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causes :

dependently of their

ideas, with all the advantages which whereas that of poetry springs from arrangement, disposition, and situathe application of causes, and these tion can give them; as did the ingeneral ones. The first act of rea- telligent statuary, to whose poetical soning is, therefore, from a number genius the world has been indebted of particulars, by collateral judge for the Venus de Medicis, or the ments of effects produced by them Apollo Belvidere. upon the internal feeling, to collect But the imitation, by which these these general causes; and the poetical ideas are employed in art, second, to apply them, by the dif- according to good taste (which is ferent modes of imitation, in order only another word for judgment), is to produce the poetical effect. of different kinds, and the just disHence poetry is said to be more tinction of them is an act of rational philosophical. Experience is the and judicious criticism. foundation, induction is the first, and All imitation is resemblance, a judicious application of generals, which differs according to the nature is the second act. And if these of the art; and the nature of the generals are well formed in the art depends upon the materials and first place, and well applied in the instrument employed. Imitation is second, the poetical truth will dis- either direct or proper, or indirect cover itself in the effect by a pro. and improper: and to discriminate portionable operation on the sensi. its nature and extent in each of the bility of all according to its powers. elegant arts, as well as in the dif

Thus poetry stands high in the ferent provinces of the same, is a eye of philosophy. It is founded piece of the most refined philosophy. in abstraction, which is the su In sculpture and in painting the blimest operation of the mind, by imitation, from the nature of which its ideas are not only gene. the means and materials they emralized, but corrected and improv. ploy, is direct and proper, and the ed by an act of intellect, and ren resemblance between the statue or dered more perfect and complete picture and what they represent, than the archetypes themselves. is both immediate and obvious. These are the materials with which Words are the means or materials the imagination works, and which of poetry : but words, though as it moulds into forms of beauty su sounds they may sometimes directly perior to any that appear in the resemble sounds, are not the natuface of nature. And hence it is, ral representatives of ideas, in that the imitative arts derive that which poetry consists; they are excellence and superiority in which only their arbitrary signs, and do they glory. As by this power of not, therefore, admit of any imitaabstraction the mathematician con- tion so proper and direct. That ceives the idea of a perfect circle or part of poetry, in which the poet a perfect sphere, which in nature personates another, and employs has no existence; and the moralist his very words and speeches, is, so that of a faultless character; so far as that personification goes, difrom archetypes that exist in nature, rectly imitative. But, with regard the artist derives ideas so corrected to the effect which it produces, and sublimed, that they become poetical imitation is indirect in a transcendent, that is above, though greater or less degree. The simnot contrary to nature.

plest and least indirect mode of this Particulars and individuals, with imitation, that representation of all their deformities and imperfec- sensible objects, which is called tions, are, indeed, often applied by poetical description. From this imitation to the production of poeti. poetry advances to a sublimer opecal effect : but, to arrive at the sum- ration in the representation of menmit of his profession, the artist tal objects, of all the passions, emoshould employ none but general tions, movements, and sensations of

the mind; which it performs two For the Literary Magazine.
different ways, either by represent-
ing these mental emotions as they

TOM THUMB. are internally felt, and succeed each other in the mind, or by re TOM THUMB is a hero familiar presenting them as they appear in to our childhood, and indeed has their sensible and external effects : become a sort of proverbial sample and these less direct modes consti- of a great soul in a little body. It tute poetical expression. In all is an old and general observation, which mental imitations the effect that distance and rumour magnify is often extended and enlarged by all objects; but with regard to Tom association of ideas, and wonder. Thumb, they have had an opposite fully heightened by sympathy, that effect : they have made his little lovely and sublime affection, which less. A cubit is added to the stature gives poetry such a powerful ascen- of a giant by every new blast of dant over the heart of man.

fame, but dwarfs, instead of being Another mode of poetical imita- gradually enlarged by the same protion is that of fiction, which repre- cess to the due size of men, merely sents facts, characters, actions, dwindle to a diminutiveness more manners, and events, in feigned and more miraculous, and general story, as history does Tom Thumb, in legendary lore, in real and particular narrative, was king Arthur's dwarfish page. adding to the fiction representation : He was no doubt originally a very these more indirect imitations con- short, though a very stout personstitute epic and dramatic poetry, age, but he has gradually become as into which every other species is small, or even smaller, than a Lilliintroduced.

putian. The following verses de. And to these is to be added scribe him in this state of greatest another kind of imitation still more diminution, and is a very pleasing indirect, which conveys the thoughts specimen of that mode of writing. and ideas of the mind through the They are taken from a poem of conexternal objects of sense: this is siderable length, and describe the parabolical and allusive poetry: second visit of this heroic minimus

But, although the imitations of poe- to the court of Arthur. try be less direct and proper than those of the other arts, they surpass But now his businesse call'd him forth them greatly in their extent and ope King Arthur's court to see, ration upon the mind. Poetry, which Whereas no longer from the same from this superiority has appro

He could a stranger be. priated the general name, is the mirrour of all truth, by which every But yet a few small April drops part of nature, corporeal and men

Which setled in the way, tal, is reflected and improved. It is His long and weary journey forth

Did hinder and so stay. physics, facts, actions, and history feigned at pleasure, and represented by the different modes of its Until his carefull father tooke

A birding trunke in sport, imitation, in a language raised above the common use, and which And with one blast blew this his sonne

Into king Arthur's court. is peculiarly appropriated to itself; and, whilst it exhibits a beautiful Now he with tilts and turnaments picture of every species of truth, it Was entertained so softens the labour which attends That all the best of Arthur's knights their acquisition, by affording the Did him much pleasure show. mind that refined and elegant recreation, which the most rigid phi. As good sir Lancelot of the lake, losopher need not blush to take. Sir Tristram, and sir Guy ;

Yet none compar'd with brave Tom A fine prospective glasse, with which Thumbe

He did in secret looke For knightly chivalry.

Into his sickened body downe, In honour of which noble day,

And therein saw that death And for his ladie's sake,

Stood ready in his wasted guts A challenge in king Arthur's court To sease his vitall breath. Tom Thumbe did bravely make.

His armes and leggs consum'd as sma.. 'Gainst whom these noble knights did run, As was a spiders web, Sir Chinon, and the rest,

Through which his dying houre grew Yet still Tom Thumbe with matchles

on, might

For all his limbes grew

dead. Did beare away the best.

His face no bigger than an ant's, At last sir Lancelot of the Lake

Which hardly could be seene: In manly sort came in,

The losse of which renowned knight And with this stout and hardy knight Much griev'd the king and queene. A battle did begin.

And so with peace and quietnesse Which made the courtiers all agast,

He left this earth below; For there that valiant man

And vp into the Fayry land Through Lancelot's steed, before them His ghost did fading goe.

all, In nimble manner ran.

Whereas the fayry queene receiv'd,

With heauy mourning cheere, Yea horse and all, with speare and The body of this valiant knight, shield,

Whom she esteemed so deere.
As hardly he was seene,
But onely by king Arthur's selfe
And his admired queene,

For with her dancing nymphs in greene,

She fetcht him from his bed,

With musicke and sweet melody, Who from her finger tooke a ring,

So soone as life was fled : Through which Tom Thumbe made

way, Not touching it, in nimble sort,

For whom king Arthur and his knights As it was done in play.

Full forty daies did mourne;

And, in remembrance of his name
He likewise cleft the smallest haire

That was so strangely borne,
From his faire ladie's head,
Not hurting her whose even hand

He built a tomb of marble gray,
Him lasting honours bred.

And yeare by yeare did come

To celebrate the mournefull day,
Such were his deeds and noble acts

And burial of Tom Thumbe
In Arthur's court there showne,
As like in all the world beside

Whose fame still lieues in England Was hardly seene or knowne.


Amongst the countrey sort ; Now at these sports he toyld himselfe Of whom our wives and children small That he a sicknesse tooke,

Tell tales of pleasant sport. Through which all manly exercise

He carelessly forsooke.

For the Literary Magazine.

Where lying on his bed sore sicke,

King Arthur's doctor came,
With cunning skill, by physick's art,

To ease and cure the same.


His body being so slender small,

This cunning doctor tooke

MANY of my readers have probably laughed more than once over the


following exquisite specimen of witty Cheered by this kind mention of satire. Is an apology necessary for me, though in such a situation, I presenting it once more to the view asked him what he thought of a of such readers? Will they not friend of our's, who was always consent to read it once more, and making comparisons ? Pozz. “ Sir, read it with nearly as much satis. that fellow has a simile for every faction as at first ?' True wit, like thing but himself; I knew him pure gold, never loses its intrinsic when he kept a shop; he then made value by any lapse of time or fre- money, sir, and now he makes comquency of circulation. As long as parisons : sir, he would say, that it is intelligible, it is precious; and, you and I were two figs stuck with respect to the following effusion, iogether; two figs in adhesion, sir, the reference tacitly made to Bos- and then he would laugh.” Bozz. well's memorable Life of Johnson * But have not some great writers can escape but few readers.

determined that comparisons are They that smile at this parody now and then odious ?" Pozz. afford no proof that they set not a “ No, sir, not odious in themselves, high value on the work intended to not odious as comparisons; the felbe parodied. All allow Boswell's lows who make them are odious. books, especially the Hebridian The whigs make comparisons.” Tour, to contain occasional absurdi. We supped that evening at his ties and puerilities, and the same en- house. I showed him some lines I lightened taste that rejects what is had made upon a pair of breeches : ridiculous or frivolous, will clearly Pozz. “ Sir, the lines are good ; discern and justly estimate the use. but where could you find such a ful and solidwith which it may chance subject in your country?” Bozz. to be allied. I reckon, therefore, “ Therefore it is a proof of invenwith confidence on the forgiveness tion, which is characteristic of poeof those who have seen this before, try." Pozz. “ Yes, sir, but an inand on the gratitude of those who vention which few of your countryhave chanced never to have seen it. men can enjoy." I reflected afterAn Extract from the Life of Dr. wards on the depth of this remark; Pozz, in ten volumes folio, writ: it aifords a proof of that acuteness ten by James Bozz, Esj., who which he displays in every branch

of literature. Í asked him, if he figurished with him near fifty

approved of green spectacles? years.

Pozz. “ As to green spectacles, sir, -We dined at the chop-house. the question seems to be this: if I Dr. Pozz was this day very instruc wore green spectacles, it would be tive. We talked of books; I men because they assisted vision, or betioned the History of Tommy Trip: cause I liked thein. Now, sir, if a I said it was a great work. Pozz. man tells me he does not like green “ Yes, sir, it is a great work; but, spectacles, and that they hurt his sir, it is a great work relatively; eyes, I would not compel him to it was a great work to you when you wear them. No, sir, I would diswas a little boy ; but now, sir, you suade him.” A few months after I are a great man, and Tommy Trip consulted him again on this subject is a little boy." I felt somewhat and he honoured me with a letter, hurt at this comparison, and I be- in which he gives the same opinion. lieved he perceived it; for, as he It will be found in its proper place, was squeezing a lemon, he said, vol. vi, page 2789. I have thought “ Never be affronted at a compari- much on this subject, and must cou

I have been compared to fess, that in such matters a man many things, but I never was af- ought to be a free moral agent. fronted. No, sir, if they would call Next day I left town, and was me a dog, and you a canister tied to absent for six weeks, three days, and my tail, I would not be affronted.” seven hours, as I find by a memo


randam in my journal. In this time asked why? Pozz. “Sir, you don't I had only one letter from him, know his disorder.” Bozz. “ Pray which is as follows:

what is it?" Pozz. “ Sir, the man

is dead drunk !” This explanation To James Bozz, Esq. threw me into a violent fit of laugh6 Dear Sir,

ter, in which he joined me, rolling

about as he used to do when he en“ My bowels have been very bad. joyed a joke ; but he afterwards Pray buy for me some Turkey rhu. checked me. Pozz.“ Sir you ought barb, and bring with you a copy of not to laugh at what I said. Sir, he your Tour.

who laughs at what another man “ Write me soon, and write me says, will soon learn to laugh at often.

that other man. Sir, you should “I am, dear sir,

laugh only at your own jokes; ergo, “ Your's affectionately, you should laugh seldom.”

SAM. POZz.” We talked of a friend of our's

who was a very violent politician. It would have been unpardonable I said I did not like his company. to have omitted a letter like this, in Pozz. “ No, sir, he is not healthy ; which we see so much of his great he is sore, sir, his mind is ulcerata and illuminated mind. On my re. ed; he has a political whitlow; turn to town, we met again at the sir, you cannot touch him but he chop-house. We had much conver- winces. Sir, I would not talk polisation to day: his wit flashed like tics with that man; I would talk of lightning ; indeed, there is not one cabbage and pease ; sir, I would ask hour of my present life in which I him how he got his corn in, and do not profit by some of his valuable whether his wife was with child ; communications.

but I would not talk politics. Bozz. We talked of wind. I said I knew

“ But, perhaps, sir, he would talk many persons much distressed with of nothing else.”

Pozz. 16

Then, that complaint. Pozz. “ Yes, sir, sir, it is plain what he would do." when confined, when pent up." I On my very earnestly enquiring said I did not know that, and I what that was, Dr. Pozz answered, questioned if the Roinans ever knew “ Sir, he would let it alone." it. Pozz. “ Yes, sir, the Romans I mentioned a tradesman, who knew it.” Bozz. “ Livy does not had lately set up his coach. Pozz. mention it.” Pozz.“ No, sir, Livy “ He is right, sir ; a man who would wrote history. Livy was not writing go on swimmingly cannot get too the life of a friend."

soon off his legs. That man keeps On medical subjects his know. his coach ; now, sir, a coach is better ledge was immense. He told me than a chaise ; sir, it is better than a of a friend of our's who had just chariot.” Bozz. “ Why, sir?” Pozz. been attacked by a most dreadful “ Sir, it will hold more." I begged complaint ; he had entirely lost the he would repeat this, that I might reuse of his limbs, so that he could member it, and he complied with neither stand nor walk, unless sup- great good humour. " Dr. Pozz," ported : his speech was quite gone; said I, “ you ought to keep a coach.” his eyes were much swollen, and Pozz. “Yes, sir, Iought.”'Bozz.“But every vein distended, yet his face you do not, and that has often surwas rather pale, and his extremi. prised me.” Pozz. “Surprised you ! ties cold; his pulse beat 160 in a Thiere, sir, is another prejudice of minute. I said with tenderness, absurdity. Sir, you ought to be surthat I would go and see him ; and, prised at nothing. A man that has live said I,.“ Sir, I will take Dr. Bolus ed half your days ought to be above with me.” Pozz. “ No, sir, don't all surprise. Sir, it is a rule with me go." I was startled, for I knew his never to be surprised. It is through compassionate heart, and earnestly mere ignorance, that you cannot

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