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Washington, D.C., Tuesday, March 6, 1934.

The committee met at 10:20 o'clock a.m., Hon. Sam D. McReynolds, chairman, presiding.

The CHAIRMAN. The hearing this morning is on H.R. 6781, a bill to authorize appropriations to pay the annual share of the United States as an adhering member of the International Council of Scientific Unions and associated unions.

(The bill is as follows:)

[H.Rept. No. 6781, 73d Cong., 2d sess.]

A BILL To authorize appropriations to pay the annual share of the United States as an adhering member of the International Council of Scientific Unions and associated unions

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there is hereby authorized to be appropriated, to be expended under the direction of the Secretary of State, in paying the annual share of the United States as an adhering member of the International Council of Scientific Unions and associated unions, including the International Astronomical Union, International Union of Chemistry, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, International Union of of Mathematics, International Scientific Radio Union, International Union of Physics, and International Geographical Union, and such other international scientific unions as the Secretary of State may designate, the sum of $9,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1935, and annually thereafter such sum as may be necessary for the payment of such annual share.

The following is a list of those appearing before the committee on behalf of the bill:

C. H. Birdseye, chief, Engraving and Printing Division, United States Geological Survey (geography).

William Bowie, chief, Division of Geodesy, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey; president International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (geodesy). Isaiah Bowman, director, American Geographical Society, New York; chairman, National Research Council; president, International Geographical Union (geography).

C. A. Browne, assistant chief, United States Bureau of Chemistry and Soils (chemistry).

W. W. Campbell, president emeritus, University of California; director emeritus, Lick Observatory; president, National Academy of Sciences (International Council of Scientific Unions; astronomy).

E. C. Crittenden, assistant director and chief, Electricity Division, United States Bureau of Standards (physics).

John H. Dellinger, chief, Radio Section, United States Bureau of Standards (radio).

John A. Fleming, director, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington (terrestrial magnetism).

N. H. Heck, chief, Division of Terrestrial Magnetism and Seismology, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (magnetism; seismology).

J. H. Hellweg, captain, United States Navy; superintendent, United States Naval Observatory (astronomy).


Henry G. Knight, chief, United States Bureau of Chemistry and Soils (chemistry).

George W. Littlehales, hydrographic engineer, Navy Department (1900–33) (hydrography; terrestrial magnetism).

C. F. Marbut, chief Division of Soil Survey, United States Bureau of Chemistry and Soils (chemistry).

Lawrence Martin, member, United States Geographical Board; chief, Division of Maps, Library of Congress (geography).

S. A. Mitchell, professor of astronomy, University of Virginia (astronomy). Charles L. Parsons, secretary American Chemical Society (chemistry).

R. S. Patton, director United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (geodesy). F. K. Richtmyer, professor of physics and dean of the graduate school, Cornell University; chairman Division of Physical Sciences, National Research Council (physics).

James Robertson, director American Nautical almanac, United States Naval Observatory (astronomy).

Henry Morris Russell, professor of astronomy, Princeton University (astronomy).

Frank Schlesinger, professor of astronomy, Yale University; president International Astronomical Union (International Council of Scientific Unions; astronomy).

Seidell, Atherton, chemist National Institute of Health, United States Public Health Service (chemistry).

F. W. Willard, chairman Division of Chemistry, National Research Council; vice president, Nassau Smelting & Refining Co., New York (chemistry).

The CHAIRMAN. We appreciate having so many distinguished gentlemen here with us this morning. We are sorry we are crowded for space, but we shall try to make it as comfortable as we can, and hope some time to have a little more space. We are delighted to have you all here, and I shall ask Dr. Bowman to take charge of the program and present it in the way he desires. As you are familiar with what you want to present, Dr. Bowman, I should appreciate if you would call the witnesses in whatever order you choose. Will you first kindly give your name and professional title to the reporter?


Dr. BOWMAN. Isaiah Bowman; chairman, National Research Council; director of the American Geographical Society of New York; and president of the International Geographical Union.

The general scheme of the presentation of testimony, Mr. Chairman, if it is agreeable to you, will be that after a brief statement, which Congressman Bloom a few moments ago asked me to give at the beginning, I shall present the gentlemen in the room who have come here to testify. Each one will speak, very briefly, with respect to the particular Union in which his interests lie, or of which he is a member, or with which he happens to be familiar on other grounds.

Mr. BLOOM. As the Government is asked to spend this money, we should like you to point out the benefits which the Government will derive from these meetings, how and in what way the Government of the United States will be benefited.

Dr. BOWMAN. That is one of the six points that I should like to make at the beginning.

The CHAIRMAN. You may present it in your own way, Dr. Bowman. Dr. BOWMAN. At the close of the testimony, the president of the National Academy of Sciences, Dr. W. W. Campbell, will make a

summary statement. That summary, together with the six points that I should like to make at the beginning, and the testimony of the individual witnesses, will provide the Committee on Foreign Affairs with adequate information as to the nature of the argument and the evidence that we should like to have it consider.

I should like to leave until the end the point that Congressman Bloom has alluded to, namely, the benefit ot the Government of the international relationships of the sort that the different international scientific unions maintain concerning which you are to hear testimony in a few moments.

First of all, I should like to point out that the various international scientific unions referred to in the bill are organizations that have matured, with respect to their program and their purposes, in the period since the World War; that they have been officially recognized by the Government of the United States; that the Government of the United States gave effect to that recognition for a number of years by paying the dues of the United States in the various unions, eight in number, that are referred to in this bill. It is, therefore, Mr. Chairman, not a new question that is presented to this committee; it is not some new principle for which support is proposed. It is intended only to stabilize a relationship that the Government has already recognized and supported. It is an enterprise in which the Government has cooperated to the extent of appointing or approving the appointment of representatives to attend the various congresses that are held under the auspices of the several unions in question.

The first advantage of the congresses held under union auspices to which I wish to speak is the opportunity afforded for experts or scholars to meet and exchange experiences and observations, and become acquainted with different points of view. The exchange of these experiences, the knowledge that is acquired from the papers that are read and which reveal new facts and different points of view, and the acquaintanceships that are established, all combine to bring to most of the congresses a large attendance.

I should like to speak at this point merely of the International Geographical Congress, which is attended by from 500 to 900 persons, including representatives from 30 to 45 countries of the world. So it is not merely a local or provincial enterprise that we are addressing our remarks to, but a truly international enterprise of wide scope and real importance.

Í should like next to refer to the fact that the scientific congresses provide opportunities for field demonstrations. Taking the subject of chemistry, in which four representatives are to speak in more detail, the visits that are arranged to industrial laboratories are among the features which I refer to by the phrase "field demonstartions." In the case of geography, excellently organized and managed examinations of critical field localities are included in the term field demonstrations. These localities could not be examined under such excellent auspices, with such expert information and attention to the principles involved, in any other way than through international cooperative gatherings. We attach very great importance in these scientific exchanges to field demonstrations by experts of high reputation.

The third advantage is standardization of results. It is conceivable that in a world where isolation for every country had long been

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