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required of those proceeding to a degree; and it was to the salaried graduates that the title of Professors, in academical language, was at last peculiarly attributed. By this institution of salaried lecturers, dispensation could be universally accorded to the other graduates. The unsalaried regents found, in general, their schools deserted for the gratuitous instruction of the privileged lecturers; and though the right of public teaching competent to every graduate still remained entire, its exercise was, in a great measure, abandoned to the body of professors organized more or less completely in the several faculties throughout the universities of Europe. To speak only of Oxford, and in Oxford only of the Faculty of Arts, ten salaried readers or professors of the seven arts and the three philosophies* had been nominated by the House of Congregation, and attendance on their lectures enforced by statute, long prior to the epoch of the Laudian digest. date of that code, the greater number of these chairs had obtained permanent endowments; and four only depended for a fluctuating stipend on certain fines and taxes levied on the graduates they relieved from teaching, and on the under graduates they were appointed to teach. At that period it was, however, still usual for simple graduates to exercise their right of lecturing in the public schools. While this continued, ability possessed an opportunity of honourable manifestation ; a nursery of experienced teachers was afforded ; the salaried readers were not allowed to slumber in the quiescence of an uninfringible monopoly ; their election could less easily degenerate into a matter of interest and favour ; while the student, presented with a more extensive sphere of information, was less exposed to form exclusive opinions when hearing the same subjects treated by different lecturers in different manners. These advantages have, by such an arrangement, been secured in the German universities,

In Oxford, the Corpus Statutorum introduced little or no change in the mechanism of academical instruction ; nor has this been done by any sub— V sequent enactment. On the contrary, the most recent statutes on the subject -Those of 1801 and 1808-recognise the ancient system ratified under Laud, as that still in force, and actually in operation. (Corp. Stat. T. iv. Add. p. 129-133. p. 190–192.) The scheme thus established in law, though now abolished in fact, is as follows :

Education is afforded in all the faculties in which degrees are granted, by the University itself, through its accredited organs, the public readers or professors—a regular attendance on whose lectures during a stated period is in every faculty indispensably requisite to qualify for a degree. To say nothing of Music, the University grants degrees, and furnishe instruction in four faculties—Arts, Theology, Civil Law, and Medicine.t

In Arts there are established eleven Public Readers or Professors; a regular

• The Faculty of Arts originally comprehended, besides the three philosophies. the whole seven arts. Of these latter, some were, however, at different times, thrown out of the faculty, or separated from the other arts, and special degrees given in them either apart from. or in subordination io, the general degree. Thus, in Oxford, special degrees were given in Grammar, in Rhetoric, and in Music. The two former subjects were again withdrawn into the facully, and their degrees waxed obsolete—but Music and its degree still remain apart. The Gereral Sophist was a special degree in Logic, but subordinate to the general degree in Arts. It is needless to say, that these pariicular degrees gave no entry into the academical assemblies. The historians of the universities of Paris and Oxford have misconceived this subject, from not illustrating the practice of the one school by that of the other. Duboullay and Wood knew nothing of each other's works, though writing at the same time, and Crevier never looked beyond Duboullay.

† Since the Reformation, as the subject of the faculty of Canon Law was no longer taught, degrees in that faculty have very properly been discontioned. But why are degrees still continued in the other faculties, in which the relative instruction is no longer afforded?

attendance on whose courses is necessary during a period of four years to qualify for bachelor-during seven, to qualify for master. The student must frequent during the first year the lectures on Grammar and Rhetoric; during the second, Logic and Moral Philosophy; during the third and fourth, Logic and Moral Philosophy, Geometry and Greek; during the filth, (bachelors of first year,) Geometry, Melaphysics, History, Greek—and Hebrew, if destined for the church; during the sixth and seventh, Astronomy, Natural Philosophy, Metaphysics, History, Greek—and Hebrew, if divines.

To commence student in the faculty of Theology, a mastership in arls is a requisite preliminary. There are two professors of Divinity, on whom attendance is required, during seven years for the degree of bachelor, and subsequently during four for that of doctor.

In the faculty of Civil Law there is one professor. The student is not required to have graduated in arts; but if a master in that faculty, three years of attendance on the professor qualify him for a bachelor's degree, and four thereafter for a doctor's. The simple student must attend his professor during five years for bachelor, and ten for doctor; and previous to commencing student in this faculty, he must have frequented the courses of logic, moral and political philosophy, and of the other humane sciences, during two years, and history until his presentation for bachelor. By recent statute, to commence the study of law, it is necessary to pass the examination for bachelor of arts.

To commence student in Medicine, it is necessary to have obtained a mastership in arts, and thereafter the candidate (besides a certain attendance on the prælector of anatomy) must have heard the professor of medicine during three years for the degree of bachelor, and again during four years for that of doctor.*

The professors are bound to lecture during term, with exception of Lent, i. e. for about six months annually, twice a week, and for two full hours;; and penalties are incurred by teacher and student for any negligence in the performance of their several duties. Among other useful regulations, it is enjoined, “ that after lecture, the professors should tarry for some time in the schools; and if any scholar or auditor may wish to argue against what has been delivered from the chair, or may otherwise have any dubiety 10 resolve, that they should listen to him kindly, and satisfy his difficulties and doubts."

But though a body of professors was thus established as the special organ through which the University effected the purposes of its institution, the right was not withdrawn, nay, is expressly declared to remain inviolate, which every master and doctor possessed, in virtue of his degree, of opening in the public schools a course of lectures on any of the subjects within the compass of his faculty. (Corp. St. T. iv. S 1.)

But besides the public and principal means of instruction afforded by the professors and other regents in the University, the student was subjected until his first degree, or during the first four years of his academical life, to the subsidiary and private discipline of a tutor in the Hall or College 10 which he belonged. This regulation was rendered peculiarly expedient by circumstances which no longer exist. Prior to the period of the Laudian digest, it was customary to enter the University at a very early age; and the student of those times, when he obtained the rank of master, was frequently not older than the student of the present when he matriculates. It was of course found useful to place these accademical boys under the special guardianship of a tutor during the earlier years of their residence in the Universily. With this, however, as a merely private concern, the University did noi interfere ; and we doubt whether, before the chancellorship of Leicester, any attempt was made to regulate, by academical authority, the character of ihose who might officiate in this capacity; or before the chancellorship of Laud, to render imperative the entering under a tutor at all, and a tutor resident in the same house with the pupil. (Compare Wood's Annals. a. 1581, and Corp. Stat. T. iii. S 2.) Be this, however, as it may, the tutorial office was viewed as one of very subordinate importance in the statutory system. To commence tulor, it was only necessary for a student to have the lowest degree in arls, and that his learning, his moral and religious character, should be approved of by the head of the house in which he resided, or, in the event of controversy on this point, by the vice-chancellor. All that was expected of him was to imbue his pupils with good principles, and institute them in appro ed authors; but above all, in the rudiments of religion, and the doctrine of the Thirty-nine Articles; and that he should do all that in him lay to render them conformable to the church of England." “ It is also his duty to contain his pupils within statutory regulations in matters of external appearance, such as their clothes, boots, and hair; which, if the pupils are found to transgress, the tutor for the first, second, and third offence, shall forfeit six and eighl-pence, and for the fourth shall be interdicted from his tutorial function by the vice chancellor.” (T. iii. S 2.) Who could have anticipated from this statute what the tutor was ultimately to become?

* Of several other chairs subsequently established, we make no mention, as these were never constituted into necessary parts of the academical system. .+ Previously to Laud's statutes, the professors in general were bound to lecture daily, and all, if we recollect, at least four times a week. The change was absurd. It was standing which should have been shortened.

The preceding outline is sufficient to show that by statute the University of Oxford proposes an end not less comprehensive than other universities, and attempts to accomplish that end by the same machinery which they employ. It proposes, as its adequate end, the education of youth in the faculties of arts, theology, law, and medicine; and for accomplishment of this, a body of public lecturers constitute the instrument which it principally, if not exclusively, employs. But as the University of Oxford only executes its purpose, and therefore only realizes its existence, through the agency of its professorial system; consequently, whatever limits, weakens, or destroys the efficiency of that system, limits, weakens, and destroys the University itself. With the qualities of this system, as organised in Oxford, we have at present no concern. We may, however, observe, that if not perfect, it was persectible; and at the date of its establishment, there were few universities in Europe which could boast of an organization of its public instructors more complete, and none perhaps in which that organizalion was so easily susceptible of so high an improvement.

In the system de facto all is changed. The University is in abeyance ; -Magni stat nominis dmbra. In none of the faculties is it supposed that the professors any longer furnish the instruction necessary for a degree. Some chairs are even nominally extinct, where an endowment has nol perpeluated the sinecure; and the others betray, in general, their existence only ihrough the Calendar. If the silence of the schools be occasionally broken by a formal lecture, or if on some popular subjects (fees being now permit

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ted) a short course be usually delivered; attendance on these is not more required or expected than altendance in the music-room. For every degree in every faculty above Bachelor of Arts, standing on the books, is allowed to count for residence in the University and attendance on the public courses ; and though, under these circumstances, examinations be more imperatively necessary, a real examination only exists for the elementary degree, of which residence is also a condition.

It is thus not even pretended that Oxford now supplies more than the preliminary of an academical education. Even this is not afforded by the University, but abandoned to the Colleges and Halls; and the Academy of Oxford is therefore not one public University, but merely a collection of private schools. University, in fact, exists only in semblance, for the behoof of the unauthorized seminaries by which it has been replaced, and which have contrived, under covert of its name, to slip into possession of its public privileges.*

But as academical education was usurped by the tutors from the professors-so all tutorial education was usurped by the fellows from the other graduates. The fellows exclusively teach all that Oxford now deems necessary to be taught; and as every tutor is singly vicarious of the whole ancient body of professors-ανής πολλών αντάξιος άλλων- the present capacity of the University lo effect the purposes of its establishment must, consequently, be determined by the capacity of each fellow-lutor to compass the encyclopædia of academical instruction. If Oxford accomplishes the objects of an University even in its lowest faculty, every fellow-tutor is a second “Universal Doctor,"

Qui tria, qui septem, qui omne scibile novit. But while thus resting her success on the extraordinary ability of her teachers, we shall see that she makes no provision even for their ordinary competence.

As the fellowships were not founded for the purposes of teaching, so the qualifications that constitute a fellow are not those that constitute an instructor. The Colleges owe their establishment to the capricious bounty of individuals, and the fellow rarely owes his eligibility to merit alone, but in the immense majority of cases to fortuitous circumstances. f The sellow

How completely the University is annihilated-how completely even all memory of its history, all knowledge of its constitution, have perished in Oxford, is significantly shown in the following passage, written by a very able defender of things as they now are in that seminary. “There are, moreover, some points in the constitution of this place, which are carefully kept out of sight by our revilers, but which ought to be known and well considered, before any comparison is made between what we are and what we ought to be. The UniversITY OF OXFORD IS NOT A NATIONAL FOUNDATION. It is a congeries of foundations originating, some in royal munificence, but more in private picty and bounty. They are moulded indeed into one corporation ; but each one of our i wenty Colleges is a corporation by itself, and has its own peculiar statutes, not only regulating its internal affairs, but contining its benefits by a great variety of limitations." Reply to the Calumnies of the Edinburgh Review, p. 183. We shall conteni ourselves with quoting a sentence from the “ Abstract of divers Privileges and Rights of the University of Oxford." by the celebrated Dr. Wallis, the least of whose merits was an intimate acquaintance with the history and constitusion of the establishment of which he was Registrar. “ The rights or privileges (whatever they be) çare) not granted or belonging to Scholars as living in Colleges, 8c., but to Colleges, &c. as houses inhabited by Scholars, the Colleges which we now have being accidental to the cor. poration of the University, and the contining of Scholars now to a certain number of Colleges and Halls being extrinsical to the University, and by a law of their own making, each College (but not the Halls) being a distinct corporation from that of the University."

+ This is candidly acknowledged by the intelligent apologist just quoled. “Io most Colleges the fellowships are appropriated to certain schools, dioceses, counties, and in some cases even to parishes, with a preference given to the founder's kindred for ever. Many qualifications, quite foreign to intelleciual talents and learning, are thus enjoined by the founders; and in very few in

ships in Oxford are, with few exceptions, limited to founder's kin,-to founder's kin, born in particular counties, or educated at particular schools -to the scholars of certain schools, without restriction, or narrowed by some additional circumstances of age or locality of birth,-to the natives of certain dioceses, archdeaconries, islands, counties, towns, parishes or manors, under every variety of arbitrary condition. In some cases, the candidate must be a graduate of a certain standing, in others he must not ; in some he must be in orders, perhaps priest's, in others he is only bound to enter the church within a definite time. In some cases the fellow may freely choose his profession; in general he is limited to theology, and in a few instances must proceed in law or medicine. The nomination is sometimes committed to an individual, sometimes to a body of men, and these either within or without the College and University; but in general it belongs to the fellows. The elective power is rarely, however, deposited in worthy hands; and even when circumstances permit any liberty of choice, desert has too seldom a chance in competition with favour. With one unimportant exception, the fellowships are perpetual; but they are vacated by marriage, and by acceptance of a living in the church above a limited amount. They vary greally in emolument in different Colleges ; and in the same Colleges the difference is often considerable between those on different foundations, and on the same foundations between the senior and the junior fellowships. Some do not even afford the necessaries of life; others are more than competent to its superfluities. Residence is now universally dispensed with; though in some cases certain advantages are only to be enjoyed on the spot. In the church, the Colleges possess considerable patronage; the livings as they fall vacant are at the option of the fellows in the order of seniority; and the advantage of a fellowship depends often less on the amount of salary which it immediately affords, than on the value of the preferment to which it may ultimately lead.

But while, as a body, the fellows can thus hardly be supposed to rise above the average amount of intelligence and acquirement; so, of the fellows, it is not those best competent to its discharge who are generally found engaged in the business of tuition.

In the first place, there is no power of adequate selection, were there even sufficient materials from which to choose. The head, himself of the same leaven with the fellows, cannot be presumed greatly to transcend their level; and he is peculiarly exposed to the influence of that party spirit by which collegial bodies are so frequently distracted. Were his approbation of tutors, therefore, free, we could have no security for the wisdom and impartiality of his choice. But, in point of fact, he can only legally refuse his sanction on the odious grounds of ignorance, vice, or irreligion. The tutors are thus virtually self-appointed.

But in the second place, a fellow constitutes himself a tutor, not because he suits the office, but because the office is convenient to him. The stand

stances is a free choice of candidates allowed to the fellows of a College, upon any vacancy in their number. Merit therefore has not such provision made as the extent of the endowments might seem to promise. Now it is certain that each of these various institutions is not the best. The best of them perbaps are those (how many are there?) where an unrestrained choice is left among all candidates who have taken one degree. The worst are those which are appropriated to schools, from which boys of sixteen or seventeen are forwarded to a fixed station and emolument, which nothing can forfeit but flagrant misconduct, and which no exertion can render more valuable." Reply to the Calumnies, 8c. page 183.' We may add, that even where “a free choice of candidates is allowed,” the electors are not always Fellows either of Oriel College, Oxford, or of Trinity College, Cambridge.

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