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(For to thy merit various names belong :
But none like lov’d Carnëan glads my fong :
For fo my country celebrates the God,

,
Who, thrice remov’d, here fix'd his firm abode.
From Sparta first, where first the name was sung
Carnean, Theras led the chosen throng:
Great Theras, from a race of antient heroes sprung:
Recoverd Battus then from Thera's shore,
Thee and thy colony, bright Phæbus, bore;
In Lybia rais’d a temple to thy name,
And rites establish'd to record thy fame,

105}

IIO

Which

Ver. 101. Carnean, &c.] The poet tells us, Callimachus, immediately after the description that of all the names wherewith Apollo was dig- and account of the altar of horns composed by nified, none pleased him so well as that whereby Apollo, celebrates the founder of his city Battus, he was peculiarly adored, and known in his who under the auspices of this God, founded Cyown country; of whose honour he shews him- rene, and instituted the rites of Carnear Apolla, self always very jealous, omitting no opportunity, who, as the light, performed all the works of like a fo!ind patriot, to celebrate either its nature, and to whom therefore flowers, &c. were praise, or that of his prince. Apoile, we are told, presented. See line 113. was called Carnean from the feast celebrated to Ver. 104.] The author here gives us an hirhis honour, first at Sparta, and then at Cyrene; torical detail of the removal of the colony, under which was held in to great veneration, that the auspices of Apollo, which first was settled at children born on that day, were called Car. Sparta, thence transplanted by Theras (who he neade. Many reasons are given for the name tells us was the seventh from Oedipus) to Thera, (which see in Potter's antiquities, vol. 1. p. 408) or Theraa, an island of the Ægean sea, which but none satisfactory. Macrobins too appears had its name from this hero Theras, according to have strained the matter, when he tells u, to Heredotus. And 3dly, by Battus conducted to that Apollo was called Kuqve:05, 076 xa noftros ofuras Lybin, who built the city Cyrene, &c. as men>e 35, vel quod, cuin omnia ardentia conjumantur; tioned in the text.

The author calls him Aposohic suo calore candens semper novus constat, p.240. Teans, which we are informed was his original The true derivation is given by Hut, in his name, that of Battus having been given him by Demonstra. Eugclica, who observes, that “ the the oracle, when he consulted it (as observed word Kugresov is derived from the Hebrew topnote. 92.) he calls him ovaos, recovered, in alluKaRN, a horn. The reader will immcdiately fion to what is recorded in that note, of his rerecollect what was laid concerning horns, ver. 85. gaining or recovering his speech. Concerning a'd the oblervation at the end, which this of the bulls, horned beasts offered to Apollo. See M. Huet confirms; and it is observable that note 85.

Which annual in his city are renew'd,
When bulls innumerous stain thy shrines with blood.

lo, Carnëan, all-ador’d, we bring
The choicest beauties of the painted spring,
Now gentle Zephyr breaths the genial dew, ,
That gives each flower its variegated hue :
But on thy altars, when stern winter comes,
The fragrant faffron breaths its rich perfumes.

115

To

atunna

crocus

Ver. 115. Now gentle. &c.] The author's valley, Cont. ii. 1. See note 60. ad fin. So that expression is here remarkably sweet and poetical. upon this view, it is no wonder that what was

ascribed to the true Light, ini emblem, was by Zepuce TVHOYTOS. FEET ON

idolaters assigned to their God, th. material Zephyro inspirant rurem. lowers in the spring light we find were offered :0 2 jutt bule to Ver. 118. Saffron] I rather trarflate the the Sun, which bri gs them iuith, and gives wurd Kfoxov in his pl. ce faffron, tha crocus (as them their beauties. Mon Aɔwers represent to Nr. Prior hall done, bicause the crocus with us the irradition of light, and in toate all the us may later be called a spring, ihan a winter bell Hswers; the economy is much to be ob fower ; nay, indeed it is the very first of the served ; for in every single power we shall find spring fowers. The safion is pr. perly the fix leaves, with an irradiation in the midst; and

which Aourish. s in Oetuber, in some more distinctly, that which encloses the about which time the festival of Carnean A; olio seed, divided into three parts in one, as may be was celebrated. It was dedicated to Apollo tor seen, particularly in the lilly: than which no the same reason that Arwers in general were, emblem can better point out to us, the fix as just now observed, and indeed h: crocus is planets moving around the sun, acted upon by particularly remarkable in the respect neprioned his irradiation and power, or by the three agents in the former note.

in the former note. The gardeners distinguish fire, light, and spirit, which though three in it thus; “ It hath a flower consisting of one condition are yet one in substance.

leaf, which is shaped like a lilly, futuluus underIt is to be remembred, that great ue of neath, the tube widened into fix fegments, and flowers was made in the Jewish ceremonies, the resting on the first italk; the pointal riscs out famous candlestick, a repr Jentative of the system, of the bottom of the flower, and is divided into amongst other things had ficwers to thew the three headed and crested capillaments; but the irradiation of light, Exod. xxv. 31. See also empal ment afterwards turns to an oblong trian2 Chron. iv. 5. and on the forehead of the high- gular point, divided in:o three cells, and is full priest, that well-known type of the great Irra- of reddish seeds.” See Millar on the word crocus. diator, the light of the world, was placed a flower These are the characters, which, without the of gold (for so the original word fignifies '3'3 a terms of art, I observed belonged to bell ficwers, flower) nay, that pivine Liglit himself tells us, emblems of the six planets, supported by the that he is the role of Sharon and the lilly of the three agcrits, in which the light, or irradiation.

To thee eternal fires incessant rise,
And on thy shrine the living coal ne'er dies.

I 20

When

forms us,

is the ruler : and of this the crocus too was in scholiast, who tells us, that it was called Kpoxos, its colour an emblem, which is a second reason Cape TO ev xpuet Baare. which seems very far from why it was sacred to the God of light. Homer the sense or found of the word. I observed, almost always describes the morning as clad in that it was mentioned in the Canticles, as one a jaffron robe ; nay, and calls her particularly, of those aromatic sweets, those divine and here The faffr morn, with carly blushes spread. of Christ. In Christ himself the true light, is

venly graces, which are in the church the spouse See lli. xi. ver. 1.

a garden of sweets, his merits, prayers and inand Virgil follows his steps closely, raising his tercessions are as the incense made of all manner Aurora from the croceum cubile, the Saffron bed of perfumes and spices after the art of the apoof Titho1:15. By all which is meant no more thecary. See Exod. xxx. 35. And therefore than the fine colour which adorns the morning, amongst the rett Saffron was burnt and offered and of which the Saffron was a representative, as to him in the incense, as the Hebrew Rablis an old poet, quoted by Spanheim, exprelly in- and writers inform us : Hence the idolaters might

use it amongst the other perfumes, which com

pored their incense to Apollo. And at Cyrene Κροκον 9ος Ηλιωδες ας υφασματα

particularly, the Saffrom was remarkable for its Πεπλων δεις ειδωλον εισομοργνυται.

fragrancy and odcur; as Theophraffus informs See Excerpta à Grotio, p. 846.

us. Ευοσμοτα τα δε τα εν ΚΥΡΗΝΗ Ροδα, &c. The flower of the saffron, which inwove Διαφερονίως δε Η τ8 ΚΡΟΚΟΥ. .

“ The roses at Cya Resembles the bright rays of Sol.

rene are very fragrant, whence the ointment

of roses is most swect: nay, even the odour of the Rutilum folis jubar imitatur.

violets and other flowers there, is excellent and GROTIUS.

divine : but more especially that of the saffron.And as it was thus in its colour an emblem of I have, I fear, already enlarged too much on this the bright solar light in irradiation, hence I pre- matter, but not so much as the subject requires, sume its name, which the excellent Spanheim wherefore to make up for the many particulars hath well observed is doubtless of Hebrew origin, observable of this plant, I must refer the reader coming froin CRCM, which we find in to the learned Spanheim's note on this place, and the Cant. iv. 14. and which is indisputably de- also to the ingenious Mr. Merrick on Tryphiorived of 773 CReC, to roll round, to move round dorus, note 448. We may just observe, by the as in a circle, which the irradiation causes the bye, that the blushes of the rose are given to the orbs to do, and whence comes 299) CROCB, morning, as well as the golden vesl'ure of the crocus. an ortit, circle, compass, as it is rendered Exod.

The Saffron inorn with rosy blushes fpread, &c. xxvii. 5. Moreover as crocus is evidently derived from hence, so I doubt not is circus, circulus, a

And circle, orbit, for Crec, croc1!s, and circus are

Aurora now fair daughter of the dawn very near in found, and letters, and mutually

Sprinkled with rosy light the dewy morn. explain and confirın cach other. Littleton fays,

HOMER. that circus is derived à Chald. :7. CRC, cir: cundure, to compass obout. Tous we have a Ver. 120. And, &c.] Oude TOTE XBoziv nepißose satisfactory account of the name, which explains xe'am ar@gaxx To®. Neque unquam bestern.. m abthe meaning of its colur, and appropriation to sumit carbonem cinis, fays the auch r; from the solar light, and which is, at least, more near wrence we learn, that this perpetual fire was not the matter, than the derivation given by the like some, a lamp orly burning and fed with

oil,

When the glad hours bring round the folemn day,
On which Carnëan rites his people pay,
With joy the God beholds the choir advance,
Brown Lybian dames, and warriors, to the dance.

Not

oil, but a fire fed with coals upon the altar : " Thele opinions, with a few alterations, his expression is remarkable and cannot well be are still maintained by some of the posterity of expreffed in our language, the cinder never feeds the Indians and Persians, who are called Gaberrs or consumes the yesterday's coal; for it is observ. or Gaurs, and are very zealous in p:elerving the able, that the cinders or alhes do as it were feed religion of their ancestors, particularly in regard upon and eat away the fire. Why a perpetual to their veneration for the element of fire. What fire was kept up in the temple of the God of light, they call the everlasling fire near Baku, before we cannot be at a loss to understand; nor shall which these people offer their supplications, is a we wonder at this universal custom amongst all phenomenon of a very extraordinary nature, in nations, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Indians, &c. some measure peculiar to this country, and therewhen we consider its origin, and that more. fore de!erving a particular description. The object over, it was reclaimed to himtelf by the true of devotion to the Geberrs, lies about 10 Englis. light, and ordered to be kept in his temple. miles N. E. by E. from the city of Baku, on dry “ The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar : rocky land. There are several antient temples built it shall never go out." Levit. vi. 13. Eufebius with stone, supposed to have been all dedicated informs us, from Theophrastus, " that the rite to fire, most of them are arched vaults, not of burning perpetual fire to the Gods, had been above 10 to 15 feet high. Among others there in their worship from time immemorial.” A- is a little temple in which the Indians now wormongst the Persians, if at any time the sacred ship: near the altar about three feet high is a fire went out, they shewed such a regard to it, large hollow cane, from the end of which illues that they would not rekindle it but with flame a blue fame, in colour and gentleness not unlighted up by the Sun-beams. This circumstance like a lamp that burns with spirits, but let me in Apollo's worship, which is not often men- ingly more pure. The Indians affirm, that this tioned, will very well explain a piece of history, flame has continued ever since the food, and which at first light feeis a little unaccountable, they believe it will last to the end of the world;' viz. “ that when Dates the Persian burnt and that if it was resisted, or suppressed in that place, destroyed without mercy, so many of the Gre- it would rise in some other. Here are generally cian temples, he spared those in Delos, where forty or fifty of these poor devotees, who come Apollo and Diana were principally worshipped.” on a pilgrimage from their own country, and It is generally agreed, that Apollo is the same with subsist upon wild cellery, and a kind of Jeruthe Persian's Mithras. And the partage before salem artichokes, which are very good food, us proves, that what with the Persians was the with other herbs and roots found a little to the grand point of his worship, the cue aincov, the northward. Their business is to make expiaperpetual fire, was observed by the Greeks as well tion, not for their own firs only, but for those as themselves. The Persiars lenity in this In- of others, and they continue the longer time, stance then is not surprizing, fince he hinililf in proportion to the number of persons for whom not orly worshipped the same God, but in the they have engaged to pray. They mark their Jame manner. For Mithras, Apello, and the foreheads with saffron, and have a great venesolar light were all one and the same. I Mall ration for a red cow; they wear very little subjoin a curious account of the method of pre- cloathing, and those who are of the most diserving the everlasting fire near Baku, from the stinguished piety, put one of their arms upon travels of a modern (11r. Hanway) no less their heads, or some other part of their body, esteemed for his accuracy, than his ingenuity, in a fixed fofition, and keep it unalterably in humanity, and excellence of heart,

that attitude.”'

APOLLO.
Not yet the Dorian colony possest
The plenteous soil, by fruitful Cyrne blest,

125

But

Ver. 125. Not yet, &c.] The author in the From Pelion's mount where winds perpetual foregoing lines has informed us, that the colony,

roar, which now constituted his country, was thrice Bright-hair'd Apollo fair Cyrene bore, transplanted: and here he tells us, that they To those blest realms where Aucks in thouhad not yet arrived at the place, which was

sands stray, watered by the fountain Cyre or Cyrne, that is,

And fullest plenty crowns the smiling plain : where the city Cyrene now Itands, but wandered In golden car he bore the nymph away, in the desart places of Azilis, a part of Lybia, And gave her o'er the world's third part to when Apollo standing on the top of Myrtusa, a

reign. mountain in Lybia, shewed them to his bride Cyrene, the daughter of Hypseus (whence he Antistrophe 1. calls her Hypseis) who was more particularly Bright Venus, goddess of the fair, famous for her conquest over the lion, which Who holds her courts and revels there, laid waste the country of Eurypylus, and which Smiling receiv'd her Delian gueit, she flew on this very mountain Myrtufa. Mr. And breach'd fost love thro' each enamour'd Prior translates the passage thus,

breast. - Nor had yet thy votaries

While mod-sty sveet-blushing sprcad

The hapuy love expecting bed, From Greece transplanted touch'd Cyrene's

Where glad Apollo's glowing arms, banks, And lands determin'd for their last abodes;

Might clasp Llytjæus' blooming daughter's

charms. But wander'd thro' Azilis, horrid forest, Dispers’d; when from Myrtufa's craggy brow

From Ocean's monarch was Hupfæus sprung, Fond of the maid auspicious to the city,

King of the Lapitha, a warlike throng; Which must hereafter bear her favour'd

Peneus the God's, Hypjæus Peneus' lon: name,

Who dalliance fond with fair Creufa held Thou gracious deign'st to let the fair one view

In Pindus' vale, where he the virgin won, Her typic people: thou with pleasure taught'st

And with Cyrene's godlike father fillid, her, &c. 'The reader will casily see Mr. Prior's error, Epode 1. which yet the beauty of his poetry will atone That father, with industrious care, for: his following lines are built wholly on a Each female virtue taught the fair : mistake, and therefore I omit them : and as I But the-a nobler task approving, know not of any better commentary on this Scorn'd the loom's enervate toys: passage, I have subjoined a translation of the Far from female trains removing, gth Pythian ode of Pindar, where is a full ac Talking banquets, lazy joys : count of Cyrene’s exploits and Apollo's amour. With the bow, the quiver arming, Strophe 1.

To the field triumphant few,

Where the favage race alarming,
Glowing bright with shield of brass,
Victorious in the Pythian race,

These her darts unerring flew,

O'er the hills Aurora riling,
Great Teleficrates his praise

E'er equipp'd the maid beheld,
My roul delights to sound in nob'est lays.
Ye Graces aid your poet's song,

Sleeps emollient bliss despising,
And boldly bear the strain along,

Early haft'ning to the field :

No hostile beasts her father's realms annoy'd, Spread, spread the bliss, the glory wide Of brave Cyrene’s garland and her pride,

She purg'd each forest, and each foe destroy'J.

Strophe

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