libraries. To the skilful and very accurate coi rectors connected with the Boston Type and Stereotype Company, the thanks of the Edito and of the readers of this work are especially due.

The plan of the work, it will be perceived, is neither doctrinal nor devotional. TI object of it is simply to explain and illustrate the meaning of the Bible itself, leaving other occasions the application of that meaning, as it regards both the understanding and th heart. That the work may have the effect to facilitate and promote the study of tl Sacred Volume in our land, is now the Editor's fervent prayer, as it has long been th object of his anxious toil.

EDWARD ROBINSON. Theol. Sem. Andover, Oct. 15, 1832.

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A, the first letter in almost all alphabets. In Hebrew | by working several miracles in his presence. Pbarait is called aleph, (N) which signifies ox, from the oh, however, drove them away, and for the purpose shape of it in the old Phenician alphabet, where it of repressing the strong hopes of the Israelites of a somewhat resembles the head and horns of that ani- restoration to liberty, he ordered their laborious ocmal. (Plutarch. Quæst. Sympos. ix. 2. Gesenii cupations to be greatly increased. Overwhelmed Thesaur. Ileb. p. 1.) This Hebrew name has passed with despair, the Hebrews bitterly complained to over along with the letter itself, into the Greek alpha. Moses and Aaron, who encouraged them to sustain Both the Hebrews and Greeks employed the letters their oppressions, and reiterated the determination of their alphabets as numerals; and A, therefore, of God to subdue the obstinacy of Pharaoh, and (aloph or alpha) denoted one, the first. Hence our procure the deliverance of his people, ch. v. In Lord says of himself, that he is (tò A) Alpha and (cd 2) all their subsequent intercourse with Pharaoh, durOmega, i. e. the first and the last, the beginning and ing which several powerful remonstrances were the ending, as he himself explains it, Rev. i. 8, 11; made, and many astonishing miracles performed, xxi. 6; xxii. 13. R.

Aaron appears to have taken a very prominent part, AARON, the son of Amram and Jochiebed, of the and to have pleaded with much eloquence and tribe of Levi, (Exod. vi. 20.) was born A. M. 2430; effect the cause of the injured Hebrews, Exod. that is, the year before Pharaoh's edict for destroying | vi.---xii. the Hebrew male infants, and three years before his Moses having ascended mount Sinai, to receive brother Moses, Exod. vii. 7. He married Elisheba, the tables of the law, after the ratification of the the daughter of Amminadah, of the tribe of Judah, / covenant made with Israel, Aaron, his sons, and (Exod. vi. 23.) by whom he had four sons, Nadab and seventy elders, followed him partly up. They saw Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. The eldest two were the symbol of the divine presence, without sustaindestroyed by fire from heaven; from the other two ing any injury, (Exod. xxiv. 1–11.) and were favorthe race of the chief priests was continued in Israel, ed with a sensible manifestation of the good pleasure I Chron. xxiv. 2 seq.

of the Lord. It was at this tine that Moses received The Lord, having appeared to Moses, and directed a divine command to invest Aaron and his four sons hiin to deliver the Israelites from their oppressive with the priestly office, the functions of which they bondage in Egypt, appointed Aaron to be his assistant were to discharge before Jehovah for ever. See and speaker, he being the inore eloquent of the two, PRIEST. Exod. iv. 14-16; vii. 1. Moses, having been dis During the forty days that Moses continued in the rected by God to return into Egypt, quitted Midian, mount, the people became impatient, and tumultuwith his family, and entered upon his journey. At ously addressed Aaron: “Make us gods," said they, inount Horeb he met his brother Aaron, who had “which shall go before us: for as to this Moses, the come thither by a divine direction ; (Exod. iv. 27.) man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, and after the usual salutations, and conference as to we know not what is become of hiin," Exod. xxxii. the purposes of the Almighty, the brothers prosecuted 1 seg. Aaron desired them to bring their pendants, their journey to Egypt, A. M. 2513. Upon their and the ear-rings of their wives and children; which, arrival in Egypt, they called together the elders of being brought, were melted down under his direcIsrael, and having announced to them the pleasure tion, and formed into a golden calf. Before this calf of the Alinighty, to deliver the people from their Aaron built an altar, and the people sacrificed, bondage, they presented themselves before Pharaoh, lanced, and diverted themselves around it, exclaimand exhibited the credentials of their divine mission, ing, “These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." The Lord having 2. Among the most confirming signs given by informed Moses of the sin of the Israelites, (Exod. God to Moses, may be placed the interview with his xxxii. 7.) he immediately descended, carrying the brother Aaron at mount Horeb. This being predicitables of the law, which, as he approached the camp, ed by God, and directly taking place, must have been he threw upon the ground and broke, (ver. 19.) re- | very convincing to Moses. (See something similar proaching the people with their transgression, and in the case of Jeremiah, chap. xxxii. 8.) It should Aaron with his weakness. Aaron at first endeavors seem also, that Aaron would not have undertaken a ed to excuse himself, but afterwards became penitent, journey of two months, from Egypt to mount Sinai, humbled himself, and was pardoned. The taberna- at great hazard and expense, unless he had been well cle having been completed, and the offerings prepar assured of the authority which sent him; neither ed, Aaron and his sons were consecrated with the could he have expected to find Jioses where he did holy oil, and invested with the sacred garments, find him, wuless by divine direction; since the place, Exod. xl. Lev. viii. Scarcely, however, were the afterwards called the mount of God, was then undisceremonies connected with this solemn service com- tinguished and unfrequented. Aaron, therefore, was pleted, when his two eldest sons, Nadab and Abihu, a sigu to Moses, as Moses was a sign to Aaron. were destroyed by fire from heaven, for presunting 3. It seems probable that Aaron was in circumstanto burn incense in the tabernacle with strange fire, ces above those of the lower class of people in Egypt. Lev. x.

Blad he been among those who were kept to their Subsequently to this affecting occurrence, there | daily bondage, he could ill have spared time and was little in the life of Aaron that demands particular cost for a jourucy to lloreb. Although the brothers, notice. During the forty years that he discharged then, had no pretension to sovereign authority by the priestly office, his duties were apparently at- descent, yet they were of consideration among the tended to with assiduity, and his general conduct, Israclites, either by property, or office, or perhaps excepting the case of his joining Miriam in mur- from the fact of Moses' long residence and education muring against Moses, and distrusting the divine at the Egyptian court; which could not fail to be a power at Kadesh, was blameless, Numb. xii. XX. source of intluence to himself and to his fanuly. 8—11.

Both Moses and Aaron seem to be acknowledged by In the fortieth year after the departure of the Pharaoh, and by many of his servants, as persons of Hebrews out of Egypt, and while they were en- consideration, and as proper agents for transacting camped at Mosera, Aaron, by the divine command, business between the Israelites and the king. Aaron ascended mount Hor. Here Moses divested him of performed the miracles before Pharaoh, too, withoui his pontifical robes, which were placed upon his son any wonder being expressed by him, low a personi Eleazar; "and Aaron died on the top of the mount," like him should acquire such skill and eloquence. at the age of one hundred and twenty-three years, Had Moses and Aaron been merely private persons, "and the congregation mourned for him thirty days," Pharach would, no doubt, have punished their intruNumb. xx. 23–29; xxxiii. 38.

sion and impertinence. There is an apparent discrepancy in the scripture 4. We cannot palliate the sin of which Aaron was account of the place of Aaron's death. In the pas- guilty, when left in charge of Israel, in conjunction sages above referred to, it is said that it occurred in with llur, while Moses was in the mount, receiving mount Hor; but in Deut. x. 6. it is stated to have the law. Tlis authority should have been exerted to been at Mosera, or more properly, according to the restrain the people's infatuation, instead of forwardHebrew form of the word, at Moser. The difficulty, ing their design. (See CalF.) As to his persona however, is removed, by supposing that the place concern in the atlair, we may remark, that if his own Mosera lay near the foot of mount Hor, perhaps on faith or patience was exhausted, or if he supposed the elevated open plain from which the mountain Moses to be dead, then there could have been no coi rises, as described by Burckhardt, Travels in Syria lusion between them. Nor durst he have done as I and the Holy Land, p. 430. Josephus, Eusebius, did, had he expected the immediate return of Mose and Jerome, all agree in placing the sepulchre of His activity in building the altar to the calf render Aaron upon the summit of mount Hor, where it is his subsequent subinission to Moses utterly inexpli still preserved and venerated by the Arabs. When cable, had not a divine conviction been employed on the supposed tomb was visited by Mr. Legh, it was the occasion. It is to be remarked, that nothing attended by a crippled Arab hermit, about eighty said of the interference of Hur, the coadjutor o years of age, who conducted the travellers into a Aaron in the government of the people. The lattı small white building, crowned by a cupola. The seems to bave shrunk with unholy timidity froi monument itself is about three feet high, and is his duty of resistance to the proceedings of t1 patched together out of fragments of stone and mar- people, 'fearing their disposition, as “set on mi ble. The proper tomb is excavated in the rock be-chief,” which he pleads in excuse, Exod. XAN low. See Hor.

22–24. 1. In reviewing the life of Aaron, we can scarcely 5. The sedition of Aaron and Miriam again fail to remark the manner of his introduction into Moscs, (Numb. xii. 1.) affords another argume the history. He at once appears as a kind of assist- against the supposition of collusion between 11 ant, and so far an inferior, to his brother Moses ; vet brothers. Aaron assumes, at first, a high tone, ai he had some advantages which seem to have entitled pretends to no less gifts than his brother; but ] him to prior consideration. He was the elder bro- afterwards acknowledges his folly, and, with Miriall ther, an eloquent speaker, and also favored by di-submits. Aaron was not visited with the lepro: vine inspiration. We have no cause assigned why but he could well judge of its reality on his siste he was not preferred to Moses, in respect of authori- it was his proper office to exclude her from the can ?y; and therefore no other cause can now be assign- | for seven days; and by his expression of “flesh bil ed than the divine good pleasure, acting perhaps with consumed,” it should seem that it was an inveter: reference to the superior education and consequent kind of the disease, and therefore the more sigil influence of Moses.

| Aaron's affection, interest, and passion, all couci red to harden him against any thing less than full Interpreters have been inuch divided in regard to conviction of a divine interposition. But he well the streams probably designated by the names Abana knew that it was not in the power of Moses to in- and Pharpar. One of these undoubtedly is the presflict this disease, in so sudden and decided a manner. ent Barrada (the cold), the Chrysorrhoas of the an

6. The departure of Aaron for death, has some-cients, which rises in Anti-Libanus and flows through thing in it very singular and impressive. In the Damascus. Just above the city it is divided into sight of all the congregation, he quits the camp for several branches, (some travellers say three, and the mountain, where he is to die. On the way, others five,) which pass around the city on the outMoses his brother, and Eleazar his son, divest lim side, and aiford water for the numerous gardens by of his pontifical habits, and attend him to the last. which the city is surrounded; while the main stream We view, in imagination, the feeble old man ascend- passes through and waters the city itself. Below ing the mount, there transferring the insignia of his the city they again mostly unite, and the river loses office to his son, and giving up the ghost, with that itself in a marsh a few miles S. E. from Damascus. faith, that resignation, that meekness, which became The branches here mentioned are evidently artificial; one who had been honored with the Holy Spirit, and if we now suppose that originally there were and with the typical representation of the great Iligh- but two branches in all, (the others being a work of priest himself.

later times, these two branches may perhaps have 7. In the general character of Aaron there was bech the Abana and Pharpar.—Another supposition, much of the meekness of his brother Moses. He however, is more probable, viz. that one of the streams seems to have been willing to serve his brethren, is the Barrada; while the other, (perhaps the Amana, upon all occasions; and was too easily persuaded or perennial stream,) may be the little river Fijih, or against his own judgment. This appears when the Fege, which rises near the village of like name in a people excited him to make the golden calf, and when pleasant valley about 15 or 20 miles N. W. of DamasMiriam urged him to rival his brother.

cus. Dr. Richardson describes it as issuing at once 8. When we consider the talents of Aaron, his from the limestone rock, a deep, rapid stream of natural eloquence, and his probable acquirements in about thirty feet wide. It is pure and cold as iced knowledge, that God often spake to him as well as water, and after coursing down a rugged channel for to Moses, and that Egyptian priests were scribes, as a above a hundred yards, falls into the Barrada, which duty of their profession; it is not very unlikely, that comes from another valley, and is here only half as he assisted his brother in writing some parts of the wide as the Fijih. Its waters, also, like those of the books which now bear the name of Moses; that, at Jordan, have a white, sulphureous hue. *R. least, he kept journals of public transactions; that ABAGARUS, see ABGAR. he transcribed, perhaps, the orders of Moses, espe L ABARIM, mountains east of Jordan, over against cially those relating to the priests. If this be admis- | Jericho, on the northern border of Moab, within the sible, then we account at once for such difference of limits of the tribe of Reuben. . It is impossible to destyle as appears in these books, and for such smaller fine exactly their extent. Eusebius fixes them at six variations in different places, as would naturally arise miles west of Heshbon, and seven east of Livias. The from two persons recording the same facts; we ac- mountains Nebo, Pisgah, and Peor, were summits count for this at once, without, in any degree, lessen- of the Abarim. Numb. xxvii. 12; xxxiii. 47, 48. ing the authority, the antiquity, or the real value of Deut. xxxiii. 49. these books. It accounts, also, for the third person ABBA, a Syriac word signifying father, and exbeing used when speaking of Moses: perhaps, too, pressive of attachment and confidence. When the for some of the praise and commendation of Moses, Jews came to speak Greek, this word was probably which is most remarkable where Aaron is most in retained from their ancient language, as being easier fault. See Numb. xi. 3. In Deuteronomy, Moses to pronounce, especially for children, than the Greek uses the pronouns, I, and me: “I said,”—“the Lord pater. Hence Paul says, “Ye have received the said to me,” which are rarely or never used in the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father," former books. See Bible.

Rom. viii. 15. AARONITES, Levites of the family of Aaron ; I. ABDON, son of Hillel, of the tribe of Ephraim, the priests who particularly served the sanctuary. and tenth judge of Israel. He succeeded Elon, and Nurnb. iv. 5 seq. 1 Chron. xii. 27; xxvii. 17. See judged Israel eight years, Judg. xii. 13, 15. He died LEVITE3.

| A. M. 2848, ante A. D. 1156. AB, the eleventh month of the civil vear of the II. ABDON, son of Micah, sent by king Josiah to Ilebrews, and the 5th of their ecclesiastical year, Huldah the prophetess, to ask her opinion concernwhich began with Nisan. It had thirty days, and ing the book of the law, lately found in the temple, nearly answers to the moon of July. The name 2 Chron. xxxiv. 20. Some think him to be the same does not occur in Scripture. See the JEWISH CAL- | as Achbor, son of Micaiah, 2 Kings xxii. 12. ENDAR at the end of the volume.

III. ABDON, a city of Asher, given to the LeABADDON, or APOLLYON, the destroyer; the vites of Gershon's family, Josh. xxi. 30. 1 Chron. narne ascribed (Rev. ix. 11.) to the angel of the abyss, vi. 74. or Tartarus, i. e. the angel of death. He is repre ABEDNEGO, a Chaldee name given by the king sented as the king and head of the Apocalyptic of Babylon's officer to Azariah, one of Daniel's comlocusts under the fifth trumpet, Rev. ix. 11. See panions, Dan. i. 7. Abednego was thrown into the LocusT.

fiery furnace at Babylon, with Shadrach and MeABANA, or AMANA, (the former being the Kethib, shach, for refusing to adore the statue erected by or reading of the Hebrew text; and the latter the Keri, command of Nebuchadnezzar, Dan. iii. See DANIEL or marginal reading,) the name of one of the rivers Some have supposed this Azariah to be Ezra, but cited by Naarnan (2 Kings v. 12.) as rivers of Damas- without sufficient grounds. cus. The latter is probably the true name, signifying I. ABEL, (Heb. $27,) the second son of Adam perennial ; the change of m into b being very common and Eve. Cain and Abel having been instructed in the oriental dialects.

by their father Adam in the duty of worship to their Creator, each offered the first-fruits of his labors. iv. 7. 6.) and lay according to him about 60 stadia or Cain, as a husbandman, offered the fruits of the field; furlongs from the Jordan. Numb. xxxiii. 49. comp. Abel, as a shepherd, offered fatlings of his flock. xxii. 1. It is more frequently called Shittim alone, God was pleased to accept the offering of Abel, in Numb, xv. l. Josh. ii. 1. Micah vi. 5. Eusebius preference to that of his brother, (Heb. xi. 4.) in con- says, it was in the neighborhood of mount Peor. sequence of which, Cain sank into melancholy, and Moses encamped at Abel-shittim before the Israelgiving himself up to envy, formed the design of kill-ites passed the Jordan, under Joshua. Here, seduced ing Abel; which he at length effected, having invited by Balak, they fell into idolatry, and worshipped him to go into the field, Gen. iv. 8, 9. 1 John iii. 12. Baal-Peor; on account of which God severely It should be remarked, that in our translation no punished them by the hands of the Levites, chap. mention is made of Cain inviting his brother into the XXV. field :-“Cain talked with Abel his brother; and it ! ABELA, see Abila. came to pass when they were in the field, that Cain ABEZ, a city of Issachar, Josh. xix. 20. rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.” ABGAR, a king of Edessa, and of the district OsBut in the Samaritan text, the words are express; rhoene, the seventeenth of the twenty kings who and in the Hebrew there is a kind of chasm, thus: bore this name, and contemporary with Christ. The " and Cain said unto Abel his brother,"_" and it name does not occur in Scripture, but is celebrated came to pass,” &c. without inserting what he said in ecclesiastical history, on account of the corresto his brother.

pondence which is said to have passed between him The Jews had a tradition that Abel was murdered and Christ. The legend is, that Abgar wrote to the in the plain of Damascus; and accordingly, his tomb Saviour, requesting him to come and heal him of the is still shown on a ligh hill, near the village of Sinie leprosy, to whichi Christ replied, that he could not or Seneiah, about twelve miles north-west of Damas- come to him, but would send one of his disciples. cus, on the road to Baalbek. The summit of the Accordingly he is said to have sent Thaddeus. Both hill is still called Nebbi Abel; but circumstances lead letters are apocryphal, and may be found in Fabric. to the probable supposition, that this was the site, or Codex Apoc. N. T. p. 317. See also the quarto ed. in the vicinity of the site, of the ancient Abela or of Calmet. R. Abila. The legend, therefore, was most likely sug- ABI, mother of Hezekialı, king of Judah; (2 Kings gested by the ancient name of the place.

xviii, 2.) called Abijah, 2 Chron. xxix. 1. Paul, speaking in commendation of Abel, says, ABLA, in the N. T. the sune as Abivah in the 0. (Heb. xi. 4.) “By faith he offered unto God a more T. which see. excellent sacrifice than Cain ; by which he obtained L ABIAII, second son of Samuel. Being intrusted witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his with the administration of justice, he behaved ill, and gifts; and by it he being dead yet speaketh,” even induced the people to require a king, 1 Sam. viii. 2. after his death. Our Saviour places Abel at the head ABIATHAR, son of Abimelech, and high-pries of those saints who had been persecuted for right of the Jews. When Saul sent his emissaries to Noh eousness sake, and distinguishes him hy the title to destroy all the priests there, Abiathar, who wa righteous, Matt. xxiii. 35.

young, fled to David in the wilderness, (1 Sam. xxii II. ABEL, (Heb. 52x,) Abel-beth-Maacalı, or 11, scq.) with whom he continued in the characte Abel-maim, a city in the north of Palestine, of some of high-priest. Saul, it would appear, transferred considerable size and importance, since it is called “a the dignity of the high-priesthood from Ithamar mother in Israel," 2 Sam. xx. 19. For the identity of family to that of Eleazar, by conferring the offic the city under these three different names, comp. 2 upon Zadok. Thus there were, at the same time Sam. xx. 14, 15, 18; 1 Kings xv. 20; 2 Chron. xvi. 4. two high-priests in Israel; Abiathar with David, an The addition of Maacal marks it as belonging to or Zarok with Saul. This double priesthood continue near to the region Maacah, which lay eastward of the from the death of Alimelech till the reign of Solo Jordan, under Anti-Lebanon. It is perhaps Die mon; when Abiathar, attaching himself to Adonija) Abela mentioned by Eusebius as lying between Pa- was deprived by Solomon of his priesthood, 1 King neas and Damascus. R.

ii. 27. The race of Zadok alone exercised this mii ABEL-BETH-MAACAH, that is Abel near the istry during and after the reign of Solomon, exclud house or city of Maacah; the same as ABEL.

ing the family of Ithamar, according to the predictio ABEL-CARMAIM, or the Place of the Vineyards, made to Eli the high-priest, 1 Sam. iii. 11, &c. a village of the Ammonites, about six miles from A difficulty arises from the circumstance, that Philadelphia, or Rabbath-Ammon, according to 1 Kings i. 27, Abiathar is said to be deprived of 11 Eusebius, and in his time still rich in vineyards, priest's ofiice by Solomon; while in 2 Sam. viii. 11 Judges xi. 33.

1 Chron. xviii. 16, xxiv. 3, 6, 31, Abimelech the sal ABEL-MAIM, the same as Abel-bcth-Maacah, of Abiathar is said to be high-priest along wil 1 Kings xv. 20. 2 Chron. xvi. 4. See ABEL II. Zadok. The most probable solution is, that bo

ABEL-MEHOLAH, the birth-place of Elisha, father and son each bore the two names Ahimele 1 Kings xix. 16. It was situated about ten miles south and Abiathar; as was not at all unusual among t of Scythopolis or Bethshan, (1 Kings iv. 12.) and was Jews. (See one example under ABIGAIL.) In t1 celebrated in connexion with Gideon's victory over way also we may remove the difficulty arising fro the Midianites, Judges vii. 22.

Mark ii. 26, where Abiathar is said to have giv ABEL-MIZRAIM, "the place of the Egyptians," | David the shew bread, in allusion to 1 Sam. xxi. previously called "the threshing-floor of Atad," Gen. seq. where it is Abimelech.-Others suppose 1 1. 11. Jerom places it between Jericho and the Jor- passage in Mark to be merely a Jewish mode dan; three miles from the former, and two from the quotation, as if from the “History of Abiathal latter, where Bethagla afterwards stood.

This, however, does not remove the other difficu ABEL-SHITTIM was in the plains of Moab, mentioned above; and there are also other objectid beyond Jordan, opposite to Jericho. It is, undoubt. to it, arising from the Greek idiom. See Kuindi edly, the Abila of Josephus, (Ant. v. 1. 1. Bell. Jud. Comm. II. p. 29. R.

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