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- fisted Antigonus Son of the late King Ariftobulus
to recover Jerusalem and Yudea, in Opposition to the united Forces of Phafael, and Herod, and Hyrcanus.
52 Q. Did Antigonus ever recover this Govern. ment? A. The Parthian General Pacorus, who was at War with the Romans, did by meer Treachesy get into his Custody both Hyrcanus and Phafael, seized Jerusalem, and rifled it, made Antigonus Governor of Yudea, and delivered up Hyrcanus and Phafael to him in Chains ; but Herod made his Escape.
53 Q. What became of Phafael and Hyrcanus ? A. Phafael beat out his own Brains in Prison ; Hyrcanus's Ears were cut off, that being maimed he might be no longer a High-Priest, Lev. xxi. 17, and he was sent afar off among the Parthians, that he might raise no Disturbances against Antigonus.
54 Q. Whither did Herod take his flight? A. After a little time he went to Rome to represent all these Transactions, and he made his Complaints with great and unexpected Success; for 7 ulius Cæfar being sain in the Roman Senate, Mark Antony and OEtavius (who was afterward Augustus Cæfar) governed all things there, and they agreed to make Herod King of Yudea, with the Confent or the Senate, hoping it would be for their Intereft in the Parthian War.
Sect. VIII. Of the Government of He
ROD. the Great and bis Pofterity over the
IQ. W HAT did Herod do on his receiving this
W new Dignity? i. He returning to 'yudea, first relieved his Mother, who was put in Prison by Antigonus, he made himself Master of Galilee, he destroyed some large Bands of Robbers which infested the Country thereabout, theltering themselves in Mountains, and the Caves of steep and craggy Rocks.
2 Q. What Artifice did he use in order to attack them? 1. By reason of their dwelling in such hollow Caves in Precipices, there was no scaling them from below; and therefore to ferret them out of their Dens, he made large open Chests, and filled them with Soldiers, which he let down into the Entrances of those Caves by Chains from Engines which he had fixed above, and thus he deItroyed great Numbers of them.
Note, This Country was often annoyed with the Reo mains of these Plunderers in the Reign of Herod; but he treated them without Mercy, and all the Country that sheltered them with great Rigor, till he restored Peace to Galilee.
3Q. Where was his next March ? A. Into Ju. dea against Antigonus, and after several Battles with various Success on both Sides, at last, by the As. sistance of the Roman Legions, he besieged Antigonus in Jerusalem. - 4 Q. Did not Herod himself attend this Siege? A. Yes, but while the Preparations was making
for it he went to Samaria, and there married Ma. riamne, a Lady of the Family of the Maccabees or Afmoneans, the Grand-Daughter of Hyrcanus the second, a Woman of great Beauty and Virtue, and admirable Qualifications, hoping the Jews would more readily receive him for their King by this Alliance; and having done this, he returned to the Siege.
5 Q. Did he carry this Place at last ? A. He took Jerusalem by storm after six Months hard and bloody Service in the Siege, at which the Reo mans, being enraged, ravaged the City with Blood and Plunder, notwithstanding all that Herod could do to prevent it; and having taken King Antigonus there, and sent him to Antioch, Herod persuaded Mark Antony by a large Bribe to put him to death.
Note, Here ended the Reign of the Afmoneans or Maccabees, after that Race had held the Government one hundred and twenty Years. During a great Part of this Time, as well as before, the various Change of these Jewish Governors, or the Interruption by Heathen Conquerors, filled the Country of Judea with innumerable Calamities and Desolations, of which JeruFalem itself had a very large Share, nor did they cease in the following Years.
6 Q: How did Herod begin his Reign ? A. As he was forced to make his way to the Kingdom through much Blood, so he establilhed himself by the same means, putting to death several of the Partizans of Antigonus, and among them all the Counsellors of the great Sanhedrim, except Pollid who is called Hillel, and Sameas, who is called Shammai; for both of them had encouraged the City to receive Herod; though it was not out of
love to him, but merely on this View, that it was in vain to resist him.
Note, This Hillel and Shammai were two very great and eminent Teachers among the Doctors of Traditions in the Jewijs Schools.
7 Q. Who was made High-Priest after the Death of Antigonus, who was both Priest and King ? A. At first Herod made one Ananelus or Ananus High-Priest, who was an obscure Man, but of the House of Aaron, educated among the Jews. afar off in Babylonia, and therefore not so likely to oppose any of Herod's Designs in Judea.
8 Q. Did Ananelus continue in the High-Priesthood? A. Herod's beloved Wife Mariamme and her Mother, being of the Race of the Maccabees, were ever teizing him to make Ariftobulus, Mariamne's Brother, a Lad of seventeen Years old, High-Priest in Ananelus's room, to whom indeed it rather 'belonged as an Heir Male of that Family: This he at last complyed with'against his Will, but in a very little time he procured him to be drowned, under Pretence of Bathing.
9 Q. What became of Hyrcanus all this while? A. Though he had been banished for so many Year's among the Parthians and Babylonians, yet he returned to Jerusalem upon the Advancement of Herod, presuming that the Marriage of his Grand-Daughter, and his own former Merits towards him, would secure to himself a peaceful Old-Age in his own Country under Herod's Protection.
10 Q. How did Herod deal with him? A. He received him at forft with all Respect, but some
time after found a Pretence to put hiin to death,
12 Q. Did Herod maintain his Government when his great Friend Mark Antony was ruined and vanquished by Octavius? A. He took care to make early Submission to Oétavius,' he laid aside his Diadem when he waited on him, and with open Heart he confess’d his former Friendship for Antony, but he now assured Qetavius of the same faithful Friendship and Obedience, if he might be trusted : Upon which Octavius, who now assumed the Name of Auguftus Cæjar, bid him resume his Diadem, confirmed him in the Kingdom, and was his Friend and Protector even to his Death.
13 Q. Did he then continue to reign in perfect Peace ? A. Domestic Troubles broke the Peace of his Mind, threw him into violent Grief and Rage, which further soured his Temper for all his Life after.
14 Q. What were these domestic-Troubles? 4. He was jealous left any Man should possess so great a Beauty as Mariamne his Queen after his Death,