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ONE of the first teachers of the twin sisters, both having the misfordeaf and dumb was Bonet, a priest, tune of deafness and dumbness. secretary to the constable of Castile. Death soon deprived them of his He undertook the tuition of his lessons; and as an instructor to supyounger brother, who had lost the ply his place was sought for in vain, sense of hearing at two years of age; the abbe de l’Epee undertook to conand he published an account of his tinue their education. The contemsystem in 1620, at Madrid. Amman, plation of their condition excited his a Swiss physician, was the next sys- tenderness, and his tenderness intematic writer on this subject. He flamed his philanthropy towards all printed at Amsterdam a treatise in in the same afflicting circumstances. 'Latin, about 1692, intitled Surdus His mind, thus turned to the subject, loquens. Wallis, a few years after- was, by degrees, wholly absorbed in ward, published his Method of In- it; till, at last, incited by religion structing Persons who were Deaf and humanity, he dedicated himself and Dumb, in Britain; and he was entirely to their tuition. He insti. followed by Holder, Dalgarno, and tuted a seminary, in which he reBulwer.
ceived as many of the deaf and In recent times, this art has been Dumb as he could superintend, and exercised in Paris by father Vanin he formed preceptors to teach those and Mr. Perreire; in Leipsick by in distant parts. The number of Mr. Heinich; in London by Mr. his scholars grew to upwards of Baker; and in Edinburgh by Mr. sixty ; and, as the fame of his opeBraidwood.
rations extended, persons from GerBy a contingency, such as destines many, from Switzerland, from Spain, multitudes to particular studies or and from Holland, came to Paris to avocations, the abbe de l’Epee en be initiated in the method he pracgaged in it. Vanin had under his tised, and transfer it to their seyeral tuition two young ladies, who were countries, VOL. VI. NO. XXXIV.
The philanthropic exertions of ever we heard these sounds, the this excellent man, in behalf of his same ideas arose in our minds, beunfortunate pupils, were unwearied. cause we recollected the signs made
The greatest part of his income was to us when they were pronounced. appropriated to their support, and Exactly similar must be our mea. he refused pecuniary assistance in sures with the deaf and dumb.every shape; of which the following Their tuition commences with teachis a remarkable instance.
ing them a manual alphabet, such When the Russian ambassador at as boys at school make use of to hold Paris made the abbe a visit, in the conversation at one end of a form year 1780, be offered him a present with their companions at the other. in money proportioned to the cus. The various figures of these letters tomary magnificence of the empress. strike forcibly the eyes of deaf and This the abbe declined to accept, dumb persons, who no more confound saying, he never received gold from them than we confound the various any one ; but that since his labours sounds that strike our ears. had obtained him the esteem of the We next write in large characempress, he begged she would send ters with a white crayon, upon a a deaf and dumb person to him to black table, these two words, the be educated, which he should deem door, and we show them the door. a more flattering mark of her dis. They immediately apply their matinction.
nual alphabet five or six times to An asylum for the support and each of the letters composing the education of the deaf and dumb chil- word door, they spell it with their dren of the poor, was instituted in fingers, and impress on their memo1792, in the Grange road, Bermonde ry the number of letters and arrangesey, under the patronage of the ment of them; this done, they efface marquis of Buckingham, a nobleman the word, and, taking the crayon whose encouragement of literature themselves, write it down in chaand the fine arts hath justly entitled racters, no matter whether well or him to the reputation of taste and ill formed; afterwards they will knowledge, as this office has done to write it as often as you show them the superior character of philan- the same object. thropy. Of this asylum, Mr. Thorn It will be the same with respect ton, member for Southwark, is the to every thing else pointed out to treasurer; the Rev. Mr. Mason, of them, the name being previously Bermondsey, the secretary; and Mr. written down; which being first on Watson, formerly the assistant to the table, in large characters, may Mr. Braidwood, the zealous and in- afterwards be inscribed in characdustrious teacher.
ters of ordinary size, upon different The abbe de l'Epee gives the fol. cards; and these being given to lowing sketch of the method he pur- them, they amuse themselves in exsues with his pupils.
amining one another's proficiency, It is not by the mere pronuncia- and ridicule those that blunder. tion of words, in any language, that Experience has manifested that a we are taught their signification : deaf and dumb person possessing the words door, window, &c. in our any mental powers will acquire, by own might have been repeated to us this method, upwards of eighty hundreds of times, in vain : words in less than three days. should never have attached an idea Take some cards having suitable to them, had not the objects desig- inscriptions, and deliver them one nated by these names been shown to by one to your pupil ; he will carry us at the same time. A sign of the his hand successively to every part hand or of the eye has been the sole of his body conformably to the name mean by which we learned to unite on the card delivered to him. Mix the idea of these objects with the and shuffle the cards as you please; sounds that struck our ear. When- he will make no mistakes or if you
chuse to write down any of these lume, and executes his commission names on the table, you will see him, extremely well. in like manner, distinguish with his This method is adapted to the finger every object whose name is conception of the pupil, in his proso offered him ; and thus clearly gress through the intricacies of prove that he comprehends the grammar. The following descripmeaning of every one.
tion of the means of initiating him By this process the pupil will ob- in a knowledge of the tenses of verbs tain, in very few days, a knowledge will convey a sufficient idea of the of all the words which express the plan : different parts of our frame, from The pupil, though deaf and dumb, head to foot, as well as of those that had, like us, an idea of the past, the express the various objects which present, and the future, before he surround us, on being properly was placed under our tuition, and pointed out to him as you write their was at no loss for signs to manifest names down on the table, or on cards the difference. put into his hands.
Did he mean to express a present We are not, however, even in action ? He made a sign, prompted this early stage, to confine ourselves by nature, which we all make in the to this single species of instruction, same case, without being conscious amusing as it is to our pupils. The of it, and which consists in appeal. very first or second day we guide ing to the eyes of the spectators to their hands to make them write witness the presence of our operadown, or we write down for them tion; but if the action did not take ourselves the present tense of the place in his sight, he laid his two indicative of the verb to carry.
hands flat upon the table, beating Several deaf and dumb pupils upon it gently, as we are all apt to being round a table, I place my do on similar occasions : and these new scholar on my right hand. I are the signs he learns again in our put the forefinger of my left hand lessons, by which to indicate the on the word I, and we explain it by present of a verb. signs in this manner : showing my Did he design to signify that an self with the forefinger of my right, action is past? He tossed his hand I give two or three gentle taps on carelessly two or three times over my breast. I then lay my left fore. his shoulder : these signs we adopt finger on the word carry, and taking to characterize the past tenses of a up a large quarto volume, I carry it verb. under my arın, in the skirts of my And, lastly, when it was his intent gown, on my shoulder, on my head, to announce a future action, he proand on my back, walking all the jected his right hand : here again is while with the mien of a person a sign we give him to represent the bearing a load. None of these mo future of a verb. tions escape his observation.
It is now time to call in art to the I return to the table ; and in or. assistance of nature. der to explain the second person, I Having previously taught him to lay my left forefinger on the word write out the names of the seven days thou, and carrying my right to my of the week, one directly under the pupil's breast, I give him a few gen- other, we desire him to set them ile taps, making him notice that I down in that order, and we then look at him, and that he is likewise put on each side of his writing what to look at me. I next lay my finger follows before and after the same on the word carriest, the second words under different heads. person, and having delivered him the Present.--To-day, Sunday, I arquarto volume, I make signs for him range nothing. to perform what he has just seen me Imperfect. Yesterday, Monday, perform: he laughs, takes the vo. I was arranging my books.
Perfect.-Day before yesterday, ing. They speak of the grand scenes Tuesday, I arranged my chamber. of nature, though uninteresting in a
Past perfect. Three days ago, picturesque light, as having a strong Wednesday, I had arranged my effect on the imagination, often a closet.
stronger than when they are proFuture.-To-morrow, Thursday, perly disposed for the pencil
. They I shall arrange my papers.
every where make a distinction be. Future.-Day after to-morrow, tween scenes that are beautiful and Friday, I shall arrange my drawers. amusing, and scenes that are pic
Future.—Three days hence, Sa- turcsque. They examine and adturday, I shall arrange my cupboards. mire both. Even artificial objects
Yesterday, day before yesterday, they admire, whether in a grand or three days ago, are explained by the in a humble style, though unconnect. number of times we have slept since ed with picturesque beauty; the pa. the day of which we speak. lace and the cottage, the improved
To-morrow, day after to-morrow, garden-scene and the neat homethree days hence, are explained by stall. Works of tillage also af. the number of times we are to sleep ford them equal delight; the till the day in question arrive. plough, the mower, the reaper, the
We next teach our pupil to lay a hay-field, and the harvest-wane. In restriction upon his motions. To a word, they reverence and admire express a thing past, he used to the works of God, and look with bethrow his arm backwards and for- nevolence and pleasure on the works wards towards his shoulder, without of men. rule: we tell him he must throw At the expence of no other spe. it only once for the imperfect, twice cies of beauty, they merely endeafor the perfect, and three times for vour to illustrate and recommend the past perfect; which in truth is one species more; which, though analogous to what is signified, the among the most interesting, has selpast perfect announcing an action dom been made the set object of inlonger past than the perfect, and vestigation. From scenes indeed of the latter being in the same predica- the picturesque kind, they exclude ment with regard to the imperfect. the appendages of tillage, and in ge
Mr. Tooke's principles of gram- neral the works of men ; which too mar, now his learned work is com- often introduce preciseness and forpleted, will perhaps enable teachers mality. But excluding artificial obof the deaf and dumb to substitute jects from one species of beauty is signs still more simple and expres- not degrading them from all. sive than those which are here in. Of all kinds of travellers, or pe. dicated.
destrian hunters, those that travel No attempts of this kind have hi- in search of the pleasure of the pictherto been made in America. To turesque are the fewest in number, what cause is this owing? The particularly in America, but perhaps want of benevolence, or talents, or they are the most judicious in their of pupils ?
choice of an object of pursuit. Let us hear what a great traveller of this kind has to say in favour of his own
taste, For the Literary Magazine. From the objects of picturesque
travel, we may consider its sources ON THE PICTURESQUE. of amusement, or in what way the
mind is gratified by these objects. MEN of true taste do not suppose We might begin in moral style, all beauty to consist in fricturesque and consider the objects of nature in beauty, and the face of nature to be a higher light than merely as amuse, examined only by the rules of paint- ment. We might observe, that a