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grew fainter also; it was never quite obliterated in any, though in some cases it seemed nearly effaced.
Then, methought, all at once I heard a voice, as it had been the voice of an angel, crying out, and saying, "Ye unhappy pilgrims, why are ye troubled about the burden which ye are doomed to bear through this Valley of Tears 1 Know ye not, that as soon as ye shall have escaped out of this valley, the whole burden shall drop off, provided ye neglect not to remove that inward weight, that secret load of Sin, which principally oppresses you? Study, then, the whole will of the Lord of this valley. Learn from him how this heavy part of your burdens may now be lessened, and how, at last, it shall be removed forever. Be comforted. Faith and hope may cheer you even in this valley. The passage, though it seems long to weary travellers, is comparatively short; for beyond, there is a land of everlasting rest, where ye shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more; where ye shall be led to living fountains of waters, and all tears shall be wiped away from your eyes."
STRAIT GATE AND THE BROAD WAY.
Now I had a second vision of what was passing in the Valley of Tears. Methought I saw again the same kind of travellers whom I had seen in the former part, and they were wandering at large through the same vast wilderness. At first setting out on his journey, each traveller had a small lamp, so fixed in his bosom, that it seemed to make a part of himself; but as this natural light did not prove to be sufficient to direct them in the right way, the King of the country, in pity to their wanderings and their blindness, out of his gracious condescension, promised to give these poor wayfaring people an additional supply of light from his own royal treasury. But, as he did not choose to lavish his favors where there seemed no disposition to receive them, he would not bestow any of his oil on such as did not think it worth asking for. "Ask, and ye shall have," was the universal rule he laid down for them. But, though they knew the condition of the obligation, many were prevented from asking through pride and vanity, for they thought they had light enough already, preferring the feeble glimmerings of their own lamp, to all the offered light from the King's treasury. Yet it was observed of those who rejected it, as thinking they had enough, that hardly any acted up to what even their own natural light showed them. Others were deterred from asking, because they were told that this light not only pointed out the dangers and difficulties of the road, but, by a certain reflecting power, it turned inward on themselves, and revealed to them ugly sights in their own hearts, to which they rather chose to be blind; for those travellers were of that preposterous number who " chose darkness rather than light," and for the old obvious reason, " because their deeds were evil." Now, it was remarkable that these two properties were inseparable, and that the lamp would be of little outward use, except to
those who used it as an internal reflector. A threat and a promise, also, never failed to accompany the offer of this light from the King; a promise that, to those who improved what they had, more should be given; and a threat, that from those who did not use it wisely, should be taken away even what they had.
I observed, that when the road was very dangerous; when terrors, and difficulties, and death beset the fervent traveller; then, on their faithful importunity, the King voluntarily gave large and bountiful supplies of light, such as in common seasons never could have been expected; always proportioning the quantity given to the necessity of the case; "as their day was, such was their light and strength."
Though many chose to depend entirely on their own original lamp, yet it was observed that this light was apt to go out if left to itself. It was easily blown out by those violent gusts which were perpetually howling through the wilderness; and indeed it was the natural tendency of that unwholesome atmosphere to extinguish it, just as you have seen a candle go out when exposed to the vapors and foul air of a damp room. It was a melancholy sight to see multitudes of travellers heedlessly pacing on, boasting they had light enough of their own, and despising the offer of more. But what astonished me most of all was, to see many, and some of them, too, accounted men of first-rate wit, actually busy in blowing out their own light, because while any spark of it remained, it only served to torment them, and point out things which they did not wish to see. And having once blown out their own light, they were not easy till they had blown out that of their neighbors also; so that a good part of the wilderness seemed to exhibit a sort of universal blind man's buff, each endeavoring to catch his neighbor, while his own voluntary blindness exposed him to be caught himself; so that each was actually falling into the snare he was laying for another, till at length, as selfishness is the natural consequence of blindness, " Catch he that catch can," became the general motto of the wilderness.
Now, I saw in my vision, that there were some others who were busy in strewing the most gaudy flowers over the numerous bogs, and precipices, and pitfalls, with which the wilderness abounded; and thus making danger and death look so gay, that the poor thoughtless creatures seemed to delight in their own destruction. Those pitfalls did not appear deep or dangerous to the eye, because over them were raised gay edifices with alluring names. These were filled with singing men and singing women; and with dancing, and feasting, and gaming, and drinking, and jollity, and madness. But though the scenery was gay, the footing was unsound. The floors were full of holes, through which the unthinking merry-makers were continually sinking.. Some tumbled through in the middle of a song; more at the end of a feast; and though there was many a cup of intoxication wreathed round with flowers, yet there was always poison at the bottom. But what most surprised me was, that though no day passed over their heads in which some of these merry-makers did not drop through, yet their loss made little impression on those who were left. Nay, instead of being awakened to more circumspection and self-denial, by the continual dropping off of those about them, several of them seemed to borrow from thence an argument of a directly contrary tendency; and the very shortness of time was only urged as a reason to use it more sedulously for the indulgence in sensual delights. "Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die." "Let us crown ourselves with rose-buds before they are withered." With these, and a thousand other such little inscriptions, the gay garlands of the wilderness were decorated. Some admired poets were set to work to set the most corrupt sentiments to the most harmonious tunes; these were sung without scruple, chiefly indeed by the looser sons of riot, but not seldom also by the more orderly daughters of sobriety, who were not ashamed to sing to the sound of instruments, sentiments so corrupt and immoral, that they would have blushed to speak or read them; but the music seemed to sanctify the corruption, especially such as was connected with love or drinking.
Now, I observed that all the travellers who had so much as a spark of light left, seemed, every now and then, as they moved onwards, to cast an eye, though with very different degrees of attention, towards the Happy Land, which they were told lay at the end of their journey; but as they could not see very far forward, and as they knew there was a Dark and shadowy Valley which must needs be crossed before they could attain to the Happy Land, they tried to turn their attention from it as much as they could. The truth is, they were not sufficiently apt to consult a map and a road-book which the King had given them, and which pointed out the path to the Happy Land so clearly, that the " wayfaring man, though simple, could not err." This map also defined very correctly the boundaries of the Happy Land from the Land of Misery, both of which lay on the side of the Dark and shadowy Valley; but so many beacons and light-houses were erected, so many clear and explicit directions furnished for avoiding the one country and attaining the other, that it was not the King's fault, if even one single traveller got wrong. But I am inclined to think that, in spite of the map and the road-book, and the King's word, and his offers of assistance to get them thither, the travellers in general did not heartily and truly believe, after all, that there was any such country as the Happy Land; or at least the paltry and transient pleasures of the wilderness so besotted them, the thoughts of the Dark and shadowy Valley so frightened them, that they thought they should be more comfortable by banishing all thought and forecast, and driving the subject quite out of their heads.
Now, I also saw in my dream, that there were two roads through the wilderness, one of which every traveller must needs take. The first was narrow, and difficult, and rough, but it was infallibly safe. It did not admit the traveller to stray either to the right hand or to the left, yet it was far from being destitute of real comforts or sober pleasures. The other was a broad and tempting way, abounding with luxurious fruits and gaudy flowers, to tempt the eye and please the appetite. To forget this Dark Valley, through which every traveller was well assured he must one day pass, seemed indeed the object of general desire. To this grand end all that human ingenuity could invent was industriously set to work. The travellers read, and they wrote, and they painted, and they sung, and they danced, and they drank as they went along, not so much because they all cared for these things, or had any real joy in them, as because this restless activity served to divert their attention from ever being fixed on the Dark and shadowy Valley.
The King, who knew the thoughtless tempers of the travellers, and how apt they were to forget their journey's end, had thought of a thousand little kind attentions, to warn them of their dangers: and as we sometimes see in our gardens written on a board in great letters, Beware Op SpringGuns,—Man Traps Are Set Here; so had this King caused to be written and stuck up before the eyes of the travellers, several little notices and cautions; such as, "Broad is the way that leadeth to destruction." "Take heed, lest ye also perish." "Wo to them that rise up early to drink wine." "The pleasures of sin are but for a season," &c. Such were the notices directed to the Broad Way travellers; but they were so busily engaged in plucking the flowers, sometimes before they were blown, and in devouring the fruits, often before they were ripe, and in loading themselves with yellow clay, under the weight of which millions perished,