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ODDESS, delighting in the fylvan chace,
The bow, the quiver, dance and mountain sports,
Goddess of woods, Diana, thee we sing;

Woe to the bard whose songs forget thy praise ! Thee will we sing, and hence begin the song;

How,

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* Hymn to Drana.] The poet having fung whom with the fun and Shars we are affured, the praises of Apollo, proceeds next to speak of his from infallible truth, the antient idolaters worfifter Diana, whom he makes it a point of reli- shipped. “. And left thou lift up thine eyes unto gion to celebrate, and a duty incumbent upon the heaven, and when thou fcest the SUN, and the poetical fons of Apollo, not to forget the fifter MOON, and the STARS, even all the host of of their God: so greatly esteemed as she was heaven, shouljft be driven to worship them, &c. amongst mankind ; nay, and even honoured with Deut. iv. 19. comp. Job xxxi. 26. The reader the title of LwTeigen, as that of Ewing, Saviour, must not expect to find so many beautiful alluwas given to her brother. See hymn to Apollo; fions to revelation in this hymn as in the former, ver. 62, and 147. By Diana, in the heathen which abounds with fable, and as being prinsystem, it is well known, is meant the moong cipally narrative, is of necessity not so instructive

in

How, when a prattler on the thunderer’s lap,
The little Goddess thus addrest her fire:
- Be vow'd virginity thy daughter's lot,

« She

in religious truths : yet it wants not beauties, Pliny remarks, that cresente luna frumenta granand has been always justly esteemed as an in- defcunt. comparable piece of poetry. The word which Ver. 8. Virginity.) Her first petition is for I have rendred sylvan chace in the first line is, perpetual virginity, which Ovid tells, was after. in the original nayaBorozo, wretchedly translated wards a request of Daphne's, Retia in the Latin version: the proper sense of the word is hunting of bares, but according to no

Da mihi perpetuâ, genitor charisime, dixit,

Virginitate fruidedit hoc pater ante Diane: uncommon custom, it is applied from that species of it, to hunting in general, as slammßonice, Then caiting round his neck her tender arms which though commonly used for hunting in ge Sooths him with blandishment, and filial neral, signifies in particular stag-hunting.

charms : DIANA's speech.] Frischlinus is ingenious Give me, my lord, she said, to live and die, enough in his annotation on the following speech: A spotless maid, without the nuptial tye : The poet, says he, puts a speech into the mouth 'Tis but a small request; I beg no more of the Goddess entirely becoming her: her peti Than what Diana's father gave before. tions are all such as Diana might ask; and more,

DRYDEN. I think they may all be understood of the moon, Quæ quidem omnia de luna aptifsimè intelligi his note on this place : “ For, he says, women

Paul Voet, is a little fevere upon the ladies in poffunt : hæc enim semper virgo eft, &c.

". She is always a virgin, because she always are chalte, not thro' choice and good will being retains the same vigour of age, and never grows and therefore Diana begs to be chaste, while

very frail in their own natures) but by necessity; old: for the heavenly bodies do not experience it was scarce poffible for her to be fo.” And inthat mutation and metamorphosis, which other frail and passing things, subject to many cor

deed, “ vows of virginity should well be ruptions, experience. She is said to emit her weighed :” since even this chaftest of chaste ones,

this Diana herself has been taxed of cancelling dorts or arrows, and to hunt wild beasts, be

her vow with Endymion! however, mytholocause, with her rays sent forth and dispersed in the night, she enlightens these lower regions, gifts have endeavoured to clear her from all and supplies them with moisture, and the proper aspersions, by Thewing us the meaning of this power of encrease and vegetation. She is moft allegory; and amongst the rest the most ingenious patient and enduring of labours in her course, under Endymion five gratiosus. See also Banieros

lord Bacon, whom see in his Sapientia Veterum, because the moon in her period, which she per: mythology, vol. 1. p. 45 and 77. where this forms with admirable swiftness, is never wearied:

matter is accounted for rather nearer the truth she is accompanied with many nymphs and attendants; because when the shines in the night,

than lord Bacon's. Homer has a passage in his she is on all sides surrounded with stars ; the is hymn to Venus, similar to this of our author; in fine, montium cuftos, nemorumque virgo, the But bright Diana Venus ne'er cou'd move, guardian of the mountains, and virgin Goddess of To taste the sweets and own the pow'r of love: the groves; because, when the arises the seems The virgin Goddess still unconquer'd roves, to us to arise from the mountains, when she sets, And with her lays of freedom charms the to descend down into them.” Of the power of

groves : the moon in vegetation we are informed from the The chace, the choir, the dance engage her scriptures, where we are told of the precious things

soul, put forth by the moon, Deut. xxxiii. 14. and And states where virtue and religion rule.

IO

“ She cry'd, my father : and for numerous names
With thy Diana let not PHOEBUS vie.
Be mine the bow, the quiver : not from thee
Those arms I ask: permit but the request,
The swarthy Cyclops shall perform the task,
Point the wish'd shafts and string the flexile bow :
Let me bear light: and chace the flying game
Down to the knee in welted tunic clad.
Of Ocean's daughters, fixty lovely nymphs,
Who yet' have seen, but thrice three summers bloom,

15

Young

Ver. 9. For numerous names.] Amongst the We need not go so far as the Syrians, fince several causes that have introduced so much every reader of the hymns of Orpheus must neconfusion in the heathen system of religion, cessarily observe, that they consist of nothing there are few have been more prejudicial than beside these names and appellations of the deities this beforeus, namely, The great variety of names, to whom they are addrest, and whose attributes whereby they addreft their Gods. From hence they record. it is, that fuch a mob of nominal deities have pro Ver. 15. Let me bear light.] This petition of .cceded : for those names, which were only used Diana's is doubtless applicable to the moon: and as epithets and characteristics of the several pro- best explained by the antient remains we meet perties, actions, and benefits of the same god, with, where she is represented with a moon, afterwards were thought to denote different and two torches, whence she had the name of deities, and by that means multitudes of un- "Aadsgees, torch-bearer, as well as pwopoços, lightheard of beings were introduced. We may bearer ; which last was ofter given to Minerva, remember, that Callimachus afligns this honour because, as Proclus explains it, she, as it were, to Apollo of having many names. See ver. 100. lights in the soul the fire of understanding ; but of the hymn to Apollo.

to Diana, because she brings to light the hidden 56 This is that worvasy, much speaking, and secrets of nature. To explain there attributes, vain repetition, says Grævius, which Christ con- vesiments, &c. of Diana, I have given the demns in the prayers of the heathens, Matt. vi. antient coins, as the best commentary on the 7. for the hcathens particularly affected this, and author. not only the Greeks, but also all the eastern na Ver. 17. Ocean's daughters.) Hefiod reckons tions. Hence Selden de Diis Syriis hath ob- up a goodly company of these daughters of served, that amongst the Arabians their hymns Oceanus and Tethys ; and adds, that they were to God were stuffed with names only, apper.. in number three thousand. taining to the deity, insomuch that above an

Πολλαι γε μιν εισι και αλλαν hundred names were gathered together, without

Τρας γαρ χιλιαι εισι τανυσφυρου Ωκεανιναι. any single expreffion, except these of invocation.

. Sve more concerning this moduwwopuse in Selden.See Hefiod, Otoyora, ver. 364. and Banier's My

thology,

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Young and unspotted all, to join the dance
My lov’d compeers appoint : and from the banks
Of Amnisus a train inferior fend
In number and degree, attendants meet
My buskins to provide, or careful tend
My faithful dogs, when, wearied from the chace,
Their mistress lays her useless quiver by.
Each mountain be my dow'r : and, wherefoe'er
Thou wilt, allot one city to my charge :
Midít mountains my abode, rare ihall the din
Of populous cities grate my peaceful ear :
Then only, mixing with the mortal croud

25.

30

When

thology, vol. I. p. 114. of these, according to going to lose their virginity. Hence in the Greek our poet, Diana desires fixty for her companions, poets they are often called Tapdırıxat uitgan, and and Gratius, who says,

in Latin, Zonæ virgineæ. Medea, meaning to Adfcivere tuo comites fub nomine divo

say she was still a virgin, speaks thus in Apollo

nius, Centum omnes nemorum, centum de fontibus onines,

My zone still unpolluted and unloos'd Naides

Still pure, as in my father's house, remains. is nearly consonant to him ; for she had twenty So that these Oceaninæ are not called Austrou, of the Amnisian nymphs, so that all together because they had lost their zones and virginity, make almost the hundred.

but because they had not yet received the virgin up Ver. 19. Young and unspotted.] The original is zone, being yet

zone, being yet too young for marriage.”

Ver. 20. The banks of Amnisus.] Amnisus was Πασας εινετεας, πασας τι παιδας αμετρες.

the name of a city, as well as a river of Crete,

the nymphs belonging to which were called Amwhere Spanheim observes, that the zones or nisiades; twenty of whom Diana here desires for pastgas, were given only to those virgins who her maids, for that is the meaning of Auçone's were marriageable, Viro maturæ ; and taken in the original, as their office confirms. Diana from them, or according to the known express was said to have been begotten in this city, and f10n, said to be loafed (Golvi) when they were frequently to bath in the river.

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When women torn with child-bed's throbbing throws
Diana's aid implore : to me this lot
Immediate on my birth, the Fates assign'd,
For that, without a mother's pangs brought forth, ,
Who in my birth or bearing ne'er knew woe!”

She spake and to confirm her words uprais'd
Her little hand, attempting fond to stroke,
With adulation sweet, her father's beard :

35

Oft

Ver. 31. IVhen women, &c.] Dianam autem Apollo caused the Fates and Lucina to be present et lunam eandem effe putant, &c. luna, a lucendo at it ; nominata fit: eadem eft enim lucina. Itaque ut

Lucina and the Fates consenting apud Gracos Dianam atque tuciferam fic apud

To Apollo's fond request, nos Junonem lucinam in pariendo invocant; que All the mother's pangs preventing eadem Diana omnivaga dicitur, non a venando,

With the darling offspring blest. fed quod in septem numeratur tanquam vaganti

OLYMPIC the 6th. bus: Diana dieta quia noclu quasi diem efficeret. Adhibetur autem ad partus, quod se maturescunt And Anton. Liberal. in his metamorphoses, speakaut septem nonnunquam aut plerumque novem ing of Alcmena, says, Mosgao xa. Eszendvice as pos luna cur/fius : qui, φuia menfa /patia confciunt, χαριν της Ηρας κατειχον εν ταις οδισι την Αλκμηνην. menses nominantur. Cicero de Nat. Deorum. And this observation will (by the way) throw c. 27. lib 2. We learn from this passage of Cicero, light on that pastage in Horace, where after inwhat hath been before advanced, note 1. that voking Ilithyia, he speakes of the Fates Volque Diana and the Moon are one; and that the names veraces cecinille parcæ.”— See the secular poem. Luna, Lucina, &c. are derived from shining. Ver. 35. IV, &c ] In the hymn to Jupiter, That she is called omnivaga, or said to wander he speaks of the birth of that deity by Meyahan every where, not from kunting, but because the ansonxato xoaFW, and here, of Diana's' by Goran is numbred amongst the seven wandring or er απεθηκατο κολπων ; and that αμογητι, without any ratic stars or planets. That the is called Diana, pangs of labor: for, says Madam Dacier, Hebecause she makes a kind of day in the night's roina sine dolore pariunt : “ Heroins bring forth and particularly, that she was invoked to the without labour.” But surely, that learned lady affistance of child-Hearing women, because births did not consider the case of Latona, fully menare perfected in seven, or at the most, in nine tioned in the next hymn, when the brought of hier courses, &c." There might possibly be forth Apollo, as well as that of Alcmena's hinted many other reasons given for this fable of the at in the last note. It may be necessary just to Alor's or Diana's allistance to travailing wo observe (that the reader may enter the better men ; whose influence upon their bodi s did into the meaning of the subsequent lines) that not elcape the antients, and whose months are that there was none so great a mark of blanttill their stated reckonings, &c. " The Fates dishment and affection amongst the antients, are very properly mentioned by Callimachus (as as stroking the beard : as on the contrary, none Spanheim observes) with Diana Lucifera : E.Ast so great an affront as plucking it: numberless Quse #azosos porçar, is an expresion of Pindar's instances of each abound in the classics. Virgil in his zin Nemean Ode (the first line) and again, gives us a description of Jupiter's smile, not un{p.aking of Evadne’s bringing forth, he says. like this of our author. Oli subridens. Æneid. 1.

ver. 258.

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