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lovers and propagators of scandal do not gain the smallest shred of honour or reputation by their scandal-mongering, and consequently they feel much less shame and meet with much less reproof, as their evil sayings are attended by no personal advantage. It is only very nice and sensitive consciences that enable their owners to suffer remorse when they have heedlessly invented or furthered scandal.

It is very curious to observe the way in which anger is wont to make use of the plural. No sooner is any man injured, or thinks himself injured, by some one person belonging to a body, than the injured man attaches the blame to the whole of the body. He is injured, we will admit, by one person belonging to a family, or a government, or any section of mankind. Forth with he goes about saying, “They are abominable people; ” “They used me shamefully.” This practice seems at first sight only ludicrous, but it often leads to most serious consequences. The injured man puts himself into an attitude of hostility to the whole body. They hear of it, and are prompt to take up the quarrel; and so, in the end, he really has to contend against the injustice, if it be injustice, not only of one man, but of many men; and thereby has not furthered his cause.

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Hence he appears to be very firm ; but the firmness is that of blind favouritism, like that of the ape-mother in the fable, who at a moment of danger, instead of letting all her little ones climb up her back, seized one, favourite ape-child, and, running straight on, intent alone on that one's preservation, dashed herself and the child against the wall.

It is not a subtle conceit, but is consistent with observed fact, that men who are prone to praise and commend others are mostly men of a melancholy character. At any rate, they are men who take a very high view of the difficulties and troubles of life. Hence they think much of small suecesses. Considering the faultiness of education, the strength of passion, the hardness of the world, the difficulty of making any impression upon it, and the many embarrassments which beset a man’s progress in life, persons of the character I have described are rather surprised at anybody's behaving well, or doing anything rightly. That laudation which, when uttered by other men, is merely praise of an ordinary kind, is, when uttered by these men, a large appreciation of trials and difficulties overcome — perhaps an exaggerated appreciation, by reason of an excess in the sad and desponding view they take of human life.

Following up somewhat of the same train of thought, we may observe that the censure which men pronounce upon the conduct of others is mostly a censure proceeding from lofty expectations. }. young especially abound in censure of this kind. They blame severely, because they look forward so hopefully both for themselves and others; and have as yet so little apprehension of the trials, struggles and difficulties in this confused and troubled world.

parasitic on native trees belonging to the orders Violarieae and Rutaceae, it appears now to have nearly deserted these in favour of trees introduced since the colonization of the islands by Europeans, especially the hawthorn, plum, peach, and laburnum. The latter tree was only introduced in 1859, and appears now to be one of its most favourite resorts, where it is abundantly visited by the (also introduced) EuroAcademy.

No. 1453. - April 13, 1872.

CONTENTS. 1 AN ENGLISH INTERIOR IN THE 17TH CENTURY, . Quarterly Review, . . . 67 2. THE STRANGE ADVENTURES OF A PRAETON. By

William Black, author of "A Daughter of
Heth," etc. Part V. ·

· . . Macmillan's Magazine, . .. 3. THE SECRET POLICY OF THE VATICAN, .

Saturday Review, . . . 4. STORY OF THE PLEBISCITE. By MM. Erckmann

Chatrian. Part VII., . . . . . Cornhill Magazine, . . . 5. THE LEGAL PROFESSION IN AMERICA. By James

Bryce, . . . . . ... Macmillan's Magazine, . . 6. THE STORY OF THE TICHBORNE CASE, . . . Saturday Review, . . . 7. Sir W. GULL ON PaysIOLOGICAL INTERVENTION, . Spectator, . . . .

POETRY.
ENGLAND AND AMERICA, . . . . 66 | CITY VIOLETS, . . . .

SHORT ARTICLES
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION or Coni- | ANECDOTE OF MAZZINI, . . . . 93

FERE, . . . . . 97 WEST AFRICA, . . . . . 128 Two LETTERS OF CHARLES THE FIRST, . 98 STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION Or ComA PAXILLAB QUOTATION, . . ..

POSITÆ, . . . . .

128

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From The Quarterly Review. AN ENGLISH INTERIOR IN THE 17th CENTURY.

FROM the library of the late Mr. Law, of King's Cliff, near Bristol—author of the “Serious Call”— a curious MS. diary of a Noncomformist chaplain has come into the possession of the writer of these lines, through the kindness of a friend into whose collection the interesting MSS. of Mr. Law (including those of Dr. Lee, the son-in-law of the celebrated visionary Mrs. Jane Lead) have passed. This singular relic, written in the minutest character and in very fair Latin, presents so vivid a picture of an English interior at the close of the seventeenth century, and that in a family of the highest rank, that a brief notice of this record of the daily life of a domestic chaplain during this transition period cannot but possess features of interest for the general reader. Elias Travers appears to have been one of the many “waifs and strays” of that bloodless but too fatal massacre of St. Bartholomew, which formed so sad a spiritual commentary on the sanguinary persecution of its earlier namesake. A Nonconformist of Nonconformists (for he was a cousin of the great Howe, and so highly esteemed by him as to be thought meet to succeed him on his own recommendation as Chaplain to Wiscount Massareene), he was one of those pious and faithful men whom the severe Act of 1662 had cut off from the Church, and who yet, by that singular providence which transferred their iministrations to the families of the nobility and higher gentry, were preserved to the Church for a work of much higher and more lasting utility than any they could have effected through their pastoral office. But for this strong spiritual influence which was thus secretly leavening the mass of English society, it is difficult to imagine how far any portion of evangelical truth could have survived the chilling and almost paralyzing reaction of the period of Charles II. In these faithful men, whose influence was thus unconsciously extended,

An English Interior in the 17th Century (1675–81). Illustrated from the unpublished diary of ELIAs TRAverts, M.A., Chaplain to Sir Thomas Barnardiston, M.P., of Ketton Hall.

the prophecy of Isaiah seems to have had one of its many fulfilments. “As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one saith, Destroy it not; for a blessing is in it: so will I do for my servants' sake.” (Isa. lxv. 8.) Our first introduction to our guide in this narrative is at “his chambers at the ‘Three Blackbirds’ in Holborn at Mr. Bransill's.” Of the place or the host we know nothing more than that he met the latter when he revisited London in the days of his chaplaincy at Ketton. His diary, after a suggestive memorandum relating to the effects of his “Unkle Rous,” which amounted to the modest sum of “nineteen pounds sixteen or six shillings, I am not well assured whether of the two,” opens with an act of self-dedication, written on September 8th, 1675, in which he sets himself apart like Jacob to the service of God, and promises “of all that he shall have when his debts are paid, he will give the tenth to Him while he lives,”—“Witnesse,” he adds, “my soul and conscience and my hand the day and year above-written.” Certain entries in short-hand succeeded this record, and are occasionally interspersed among the pages of his diary. From a subsequent reference he makes to them, they would appear merely to consist of confessions of his broken resolutions, shortcomings, and backslidings, recorded in order to be read over from time to time as a kind of penance, and therefore not throwing any light u, on the facts described in the diary. At soule time between 1676 and February, 1678 (at which date the diary begins) and probably through the influence of his cousin Howe with the Wiscountess Wimbledon, the mother of Lady Barnardiston, our friend becomes the chaplain and tutor to the family of Sir Thomas Barnardiston, of Ketton Hall, in Suffolk, into whose household his own graphic touches will best introduce us, though it will not be amiss to avail ourselves, in the first instance, of the more formal introduction of Sir Bernard Burke, who, “in herald pomp and state,” can best explain to us the full extent of the contrast between the lodging at the “Three Blackbirds” in Holborn, and the half-baronial mansion of Ketton. “This,” writes the great heraldic authority, “was one of the most ancient families of the equestrian order in the kingdom, having flourished in a “direct line for twenty-seven generations at least.” Their estate in the time of Queen Elizabeth amounted to £4,000 a year,” and had been increased by a succession of great alliances, among which that with the old Norman family of Newmarch brought them the Lordship of Kedyton or Ketton, from which they derived their local designation, while from the neighbouring town of Barnardiston they had acquired their patronymic. The manor of Great Cotes, in the county of Lincoln (a strange and wintry name), had devolved to them from the Willoughbys, a name equally redolent of the fen country; but Ketton is to us the central point of interest, as the scene of the chaplaincy of Elias Travers, and of the stereoscopic view which comes before us day by day in his diary. Through Vavasours and Watertons and other great alliances, the “equestrian family" “carries on its history to the period of Sir Thomas Barnardiston, whose figure was to be seen (in Weaver's time) in the south window of Kedyton Church, kneeling in complete armour, his coat armour on his breast, and behind him seven sons. In the next pane of glass was seen Elizabeth (his wife) the daughter of Newport kneeling with her coat armour likewise on her breast, and seven daughters behind her.” Of these good people, who flourished in the opening of the sixteenth century, all other memorial has perished. But their successor, Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston, so united goodness with greatness that he has been enshrined for all future generations in the famous funeral sermon and biography of Fairclough, to which our good chaplain very frequently refers. This" worthy knight, the greatest ornament of his house, “one of the most eminent patriots of his time, and the twenty-third knight of his

family,” was five times knight of the shire

for the county of Suffolk, and died in 1653.

He was one of the greatest champions of

civil and religious liberty in the House of

Commons, in which he represented Suffolk in three Parliament. Connected with the Knightleys, Hampdens, Cromwells, Armynes, Lucases, and other patriotic houses, he joined them in their political course — refused to contribute to the ship-money, alleging that “he was not satisfied therein in his conscience,” submitting to imprisonment rather than sanctioning illegality.

In his memoir by Fairclough, there is a very interesting and minute account of the manner of living which he instituted at Ketton, with all the strict religious observances and regulations for the improvement of his children, servants, and neighbours. These rules, however well adapted to a household which had “ten or more servants so eminent for piety and sincerity that never was the like seen all at once in any family,” became a somewhat severe code to his successor who had rather the tastes of an old country gentleman than those of

a saintly Puritan. They are rather grotesquely revealed in the pages of our chaplain, and stand out in odd contrast to the life of a hunting baronet and his not overtemperate companions. In fact, but for the paramount influence of his mother-in-law. Viscountess Wimbledon, these traditional restraints would hardly have survived the next generation. Sir Nathaniel's immediate successor, Sir Thomas, did, however, more nearly resemble him, and it was to him that Cromwell wrote: “It has pleased the Lord to give your servant and soldiers a notable victory at Gainsbrawe after the taking of Burlye House” — adding of Col. Cavendish, “my Captain Lieutenant slew him with a thrust under his short ribbs.” Sir Thomas took an important part as a Parliamentary leader both in the field and in the house, but his opinions were modified at a later day, and he assisted so materially in the work of the Restoration. that, for the antiquity of his family and the virtues of his ancestors, he was created a baronet by the restored monarch in 1663. His eldest son of the same name, Sir

* Probably exclusive of the great Lincolnshire estate, as Mr. Almack, in his admirable and exhaustive history of the family (“Kedington and the Barnardistons "), published by the Suffolk Archaeological Institute, has suggested (p. 13). I may here acknowledge my frequent obligations to this memoir, whose author, being nearly connected with the family, has written it with an interest which few others could import into the subject.

* “Kedington and the Barnardistons,” p. 8.

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