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The moslem, it may be suppos- sia only attains one third of the per ed, would insist on the direct evi- pulation comincnly possessed by dence which the witnesses of the life countries equally well situated, she and actions of Mahomet possessed of will still reckon a hundred and 1 his divine commission, and on the twenty-five millions of inhabitants ; firm establishment and wide diffu- and there is reason to think that sion of the faith, in spite of the migh- this multiplication is going on with ty and numerous obstacles which the considerable rapidity. Tooke estiprophet and his immediate followers mates the whole population of the had to encounter.

empire at thirty-six millions ; but The Wahabees would probably it may now be carried, without exassert their better right tu be heard, aggeration, to forty millions. as direct witnesses of the frequent The growing prosperity of this interpositions of Heaven in favour of empire is materially assisted by the Abdul, who had introduced the new systematic efforts of the government doctrines under difficulties and dan- to facilitate comercial intercourse gers unprecedented in the religious between all its parts. Canals are revolutions of the east. The religion made, from time to time, to connect of Mahomet, they might say, is a the numerous rivers which fall into partial religion, which was the seas at its extremities. Thus intended for us. How can we per- the Beresinsky and Oginsky canals form ablutions, when we have no open an eusy communication bewater? How can we give alms, tween the ports of the Baltic and when we have no riches? Or what those of the Euxine; and the canal occasion can there be to fast during of Vishney Volotoshok connects the month of Ramadan, when we the Gulf of Finland with the distant fast all the year? The result of harbours of the Caspian. these disputes was such as might be Some notion of the increasing inexpected. Intolerant bigotry on one dustry of Russia may be formed, by side, and fanatical enthusiasm on comparing the number of vessels of the other, would shut the ears of all kinds that passed through this both parties to reason ; and no ap- famous canal, which joins the Nera peal would lye from the prejudices and Wolga, in the years 1787 and of either, but to the sabre and the 1797. In the former, the number musket. The appeal to arms has was 2914 barks, 357 half barks, 178 indeed been made. The throne of boats, and 1984 floats, paying 24,689 the sultan is already shaken in Eu- rubles of toll or duty ; in the latter, rope. Who can doubt that the pro- 3958 barks, 382 haif barks, 248 pagation of the new faith will rapid boats, and 1676 floats, paying 34,192 iy accelerate the dissolution of his rubles. power in Asia ?

The exports consist chiefly of iron, wood, hemp, and fax, both raw and manufactured, tallow, and grain.

The exportation of wood was some For the Literary Magazine. years ago prohibited, on account of

the great waste in the forests; but SKETCH OF THE PRESENT COM- it has again been permitted, under

certain restrictions. By adopting NORTH OF EUROPE.

proper regulations for the manage

ment of the forests, this article THE progress which Russia is might be rendered one of the most destined to make among the nations productive and permanent staples of cannot fail to interest the philosophi- Russian commerce, Hemp and cal observer; and there is some- flax, and their products, constitute, thing extremely grand in the pro- at present, the most important part spective view of her commercial of the annual exports. The value and political advancement. If Ruse of these exported in 1802 amount.

MERCIAL

STATE

OF

THE

ed to 21,176,432 rubles. Agricul- power of Britain reduced to a level ture is rapidly advancing; for, in with that of other states ? 1793, the value of grain exported The possessions of Prussia extend was only 3,121,597 rubles ; where. nearly four hundred miles along the as, in 1802, it had increased to southern coasts of the Baltic, em11,496,245.

bracing several fine rivers and conArchangel was the chief place of venient harbours.

It is partly trade, till Peter the great created a through these that the British manew city, which produced a com- nufactures and colonial productions plete revolution in the commerce of are now conveyed to the interior of the north. Three parts of the the continent. The rivers commuwhole trade of the empire is now nicating with Koningsberg open a carried on in the Baltic. Peters- safe inland navigation, even to the burgh, or Cronstadt and Riga, are Black Sea. Through this channel the principal ports in this sea; but the British Turkey trade may be there are several others which share safely carried on, and at a cheaper the benefits of that commercial spi- rate, than by the Mediterranean. rit so assiduously encouraged by the Riga, however, in the dominions of government. In the Black Sea, Russia, possesses greater facilities Odessa has, by the unremitted ex for this branch of trade; for the ertions of the government, become goods shipped there get much soona place of considerable importance, er into the current of the Dnieper, and bids fair to rival, in time, the which conveys them straight to most flourishing marts of the Baltic, Odessa. Stettin on the Oder afThe trade of the Baltic is destined fords another wide channel for Bri.. to undergo, at no distant period, a tish commerce with the continent. revolution similar to that which This fine river runs through a great took place in the trade of the White part of the north of Germany, and Sea after the building of Petersburg. there are several canals which conAt present, however, the foreign nect it with the Elbe and other ri. trade of Russia in this sea is nearly vers. While the trade by the Elbe confined to the provinces of the and Weser is interrupted, Stettin is Turkish empire, from which consi- one of the most convenient and derable importations are annually extensive inlets for British mermade.

chandize. Immense advantages are derived Dantzic is the chief grain market from her intercourse with Britain, of the north. A late traveller (Mr. her sales to which are nearly equal Carr) estimates the amount of all to all her other sales put together. the grain exported from this place, Notwithstanding all this, there is a in the year 1803, at 34,149 lasts, strong jealousy entertained by that each containing eighty-four Winpower, of British naval superiority, chester bushels. But in a later traand a manifest desire on her part to veller's tables (Mr. Oddy's) for the underrate the value of the con same year, the amount is stated at nexion. Hence it follows, that the 68,278 lasts, each rated at eighty-six government is much in the dark re. bushels. This wide variation serves garding the true interests of the to show with what caution such country; for it cannot be doubted statements ought always to be rethat her commerce is nourished and ceived. upheld by the preponderance of the All kind of grain conveyed to British navy. What else is it that Dantzic, but particularly that from brings the peculiar articles of Rus. a great distance, is brought down in sian produce into demand? What vessels, or rather floats, clumsily would become of the trade in these put together, of different dimensions articles, and of the industry that mi. and descriptions, according to the sisters to it, were the maritime rivers or places they are first sent

from ; and, what will appear very Prussia, by the extensive range extraordinary, without any cover- of coast she has acquired, has cer. ing whatever. In this state, un- tainly the means of obtaining a large covered, and improtected, it is share of the Baltic trade. But she brought from the most remote parts, has not yet learned the rudiments of exposed to all sorts of weather, that science on which commercial sometimes six, seven, eight, nine, or prosperity depends. The narrow even ten weeks on its passage. If notions of Frederic, whose genias, the season happens to be wet, the splendid as it was in negotiation and grain is piled in the vessel or float, war, never embraced any of the with a ridge to shoot off the wet, great principles of commercial po which, continuing some time, the licy, are still cherished at Berlin. surface becomes one coat of vege. The dutchy of Mecklenburg, on tative matter, like a green grass- account of its high cultivation, and plat, floating down the current, and the quantity of grain it exports, which partly prevents the rain pe. may be called the Egypt of the netrating farther than a few inches. north. The imperial city of Lubec The waste and loss, however, must is situated in this dutchy ; and as it be incredible in wet seasons, and has an easy communication with the even, otherwise ; for the feathered North Sea by means of the Holstein tribe, as the float proceeds along, canal, and with the Elbe by that of are their constant customers, even Stecknitz, it is, at present, a place into the very city of Dantzic. of great commercial importance. Strange as this may appear, these Sweden has made slow propeople have never yet been prevail. gress in the career of improvement. ed on to have tarpaulings, or any One great cause of her backward covering, which would, in a wet state is the unfavourableness of the season, doubly repay them for the climate for the growth of grain. first cost.

This is so great, that there are The warehouses are on an excel. scarcely three ripe crops in the lent plan, situated on an island form. space of ten years. She has, how. ed by the river Mottlau, running ever, considerable resources in wood close by the city on one side, and and iron, and in the fisheries. The another branch by what is called the Swedish iron is well known to be Forestadt on the other. There are excellent; there are at present three bridges on each side of the about five hundred founderies in island, at the end of streets over it employment, and the annual produce from the city to the Forestadt. In is about 53,330 English tons. Brithe night all the bridges are drawn tain, every where the great enup, excepting the two at the end of courager of industry, takes more the main street, across the centre than half of the whole quantity exof the island, communicating be- ported twixt the old city and the Forestadt. It has long been a favourite proTo guard those warehouses are from ject with the Swedish monarchs to twenty to thirty ferocious dogs of a open a passage through that counlarge size, amongst which are blood- try, between the North Sea and the hounds, let loose at eleven o'clock Baltic. This plan, worthy of Rome at night. To command, and to in the plenitude of her power, was keep the dogs within their districts, originally conceived by Gustavus as well as the passengers from harm, Vasa. Considerable progress has at the end of each of the streets been made in it; and though there leading to the niain one are large are still great obstacles in the way, high gates run across : no light is they are far from insurmountable. allowed, nor any person suffered to The completion of this grand undera live on this island. The dogs prowl taking would contribute much to the about the whole night, and create internal improvement of Sweden, great terror.

and, through her, afford the other

commerce

dations of Europe a good passage in British goods which come into it to the Baltic, besides the Sound and find their way, through every inthe Belts.

tervening obstacle, even to Italy. It Tonningen, which was scarcely is curious to find that, by this chanknown beyond the Danish domi- nel, some of the indigo exported nions, till the policy of Bo- from England goes even to France, naparte had driven

to dye cloth for the armies of the from its natural channels, is now be. great enemy of British industry. come the focus of commercial inter. So indispensable is British com. course between England and the merce! continent. It maintains a great It is matter of no small astonishtrade with different places on the ment that Great Britain, so celeElbe, and particularly with Ham. brated for political wisdom and burgh, having become the port of commercial prudence, which has that city since its blockade. Den- risen to power and consequence in mark has, in several respects, been the world chiefly by maritime a gainer by the wars in which the strength, should have neglected proother nations of Europe are or have curing within herself a great part been lately engaged. In times of of her naval stores, the very sinews peace she is computed to gain near- of her power, particularly after the ly four millions of rix-dollars by the many salutary admonitions at an carrying trade; but the war has early period*, and the attempt at given her an almost exclusive pos- monopoly by foreign powers, the session of that branch of industry, armed neutrality in 1780, and the besides enabling her to prosecute confederacy of the north in 1800. the fishing trade without competi. Britain makes herself dependent on tion. Exclusive of the home con- these nations for the very articles sumption, and the transport by land on which her existence depends, from Norway to Sweden, there was and neglects all her own resources. exported, in 1802, no less than 411 No scheme for the extension of cargoes, containing about 26,500 British fisheries will be effectual tons of fish. The exportation had that does not enable poor people to increased from 256 cargoes to this enter into that trade.' Bounties are amount between 1799 and 1802. of no use ; for they do not enable

The progress of Denmark has any one, who has not the means not nearly kept pace with the ad- otherwise, to undertake fishing; vantages of her situation. Her peo- Boats and tackle should be provided ple are slow to invent, and as slow at the fishing stations, and hired to imitate, and have not yet acquir. out for a sum just sufficient to pay ed that true commercial spirit which interest, tear, and wear, under the generates universal activity and direction of the ininisters and elders emulations and carries nations for in the Scots parishes, and by the ward by rapid movements in the superintendants of the poor in Engcareer of wealth and power. In land. the commerce of the Baltic, the Britain above all things should share of Great Britain amounts, ex attend to the cultivation of timber clusive of grain, to at least two at home, and even compulsory mea. thirds of the whole: a strong proof sures for that purpose should be of the interest all these nations have used. Meantinie the timber trade in the permanent prosperity of that might be advantageously tranferred country. As the articles sold con to their North American plantasist entirely of native productions, tions. The forests there contain the trade is certainly most advantageous to them.

* The Swedes, in 1703, refused to let The Ems, being under the protec- England have pitch and tar, unless retion of Prussia, is still open to Bri- ceived in their own ships, at their own. tain ; and short as its course is, the price. VOL. VI. NO. XXXVI.

5

abundance of excellent timber, which courteous reception. Situated as it can be brought to England a great is between the Baltic and the southdeal cheaper than from the Baltic, ern parts of Europe, and likewise with the additional national benefit for the trade between Europe and of employing double the number of America, Britain should become the seamen, and double the tonnage of magazine of the universe. shipping.

All foreign grain should be allowGreat advantages would accrue to ed importation, at all times, under the British empire at large, but par- the king's lock, on the principle of ticularly to Ireland, from a more ex. an entrepôt, where it might wait tended cultivation of hemp and flax. the pleasure of the owner for a marThe peasantry of Ireland are in a ket.' England is better situated for worse situation than the peasantry it than Holland was; if any demand of any country in Europe ; and this should be made from the southern in the midst of greater resources markets, ships can get out of their than most of them enjoy. By af- ports at all seasons of the year, fording every possible encourage. which is not the case in Holland. ment to this species of culture, for Were such a principle adopted, which the soil and climate are pe. the corn dealers in the north of culiarly adapted, the condition of Europe, and those who have long this misguided people might be ma- been in the trade in other quarters, terially improved. With regard to would cheerfully avail themselves of the bounty, it would be a more ef. it. Considerable supplies of grain fective if paid, not when the flax or would be sent to such an entrepôt hemp is brought to a marketable from America. Great numbers of state, but when the ground is sown; American merchants, and they are for in this way the cultivator would mostly bold and enterprising, would be remunerated, though his crop at once send their produce here for should not succeed.

a market, and take manufactures in The vast importations the British return. are obliged to make, while they neg From foreign grain being stored lect so many millions of acres sus. in this manner would arise a certain ceptible of cultivation in their own advantage. If, while the waste lands island, is a circumstance altogether of Britain are getting into cultivaunaccountable. It is much easier, tion, any failure of crops should take however, to unfold the extent of this place, the stock in hand might be evil, than to indicate a remedy. As brought into the market by the reto the corn bounties, it is easy to gulations of some judicious act. Moprove that they are altogether nu. nopoly would not exist in the face of gatory and impolitic. A conviction a large unknown stock; and if the of the inutility of these paltry expe- price advanced under these circumdients may, in time, lead to measures stances, it would rise from an actual of greater efficacy in this important deficiency in the country, to supply branch of economical administration which there would then always be a Meantime, some scheme for making stock in store : for want of such a England an entrepôt for grain me- stock, prices frequently rapidly adrits the attention of those whose vance, and the advance is anticiduty it is to strengthen that empire, pated abroad ; so that it costs enorby such seasonable and politic ex mous prices unnecessarily created. pedients as are suggested by the circumstances of the times.

Nature has formed this island an For the Literary Magazine. impregnable emporium, where all the world, but particularly those

TOTAL ECLIPSE. who are driven from the trade of Holland and Hamburgh, would rea THE following interesting account dily fly, if they could be sure of a of the late total eclipse, with its efe

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