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who might have striven in vain to inflame' extreme type, would have taken the place
their countrymen with their own deter-
of the Provisional Government. France
is so chimerical that it ought to be given up. But where 36,000,000 of people are concerned the statement is not one that carries conviction with it. Why should France sit down in despair of ever bein
able to undo the work of the late war? She has all the materials out of which soldiers are made. She has the benefit of a terrible experience. She has the knowledge of her own weak points burnt in upon her mind. The best military organization of modern times has been at work under the very eyes of her generals. Granting that the conflict is an unequal one at starting, that is not a fact which invariably de
At a meeting of the Asiatic Society, a translation from the Persian, found among the papers of the late Sir H. M. Elliot, was read of part of a book of travel by Nāsir ibn Khushru, a native of Balkh, who visited the Holy Land and Egypt in the eleventh century of the Christian era. The traveller relates that he journeyed from Balkh to Jerusalem; a distance of 876 parasangs, and entered the Holy City on the 5th of Ramayān, A. H. 438, one solar year having elapsed since he had quitted his home. He says that the Moslems of the neighbouring countries, who are unable to go to Mecca, remain there until they have celebrated the Feast of the Kurbán, and that they carry their children thither to circumcise them. Sometimes as many as 20,000 strangers are congregated there. The traveller's account of the sacred buildings in Jerusalem forms a record of their state more than seven centuries ago. His description of the Kubbet-es-sakhrah deserves especial notice. The floor he describes as level and elegantly paved with marble The walls are of the same material, the joinings being filled in with metal. There is also a reservoir underground inside the shrine, into which runs all the rain-water, and this water is purer and sweeter than all the rest in the mosque. “The sakhrah stands above the ground as much as the stature of a man, and a marble screen has been placed round it so that no man can touch it. It is a stone of a dark blue hue, on which no man has ever dared to set foot ; but on the side where the kiblah lies, it has a hollow in one place of such a kind that you would say it had been walked over. In this way the impression of seven steps are fixed on it. I have heard that Abraham and Isaac went there, and that these are the marks of their feet.” The silver lustres, the gifts of the Sultans of Egypt, were of such size and weight that the traveller calculates that there were a thousand maunds of silver ware in the place. Enormous candles also, the gift of the same Sultans, were to be seen in the building. The traveller visits El Khalil (Hebron), and describes
the sepulchres of the patriarchs. Of the hos
pitality shown to strangers he speaks in favour
able terms. To all guests, travellers and pil
grims they give bread and olives, and numbers
of mills, worked by mules and oxen, are con
stantly grinding flour, while female servants are
engaged in making bread, and each of their
loaves weighs a maund. To every one arriving
at that spot they present a loaf of bread and a
measure of lentils cooked in olive oil, daily, as well as some raisins, and this custom has con
tinued in vogue from the time of Abraham, the friend of the Most Merciful, until the present moment. Sometimes it happens that five hundred people come there in a day, and entertainment is provided for all of them. Returning to Jerusalem. he gives the following description : “The Christian infidels have a church at Jerusalem which they consider extremely holy. Every year a vast multitude come there from Rim
on pilgrimage, and the King of Rim himself even comes in disguise. The church is capable of holding 20,000 souls, and constructed in the most splendid style of coloured marble, adorned with sculpture and painting. . . . . Portraits of Jesus, represented as sitting on an ass, are put up in several places, as well as those of the prophets, such as Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and his children. Each picture is covered with a large plate of transparent glass of the same size as itself, and this they place there to prevent the dust from settling on the painting, the glasses being daily cleaned by the servants. In this church, too, is a chamber of two kinds. constructed after the fashion of Heaven and Hell ; one half of it being descriptive of Paradise and its blessed inmates, and the other of Hell and its wretched victims.” — Mr. C. Horne exhibited some bells, thunderbolts, an ornamental poisoned dagger, and some figures of Buddha, used by the Llamas in Lahoul in their worship, as also an image said to have been anciently worshipped in that country, and some photographs of ancient Graeco-Buddhistic carvings. Athenaeum.
No. 1457. – May 11, 1872.
CONTENTS. 1. KIDNAPPING IN THE SOUTH SEAS, . . . British Quarterly Review, 2. STORY OF THE PLEBISCITE. By MM. Erckmann.
Chatrian. Part IX., . . . . . Cornhill Magazine, . . 3. Monks of LA TRAPPE. By John Macdonald, M.A., Fraser's Magazine, . . 4. THE STRANGE ADVENTURES OF A PHAETON. By
William Black, author of " A Daughter of
Heth,” etc. Part VII., . . . Macmillan's Magazine, . 5. THE PhysioLOGICAL POSITION OF Alcohol, By Dr. Richardson, F.R.S. . .
Popular Science Review, . 6. ENGLISH CIVIL WARS, . .
. . . Suturday Review, . . 7. THE POSSIBILITY OF WAR THIS YEAR, . . . Spectator, 8. INDIA IN JAMAICA, . . . . . . Economist, . . . 9. THE Jews as POLITICIANS, . . . . . Spectator, . i .
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From The British Quarterly Review. KIDNAPPING IN THE SOUTH SEAS.* NINE years ago religious society in England was startled to find that an energetic attempt was being made in South America to extend the system of slavery. Seven vessels, fitted with all the appliances of the slave-ships of former days, commanded by Spanish officers, and manned by mixed crews, had started from Callao, had visited numerous islands of the South Pacific, and had carried away hundreds of their simple inhabitants to work in the Peruvian mines. These vessels were fitted out by a well-known firm in Lima; and they had done their work with such success that before the humane Governments of the world could interfere, they had secured more than 2,000 persons, and disposed of them among the planters of Chili and Peru. The atrocious speculation, however, proved a failure. Loss and damage were suffered on every side. So crowded were many of the vessels that the captives died on the voyage. Even in Peru the mortality was excessive. The islanders, who had been born and trained amid the warm sea-breezes of the Pacific, ill-fed and ill-clad, could not bear the cold night winds which sweep down from the Cordilleras: and dysentery and fever carried them off in large numbers. And when the indignation of the humane, and the official remonstrances of the French and English Governments, compelled the Peruvians to surrender their plunder, not forty per cent. of those who had lost their liberty were returned to their former homes. • (1.) Further Correspondence retating to the 1mportation of South Sea Islanders into Queensland; in continuation of House of Commons Papers, Nos. 31 and 496, of 1868; and No. 408 of 1809; No. 468, House of Commons, August 17, 1871. (2) Kidnapping in the South Seas. Narrative of a three months’ Cruise in Her Majesty's ship Rosario. By Captain GeoRGE PALMER, R N. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas. 1871. (3) The Polynesian Labour Traffic and the Murder of Bishop Patteson. Proceedings of a Meeting in London, Dec. 13, 1871. Willian Tweedie, Strand 1872. (4.) The Stare Trade in the New Hebrides. Papers read at the Annual Meeting of the New Hebrides Mission, held at the Island of Aniwa, July, 1871. Edited by Rev. John KAY, Coatbridge. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas. 1872. (4) In Quest of Coolies. By JAMEs L. A. Hope. Henry S. King and Co.
Again has that indignation been aroused by a new effort to perpetuate these cruelties. But this time the transgressors are Englishmen; the kidnapping vessels are owned and manned by Englishmen; the lands to which the captives are carried are settled by Englishmen; and it is entirely for English profit that the system has been defended and carried on. Happily, therefore, the reproach falls upon the whole empire; and the cure of the evil lies in English hands.
It was in the beginning of 1863 that Captain Towns a settler in Queensland, who owned an estate of 4,000 acres, in the neighbourhood of Brisbane, and who had employed South Sea Islanders on his little coasting vessels, conceived the plan of procuring natives from the islands as labourers for this estate. He accordingly despatched a vessel to seek for them. The effort was made openly; the vessel was properly fitted, fair wages were promised, and a circular letter was addressed to such missionaries as the vessel might fall in with, asking their kind co-operation, and engaging to give fair treatment to the people who might come. The vicious element also entered into the system from the first. A man named Ross Lewin, who had lived in various places in the South Seas for twenty years, and whose name is now identified with the worst scandals of the traffic and is execrated throughout the islands, was sent in the vessel as second mate and supercargo; and he was instructed to “get seventy, if you can ; ” but “even fifty will be worth while.” No wonder that with such elastic instructions Ross Lewin obtained sixty-five labourers, and became superintendent on the estate. The islanders were, doubtless, nearly all volunteers; they were humanely treated; they were engaged for two or three years; and at the termination of their service were duly paid, and were assisted to return home.
The example spread. Another house, and then another, sent for labourers. A competition sprang up, and by October, 1867, 984 labourers had been procured, of whom 400 were working at the northern ports, chiefly Bowen ; and of whom no less than 225 had been brought in the previous