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who might have striven in vain to inflame' extreme type, would have taken the place

their countrymen with their own deter-
mination to regain Alsace and Lorraine, if
the surrender of them had saved the na-
tion from a crushing money burden, can
now point to the exactions of the German
Government as the source of all the pov-
erty which crushing taxation creates or
It showed a strange ignorance of human
nature to suppose that the French people
would remain uninfluenced by emotions to
which no civilized nation could have re-
mained indifferent. Certainly Englishmen
have no right to blame them for setting
their hearts on the recovery of their lost
provinces, unless they honestly believe
that they themselves would sit down
uietly under the loss of Kent and Sussex.
he fact that Alsace and Lorraine are
German by race and history makes no dif-
ference to Frenchmen. Their inhabitants
are French in feeling, and their unanimous
desire was to remain French in name.
This fact would of itself justify a determi-
nation on the part of the nation from
which they have been forcibly severed
to regain them at the earliest oppor-
tunity. But we, at least, could not expect
France to acquiesce in her own dismem-
berment even if this justification were
wanting. England would fight to the last
to keep India, and if there were the slight-
est chance of success she would renew the
fight in order to reconquer it... But be:
sides the considerations applicable to all
nations, there is one which specially be-
longs to France. No Government can
afford to abandon all thought of renewing
the conflict with Germany without giving
a handle to its rivals of which they would
eagerly avail themselves. Supposing that
M. Thiers, following the advice of some
of his English critics, had retrenched the
expenditure on the army and navy, and
declared by word and act his intention of
accepting the results of the war, and mak-
ing no effort to reinstate France in the
place from which she had been cast down,
what would have been the comment alike
of Imperalist, Orleanist, and Commun-
ist? Would they not have charged him
with gross meanness of spirit, with a
degraded readiness to take example by
shopkeeping England, and to sacrifice the
national honour to the exigencies of the
national pocket? The consequence would
have been that France would have had a
revolution the more, and that this. over
everything would have gone on as it is go-
ing on now. An Imperialist or an Orlean-
ist restoration, or a Republic of the most


of the Provisional Government. France
would have lost a year of rest which is in-
valuable to her, and the same preparations
which are being made under M. Thiers
would have been making under some other
The Times thinks it strange that the
possibility of people reading between the
lines of his speech should never strike M.
“What seems difficult to under-
stand,” it says, “is that he should be so
outspoken, that he should be so anxious to
show his cards, knowing how hazardous is
the game he plays, and how strong and
sharp and resolute is the adversary he has
to deal with.” The explanation is to be
found in a maxim of the game from which
the Times draws its illustration. At whist
to inform your partner is of more impor.
tance than to deceive your adversary. If
M. Thiers could make the same policy an-
swer both purposes, no doubt he would
gladly do so. But he has to carry the
French people with him, and to persuade
them to make great sacrifices in the way
of preparation for the future at the very
time that they are forced to make great
sacrifices by way of expiation for the past.
Absolute reticence is quite incompatible
with success in this direction. A nation
must have something to look forward to if
it is expected to add voluntary to invol-
untary inconveniences, and to find money
to meet the year's estimates as well as the
interest on an enormous debt. Again, M.
Thiers may hope to secure some wavering
ally by letting the world see that France
is doing her best to make her alliance once
more of value. He knows, we may be
sure, that the German Government will
see through his designs, but this is the
price he has to pay in order that some
friendly Power may not be wholly in the
dark about them. And, after all, what
does he lose by his frankness? It is not
what M. Thiers says that alarms the Ger-
mans, but what he does; not the ambigu-
ous words that he utters, but the unambigu-
ous recruits that he raises and the unam-
biguous artillery that he constructs. No
matter how close M. Thiers had kept his
counsel, the arming of 1,600,000 men and
the casting of 2,700 field guns would have
spoken in a language of their own. It may
be true, as the Times warns him, that to
allow his object to be perceived is to run
the risk of seeing it frustrated. But it is
also true that he could only have prevented
his object being perceived by altogether
giving up the prosecution of it. It is open,
of course, to any one to say that the object

is so chimerical that it ought to be given up. But where 36,000,000 of people are concerned the statement is not one that carries conviction with it. Why should France sit down in despair of ever bein

able to undo the work of the late war? She has all the materials out of which soldiers are made. She has the benefit of a terrible experience. She has the knowledge of her own weak points burnt in upon her mind. The best military organization of modern times has been at work under the very eyes of her generals. Granting that the conflict is an unequal one at starting, that is not a fact which invariably de

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At a meeting of the Asiatic Society, a translation from the Persian, found among the papers of the late Sir H. M. Elliot, was read of part of a book of travel by Nāsir ibn Khushru, a native of Balkh, who visited the Holy Land and Egypt in the eleventh century of the Christian era. The traveller relates that he journeyed from Balkh to Jerusalem; a distance of 876 parasangs, and entered the Holy City on the 5th of Ramayān, A. H. 438, one solar year having elapsed since he had quitted his home. He says that the Moslems of the neighbouring countries, who are unable to go to Mecca, remain there until they have celebrated the Feast of the Kurbán, and that they carry their children thither to circumcise them. Sometimes as many as 20,000 strangers are congregated there. The traveller's account of the sacred buildings in Jerusalem forms a record of their state more than seven centuries ago. His description of the Kubbet-es-sakhrah deserves especial notice. The floor he describes as level and elegantly paved with marble The walls are of the same material, the joinings being filled in with metal. There is also a reservoir underground inside the shrine, into which runs all the rain-water, and this water is purer and sweeter than all the rest in the mosque. “The sakhrah stands above the ground as much as the stature of a man, and a marble screen has been placed round it so that no man can touch it. It is a stone of a dark blue hue, on which no man has ever dared to set foot ; but on the side where the kiblah lies, it has a hollow in one place of such a kind that you would say it had been walked over. In this way the impression of seven steps are fixed on it. I have heard that Abraham and Isaac went there, and that these are the marks of their feet.” The silver lustres, the gifts of the Sultans of Egypt, were of such size and weight that the traveller calculates that there were a thousand maunds of silver ware in the place. Enormous candles also, the gift of the same Sultans, were to be seen in the building. The traveller visits El Khalil (Hebron), and describes

the sepulchres of the patriarchs. Of the hos

pitality shown to strangers he speaks in favour

able terms. To all guests, travellers and pil

grims they give bread and olives, and numbers

of mills, worked by mules and oxen, are con

stantly grinding flour, while female servants are

engaged in making bread, and each of their

loaves weighs a maund. To every one arriving

at that spot they present a loaf of bread and a

measure of lentils cooked in olive oil, daily, as well as some raisins, and this custom has con

tinued in vogue from the time of Abraham, the friend of the Most Merciful, until the present moment. Sometimes it happens that five hundred people come there in a day, and entertainment is provided for all of them. Returning to Jerusalem. he gives the following description : “The Christian infidels have a church at Jerusalem which they consider extremely holy. Every year a vast multitude come there from Rim

on pilgrimage, and the King of Rim himself even comes in disguise. The church is capable of holding 20,000 souls, and constructed in the most splendid style of coloured marble, adorned with sculpture and painting. . . . . Portraits of Jesus, represented as sitting on an ass, are put up in several places, as well as those of the prophets, such as Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and his children. Each picture is covered with a large plate of transparent glass of the same size as itself, and this they place there to prevent the dust from settling on the painting, the glasses being daily cleaned by the servants. In this church, too, is a chamber of two kinds. constructed after the fashion of Heaven and Hell ; one half of it being descriptive of Paradise and its blessed inmates, and the other of Hell and its wretched victims.” — Mr. C. Horne exhibited some bells, thunderbolts, an ornamental poisoned dagger, and some figures of Buddha, used by the Llamas in Lahoul in their worship, as also an image said to have been anciently worshipped in that country, and some photographs of ancient Graeco-Buddhistic carvings. Athenaeum.

No. 1457. – May 11, 1872.

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CONTENTS. 1. KIDNAPPING IN THE SOUTH SEAS, . . . British Quarterly Review, 2. STORY OF THE PLEBISCITE. By MM. Erckmann.

Chatrian. Part IX., . . . . . Cornhill Magazine, . . 3. Monks of LA TRAPPE. By John Macdonald, M.A., Fraser's Magazine, . . 4. THE STRANGE ADVENTURES OF A PHAETON. By

William Black, author of " A Daughter of

Heth,” etc. Part VII., . . . Macmillan's Magazine, . 5. THE PhysioLOGICAL POSITION OF Alcohol, By Dr. Richardson, F.R.S. . .

Popular Science Review, . 6. ENGLISH CIVIL WARS, . .

. . . Suturday Review, . . 7. THE POSSIBILITY OF WAR THIS YEAR, . . . Spectator, 8. INDIA IN JAMAICA, . . . . . . Economist, . . . 9. THE Jews as POLITICIANS, . . . . . Spectator, . i .

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From The British Quarterly Review. KIDNAPPING IN THE SOUTH SEAS.* NINE years ago religious society in England was startled to find that an energetic attempt was being made in South America to extend the system of slavery. Seven vessels, fitted with all the appliances of the slave-ships of former days, commanded by Spanish officers, and manned by mixed crews, had started from Callao, had visited numerous islands of the South Pacific, and had carried away hundreds of their simple inhabitants to work in the Peruvian mines. These vessels were fitted out by a well-known firm in Lima; and they had done their work with such success that before the humane Governments of the world could interfere, they had secured more than 2,000 persons, and disposed of them among the planters of Chili and Peru. The atrocious speculation, however, proved a failure. Loss and damage were suffered on every side. So crowded were many of the vessels that the captives died on the voyage. Even in Peru the mortality was excessive. The islanders, who had been born and trained amid the warm sea-breezes of the Pacific, ill-fed and ill-clad, could not bear the cold night winds which sweep down from the Cordilleras: and dysentery and fever carried them off in large numbers. And when the indignation of the humane, and the official remonstrances of the French and English Governments, compelled the Peruvians to surrender their plunder, not forty per cent. of those who had lost their liberty were returned to their former homes. • (1.) Further Correspondence retating to the 1mportation of South Sea Islanders into Queensland; in continuation of House of Commons Papers, Nos. 31 and 496, of 1868; and No. 408 of 1809; No. 468, House of Commons, August 17, 1871. (2) Kidnapping in the South Seas. Narrative of a three months’ Cruise in Her Majesty's ship Rosario. By Captain GeoRGE PALMER, R N. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas. 1871. (3) The Polynesian Labour Traffic and the Murder of Bishop Patteson. Proceedings of a Meeting in London, Dec. 13, 1871. Willian Tweedie, Strand 1872. (4.) The Stare Trade in the New Hebrides. Papers read at the Annual Meeting of the New Hebrides Mission, held at the Island of Aniwa, July, 1871. Edited by Rev. John KAY, Coatbridge. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas. 1872. (4) In Quest of Coolies. By JAMEs L. A. Hope. Henry S. King and Co.

Again has that indignation been aroused by a new effort to perpetuate these cruelties. But this time the transgressors are Englishmen; the kidnapping vessels are owned and manned by Englishmen; the lands to which the captives are carried are settled by Englishmen; and it is entirely for English profit that the system has been defended and carried on. Happily, therefore, the reproach falls upon the whole empire; and the cure of the evil lies in English hands.

It was in the beginning of 1863 that Captain Towns a settler in Queensland, who owned an estate of 4,000 acres, in the neighbourhood of Brisbane, and who had employed South Sea Islanders on his little coasting vessels, conceived the plan of procuring natives from the islands as labourers for this estate. He accordingly despatched a vessel to seek for them. The effort was made openly; the vessel was properly fitted, fair wages were promised, and a circular letter was addressed to such missionaries as the vessel might fall in with, asking their kind co-operation, and engaging to give fair treatment to the people who might come. The vicious element also entered into the system from the first. A man named Ross Lewin, who had lived in various places in the South Seas for twenty years, and whose name is now identified with the worst scandals of the traffic and is execrated throughout the islands, was sent in the vessel as second mate and supercargo; and he was instructed to “get seventy, if you can ; ” but “even fifty will be worth while.” No wonder that with such elastic instructions Ross Lewin obtained sixty-five labourers, and became superintendent on the estate. The islanders were, doubtless, nearly all volunteers; they were humanely treated; they were engaged for two or three years; and at the termination of their service were duly paid, and were assisted to return home.

The example spread. Another house, and then another, sent for labourers. A competition sprang up, and by October, 1867, 984 labourers had been procured, of whom 400 were working at the northern ports, chiefly Bowen ; and of whom no less than 225 had been brought in the previous

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