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For the Literary Magazine. Press them ! what is that?
Why, oblige them to go: and if they make any resistance
You kill them, I imagine.
You have strange notions, my
brave boy, but not quite right in -HERE it was that a boat was your guesses. Do you take us for seen sailing swiftly after us, and, savages ? hailing our vessel, demanded the No more palaver, interrupted names and number of our men. The another, who seemed equal to the captain, who had no resource, suf- first that spoke ; bear-a-hand, and fered them quietly to come on board, let's be gone. and had the mortification to see his Adolphus turned an awful look best seamen taken from him. Their upon this true son of the waves. reluctance to leave the ship, and And will you take these men from the tears of several who were just, their wives and children? Can you as they supposed, on the point of answer it to your conscience ? meeting wives and children, whom Conscience, captain Bounce? You a long absence had doubly endeared, and your conscience be damned. convinced my friend that the prac. Time enough when we have done tice of making slaves was not con- with them. fined to the West Indies.
And when will that be? I could not at first perfectly com O, all's one for that; perhaps prehend the meaning of this; for when the war's over. we were positively assured, at Spithead, that the press-warrants were recalled, as the ships had received their full complement. However, For the Literary Magazine. I was quick enough on deck to see several unhappy fellows, awed by a naked cutlass, pensively and sullenly DOMINATE IN HUMAN LIFE? lowering themselves into the boat. This sight transported Adolphus NEITHER great pleasures nor beyond any consideration of his own great pains constitute the habitual safety. His face was inflamed; his state of man, but are very thinly eye shot fire.
I thought, said he, sown in the path of human life. haughtily, England was a land of How many individuals are there freedoil, and that you made no who have never experienced either! slaves here.
The habitual state of man is that of Slaves, young gentleman, answer. simple well-being, which, when a ed the lieutenant, sheathing his cute little heightened, becomes pleasure, lass, and looking as if he were and, when a little abated, is nullity ashamed of the business, no, no; of sensation, or the middle term of these men are going to fight for their the scale, of which pleasing sensaking and country.
tions occupy the one, and painful But they do not like to go, sir; sensations the other side. they wish to visit their families. It From a state of pain, whatever is a long time since they saw them., be its degree, all wish to be deli
That reasc. will not man our vered; yet it is observable that, fleet, my pretty lad.
among a hundred thousand persons, What, then they are compelled scarcely one can be found who
rushes out of life in order to get rid Compelled! nonsense ! We press of his sufferings; and, in this case, them, it is true ; but they will think it is generally doubted whether he nothing of it in four and twenty had at that moment the entire use hours.
of his reason : even the most pain
DOES PAIN OR PLEASURE PRE
ful circumstances are not unaccom- neral, and to repair whatever inju. panied with some perceptions of ries they may receive from foreign good.
causes : but can this law be said to It is because well-being is the ha- act with respect to mankind, if the bitual state of man that pleasures number of their pains exceed that appear to us less lively than pains of their pleasures? of equal intensity; and that the du In order to set this argument in a rations of pleasure and of pain, stronger light, we should be obliged though equal with respect to abso. to take a particular view of those Jute time, seem very unequal when pleasing sensations which enter into compared. We consider as plea- the habitual state of most men, arissure only that degree of good which ing from a consciousness of existis perceptibly greater than our ha ence; the enjoyment, if not of perbitual state of well-being; whereas, fect, yet of tolerable health ; the we include under the appellation of alternate succession of action and pain every state in which our habi- rest; the gratification of the appetual well-being loses any thing of its tites of nature ; curiosity ; the atintensity.
tachments prompted by interest ; In the common course, and among the relations and affections of social the several classes, of human life, is life; the desire of acquiring and of the number of pains greater or less communicating knowledge; a vathan that of pleasures, supposing the riety of occupations and employintensity of each to be nearly equal? ments, whether of business or of Of the class of pains, and that of amusement, which exercise and impleasures, which contains the greato prove the faculties both of body and er number of genera and species? mind, together with a consciousness Of these questions, if they could be of difficulties overcome, and of duaccurately investigated, the issue of ties performed; and, lastly, hope, both would be on the side of plea- which anticipates future enjoyment. sure, especially if they were confined All these sources of pleasure are to those pleasures and pains which intimately connected with our nawe derive from nature. The for- ture, and are common to the great mer are friendly, and the latter est part of mankind in every period inimical, to the physical constitution and condition of life. As to factitious of sentient beings; and hence we enjoyments, these must be contrasted may suppose that Infinite Goodness with factitious sufferings, which has strewed the path of life with a probably exceed them in number ; much greater number of pleasures nor would it be fair to place that than of pains, and has given us a good or that evil, which derives its much greater diversity of the former existence solely from the irregulathan of the latter. The Supreme Be- rity of the imagination, in the same ing has made us susceptible of several class with the pleasures and pains different sensations at the same allotted to us by the condition of our time; which, by their heterogeneity, nature. frequently weaken the continued
It may be asked, if our pleasures impression of pain. Time and em- be really more numerous than our ployment are known to heal the pains, why are there so few who deepest wounds of affliction ; and would be willing to recommence the even the most wretched find relief carcer of life through which they from conversing on the circumstan- have already passed ? ces of their distress. In short, it is answer this objection by observing a constant law of nature, which is that the activity of the human mind nothing more than the primitive re- is such as to require a continual gulation of the Creator, that there succession of new ideas; and that should be an unremitting tendency nature has implanted in us a conto the preservation of beings in ge- stant tendency to new states of being,
each differing from the preceding, For the Literary Magazine. and which gradually lead to that perfection which finite beings cannot THE FEAR OF DEATH. attain at once. We are formed, not for a stationary condition, not to re DARWIN, in his whimsical no. commence the circumstances through sological arrangements, ranks the which we have already passed, but timor læthi among diseases. The to be constantly advancing in our cause he considers as nothing more career toward new and higher modes than the impression made upon the of existence. Another cause is, that fancy by hearing described, or actu. the condition supposed, in the notion ally witnessing, cases of great agony of recommencing our life, is that all and horror suffered by others when the circumstances through which dying. The mode of prevention and we must pass are already known to cure he points out to be the witnesus. Hence, neither curiosity is in- sing or relation of cases in which terested, nor hope excited : no new dying has borne a close resemblance objects can be attained; nor have to sleep, and been equally void of we the liberty of preventing or of pain and of terror. avoiding the pains through which In these speculations a distinction we know that we must pass : hence ought carefully to be made between the experience, the knowledge, and those views of death which merely the abilities which we have acquir- arise from its physical and corporeal ed would be lost on us; and we circumstances, and those which are could have no other prospect than connected with reflections on the that of being, at the end of our after-state and condition of the soul. second existence, exactly at the These different views are plainly same point from which we had set and entirely distinct from each out. Remove this condition, and other, as is evident from that dismal most men would be glad, for the apprehension of death entertained sake of avoiding death, to recom- by multitudes that are either confi. mence a life equally, or even less dent of existence and happiness advantageous in point of happiness hereafter, or are totally thoughtless than that which they have experi. and indifferent on that head. enced. From this number we need I have often, in pursuance of this not except those pretended philoso. hint of Darwin's, been led into rephers, who limit existence to the flections as to what is the real state present state ; who are continually of this interesting case. I have concomplaining of the miseries of life, siderced with myself, what are the and yet have not the courage to put real circumstances of that death an end to it. As to those whom which every human being is fated reason and religion inspire with a to endure ; what diseases terminate well-founded hope of a future exis. in a painful, and what in an easy tence, and of a continued progress dissolution ; how are the deaths toward perfection, though they have that daily happen actually characas lively a sense as others of the terized in this respect ; is the greatpleasures of this life, which they er number easy or painful, accomconsider as a natural preparation panied with a lively consciousness, for a future state, they would never or with stone-like insensibility to be desirous to recommence their pain. I do not know whether phycareer; which, whatever pleasures sicians have ever made this an obit might afford, would only retard ject of attention or inquiry, but their advancement toward that per- surely it is a very interesting and fect state, for which they know they instructive one. are destined.
If we may be allowed to discover the state of pure and perfect nature
in any thing but that state in which such an end as that of this good things are actually found, we might bishop. be tempted to suppose that in such a state death would cease to be an evil. Mankind would reach old age in uninterrupted health and tranquil. For the Literary Magazine. lity, and their lamp would go out without a warning or a struggle,
ADVERSARIA, without the previous decay of any thing but muscular strength. The Or Winter Evening Amusemenis. untimely, lingering, and agonizing deaths which at present abound in the world may be supposed to ori. ginate in the guilt and folly of man I CONFESS I am not one of kind, in their blind and wanton vio- those who endeavour to establish a lation of the precepts of temperance fancied superiority by reviling the and virtue.
female character, and I think these It is certain that such reasonable midnight lucubrations have borne and tranquil dissolutions sometimes testimony to my sincere fondness happen, and, their possibility being and undissembled respect for its thus established, there seems no dif- loveliness and dignity. Milton has ficulty in supposing that they might acknowledged that love is not the be universal, excluding only casu- lowest end of human life;" and I alties.
readily believe that this world, withLet us listen, for example, to the out the sweet intercourse of looks following account of the death of and smiles, would be but a wide the famous bishop Cumberland, as waste indeed. Why is it that, in given by his descendant, the late the hour of distress, we forget all Richard Cumberland.
our vaunted heroism, and fly to the “ The death of this venerable arms of female kindness for that prelate was, like his life, serene and consolation, which we in vain seek undisturbed. At the extended age in our own reflections? And why is of eighty-six years and some months, it that the tears of a woman have as he was sitting in his library, he more effect in arousing our feelings expired without a struggle ; for he than the loudest call of the clarion ? was found in the attitude of one It is that all-pervading influence, asleep, with his cap fallen over his which moves every passion of the eyes, and a book in his hand, in human breast; it is that which which he had been reading. Thus, melts the most fierce into docility, without the ordinary visitations of and inspires even cowardice with pain or sickness, it pleased God to bravery. terminate the existence of this ex Spenser, a favourite poet with emplary man."
me, has a passage on the influence Those who pant after a terrestrial of women in distress, which I wish immortality, and who reproach the every one to read and admire : Deity for that imperfection in the general system which assigns a limit to the duration of all animal life, Nought is there under Heaven's hol
lownesse will be tempted, by instances like That moves more deare compassion of this, to renounce their wishes and
mind, their arguments. Provided the race
Than beauty brought ľunworthie be immortal, provided each man's
wretchednesse, place is for ever full, it appears to Through Envie's snares, or Fortune's be a perfection in the plan which freaks unkind. conducts each successive individual I, lately, whether through her brightness through a diversified existence to blynd,
Or thro' allegiance and part fealty, friendly to me, and uniformly so; Which I doe owe unto all womankind, and to add to this virtue, so worthy Feel my heart prest with so great agony, the appellation of benevolence, these When such I see, that all for pity I actions have been performed in so could dy.
free and kind a manner, that if I
was thirsty, I drank the sweetest But whilst I admire, and praise, draught, and if hungry I ate the and defend, let me not be supposed coarsest meal with a double relish." to be so blind as to see all their virtues and their vices, their beauties and deformities in the same partial The most striking characteristic light. No; the canvas so alluring in the mind of Jaques, says proto the eye is yet tarnished by many fessor Richardson, is extreme sena stain. The sickly mein of affec- sibility. He discovers a heart tation, the vice of a weak mind, strongly disposed to compassion, and and the ungenial chill of prudery, susceptible of the most tender imthe folly of an impure mind, with pressions of friendship; for he who many other frailties that female flesh can so feelingly deplore the absence is heir to, must be corrected before of kindness and humanity, must be woman can be called perfect. Yet, capable of relishing the delight anwith all these imperfections, how nexed to their exercise. But sen. infinitely do they surpass us in vir- sibility is the soil where nature has tue, friendship, constancy, fortitude, planted social and sweet affections : genuine good sense, and unaffected by sensibility they are cherished good nature !
and grow to maturity. Social dis. Let me add a grateful testimony positions produce all those amiable of older experience, of which I have and endearing connections that albeen reminded by these reflections. leviate the sorrows of human life, In the Travels of Ledyard, this ce- adorn our nature, and render us lebrated traveller says, he has al. happy. Now Jaques, avoiding socieways remarked that women, in all ty, and burying himself in the lonely countries, are civil, obliging, tender, forest, seems to act inconsistently and humane ; that they are ever in- with his constitution. He possesses clined to be gay and cheerful, timo- sensibility, sensibility begets affecrous and modest ; and that they do tion, and affection begets the love of not hesitate, like men, to perform a society. But Jaques is unsocial. kind or generous action.
Can these inconsistent qualities be “ Not haughty, not arrogant, not reconciled ? Or has Shakespeare supercilious, ihey are full of courte- exhibited a character, of which the sy and fond of society. More liable parts are incongruous and discordin general to err than man, but, in ant? In other words, how does it general also, more virtuous, and happen that a temper disposed to performing more good actions than beneficence, and addicted to social he. To a woman, whether civiliz- enjoyment, becomes solitary and ed or savage, I never addressed morose ? Changes of this kind are myself in the language of friendship not unfrequent, and, if researches and decency, without receiving a into the origin or cause of a distemfriendly and decent answer; with per can direct us in the discovery man it has often been otherwise. of an antidote or of a remedy, the
“ In wandering over the barren present inquiry is of importance. plains of inhospitable Denmark, Perhaps, the excess and luxuriancy through honest Sweden and frozen of benevolent dispositions, blighted Lapland, rude and churlish Finland, by unkindness or ingratitude, is the unprincipled Russia, and the wide- cause that, instead of yielding us spread regions of the wandering fruits of complacency and friend. Tartars; it hungry, dry, cold, wet, ship, they shed bitter drops of mior sick, the women have ever been santhropy.