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“Such was necessarily the progress of arose from the same motives which geography in all the inhabited points of induced the Carthagenians to throw the globe; but is only known to us with every voyager into the sea who approachregard to a small number of people, ed Sardinia, lest the sources of their whose history is preserved to us with commerce and riches should be discovsome degree of certitude. ered.

“Founded in the same manner, all the These quotations are sufficient to shew primitive systems present some traits of the research and philosophical mind of resemblance. The common bases of the our author. He consecrates the first first geographers were taken from the volume entirely to the history of geograj of unenlightened ages. At phy, down to Humboldt. The second first, every people naturally fancied him- volume is devoted to the mathematical self placed in the centre of the inhabited and physical theory of the earth in all world. This idea was so generally its relations. His disquisition on the received, that the Indians bordering on origin and progress of languages is highthe equator, and the Scandinavians prox-ly curious. If all researches as to the imate to the pole, have two words, and primitive language of the world be abanwhat is more remarkable, two similar doned by the truly learned, they have words, Midhiama and Midgard, to sig- at least succeeded in fixing the number | hisy the dwelling of the middle ; and of mother-tongues, or of those radically they were frequently employed to de- different in their syntax and grammatical signate the countries inhabited by these inflexions; but, as to which is anterior two people. The Olympus of the to the rest, it is impossible to determine. Greeks passed, like the Mountain Merou “ It is therefore indifferent where we beof the Indians, for the centre of the whole gin to count the links of a chain which earth; and the habitable world was rep- is buried in the night of ages; and we resented like a vast disk, bounded on shall, in the first place, take the Indo every side by a wonderful and inacces- Germanic languages, which extend from sible ocean. At the extremities of the the banks of the Ganges to the shores of earth were placed imaginary countries, Iceland. The principal branches of this fortunate islands, and nations of giants family pursue the following geographical and pigmies; the immense vault of hea- order:—The Sanscrit reigned anciently ven being supported by enormous moun- throughout all Hindostan; from the tains, or mysterious columns.—The Sanscrit descended the Dewanagara, the shield of Achilles presents us, in an au- purest idiom of India, the Tamulic, and thentic manner, the primitive idea of the several other dialects spoken in the cosmography of these ages: the earth is Deccan. Besides a certain number of figured on it as a disk, surrounded on all roots, which the Sanscrit has in common sides by the river Ocean. It may ap- with the Greek, the Tatin, the Sclavonic pear extraordinary to suppose the oceana and German, it also offers, in its numerriver; yet such was the idea of the an- ous declensions and extensive conjugacients. Hesiod describes its sources in tions, the most striking affinity with the western extremity of the world; and these mother langúages of Europe, parHerodotus tells us that such was the opin- ticularly with the Greek and Latin. Perion of geographers in his time.” sia presents us with three ancient lan

M. Malte-Brun is so strongly persuad- guages—the 3end, which appears to ed that to the commercial spirit of man- have been the sacred language ; the kind are indebted for all geographical Peleoi, or language of ancient Media; knowledge, that he hazards an opinion, and the Parsi, the idiom of Persia, from equally ingenious and probable, that the whence in part is derived the Persian great father of history and geography, and the Kurdic, In all these languages Herodotus, was a merchant: “at least,” we find many German words. The says he, “it affords the most natural so- grammar, infinitely less rich and less lution of his long voyages, and numerous perfect than the Sanscrit, has several connexions with nations by no means points of affinity with the genius of the friends of the Greeks.” His silence re- English and German tongues; the hisspecting commerce, our author sancies sing consonants, unknown to the Sans

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The Jewish . . . . . Mahometanism • Bramins

Schamans (or religion of Delai Lama) .
Buddism, comprising the religion of Fó . .
Fetichism, and various other creeds . . . .

What a glorious prospect for the various Bible Societies 1 Upwards of four hundred millions of souls to be saved, and bibles and prayer-books to be given away!—We highly applaud their zeal, and hope this will augment it. They do well to convert the unsophisticated idolators to the religion of truth, which is every day rapidly losing ground in Europe. The third and fourth volumes contain the descriptions of all countries, excepting Europe, which is reserved for the fifth and concluding volume. The convulsions which have lately agitated this quarter of the world, and the numerous changes which have recently taken place, have delayed the appearance of this last volume, which is now in the press. We cannot better conclude our review of this highly valuable and original work, than by the reflections with which the author terminates the second volume. “In the history of man, the progress of navigation will always hold the first place after agriculture. The civilization created by agriculture is only local, and is suspended at the point where the wants of nations are supplied. There

. . . . . 4 to

eral words in the national language. This custom is also found in Africa, &c.”—ii. 582. In the summary of the various religions in the world, our author offers the following estimate :-

- e. ::::::::: 116,000,000 . . 70,000,000

. . . . . . . 42,000,000

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228,000,000

5,000,000 . . . 100 to 110,000,000 . . . . . . 60,000,000 . 50,000,000 100,000,000 100,000,000 425,000,000 terminates this ignoble repose, so contrary to the destinies of man. A ship unites the most distant parts of the world; cities and whole nations transport themselves to other climates : in the midst of the hordes of peaceable savages the tumult of civilization arises ; an universal impulse is given to mankind, and he is led to the conquest of the globe. “The fate of the great families of the human race has been decided by the direction they took on emigration, the nature of the countries they inhabited, but especially by the position of the grand seas of the globe, and the results they were able to derive from it. The eternal infancy of the Chinese, is it not principally owing to their ignorance of the art of navigation ? On the contrary, if the Japanese and the Malays have shewn a vigorous character, more enterprising and entirely different from the rest of the Asiatics, it was at the period when their squadrons traversed the great Southern Ocean, at this day filled with their colonies. The African nations are, as it were, benumbed in the middle of a great continent, deprived of gulfs or arms of the sea. It is this circumstance

the agricultural nation, ordinarily divided which, by preventing navigation from into indolent masters and miserable transporting industry there, has power

slaves, isolate themselves from the rest of fully contributed to brutalise the African

the world more by their laws and cus- nations. The Europeans alone have

toms than by their great walls. Naviga- been called by Providence to extend tion troubles this Chinese felicity, and their empire over the globe. 40 Mon. MAG, No. 286.

The na

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tions who peopled Europe had to overcome the difficulties presented by the Caucasus, the Euxine, the Baltic, the Archipelago, the Adriatic, and the Mediterranean. Such great obstacles slackened their march at first ; but at the same time they developed and fortified that great character of activity and daring, common to the Europeans. In a little time the children of Canaan, the Phenicians, lost the empire of the seas; Athens balanced Tyre; a Greek city ruled over conquered Egypt; Carthage bowed to Rome, and Europe seized the sceptre of the world. At this period all civilization was collected round the Mediterranean ; it was almost the only sea navigated, and the high road of all polished nations. “A second epoch commenced, and it was again owing to the progress of navigation, which is intimately connected with the advance of civilization. The Scandinavians preluded by their daring voyages, which extended even to America. The compass and Columbus appeared—a new world hails our vessels— a new Europe arises, and grows in these boundless deserts, and the Atlantic Ocean is become the new MediterraIlean. . “But the march of civilization is far from terminated—the wonders of Europe may yet be effaced. Will the Europeans rest on the bounds of this Atlantic Ocean, which, immense as it appeared to the Hercules' of Phenicia and Greece, is nevertheless but an arm of the sea compared with the great ocean of the globe, which, under the names of Indian, Pacific, and Southern, extends from pole to pole. Already the light barks of the Americans fearlessly traverse this aquatic hemisphere; already English colonies have begun to conquer those immense countries. Those innumerable islands, which form, at the south-east of Asia, a fifth part of the world, and the most beautiful of all that magnificent Oceanique, will offer, perhaps, ere a few centuries elapse, the spectacle of the greatest civilization it is permitted to man to hope, or the limits of the terrestrial globe admit. May another Cadmus bear there the torch of the arts and sciences, which has enlightened Europe ; and colonies, escaped from our civil wars, found at Otaheite and Pelew a new Greece. Then

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great seas of the globe and, the progress.

of navigation.” ... • We have insensibly exceeded the limits destined to this interesting article; and can only say of the Atlas, that it is the most perfect that has ever appeared: M. Lapic has spared neither care nor expence to render it unique, and adapted to the present state of knowledge. The introduction contains an account of the authorities on which each map has been drawn. GRAMMAR. Le Nouveau Maitre Anglais, &c. The New English Master; or, a French and English Grammar : edited by Louis Henry Scipio, Count de Roure. 1 vol. 8vo. -i. This edition of the Grammar, which has always borne on the title-page the name of William Cobbett, has been long in the press, and it is from the proof sheets that our article is framed. The Grammar itself has been long celebrated as the best for teaching English, though it was exceedingly imperfect. The Count du Roure at length undertook the editing of it, and enriching it with an abundance of original and highly curious notes. For this task, perhaps, no man was fitter than the Count du Roure, the son of the Marquis du Roure and Lady H. Knight, only daughter of the late Earl of Carlow : he received his education at Oxford, and afterwards went to France to take possession of his paternal estates. The commencement of the revolution found him, at Paris, an enthusiastic lover of liberty in its genuine forms. He took a distinguished part: all the higher offices of the republican

Gold and marble will be drawn from the virgin bowels of the

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Retrospect of French Literature. 651

government were pressed upon him; he accepted that of governor of the Hotel of the Invalids, and he is still remembered with gratitude by the veterans.

Amongst the other regulations he made

for softening the cares of those who had nobly bled in their country's cause, he ordered every man a bottle of wine per day; which they have enjoyed ever since, until within the last few months. It was the custom for the governors to receive a certain poundage on every pipe of wine : the count refused it, saying, “Let the wine be of much better quality.” Detesting the character of a slave, the Count du Roure equally detested that of a tyrant; and, when Napoleon seized on the liberties of the people, the count thought the post of honour a private station, and entirely retired from public life. One of the fruits of his solitude is the work now under notice ; and we may fairly pronounce that the English language is more indebted to him than perhaps any other person. The English language he compares with the so highly vaunted classic tongues of Rome and Greece, and shows, in a striking manner, its superiority over them both. He distinguishes it by the name of Particulaire, or a language in which the particles form its grand distinction from the desinential languages. He enters the lists with Horne Tooke ; and has clearly the advantage over that great philologist.

He shews, at some length, the advantages of the English over the French language ; and he justly censures the great negligence of English authors as to grammar. The French language owes all its merit to great writers—the English owes nearly all its own to its admirable syntax, which allows it to perfect itself insensibly, in appropriating, without any efforts, all the riches suitable to it in the languages of its neighbours, and sometimes in those of antiquity.

The couat frequently enriches his notes, with observations on subjects we should not expect to find in such a work; as, for instance, the following apology for Shakspeare:—

“He has been constantly reproached

that of painting in succession all the great passions which agitate, torment, and develope the human heart? To perfectly succeed, it was not to the unities of time, place, and action, he ought to subject his genius; but to the unity of interest to that of the passion, to the semper sibi consonans of the personage he had chosen to display. I will not ask who has been more faithful to these precious unities than the immortal Shakspeare, the only man, perhaps, who perfectly knew all the windings of the human heart. These precious unities exclude the unities of Aristotle; for, properly to paint a passion, we must unravel its causes, attend its progress, and display its fatal results; and it is thus, if I am not completely mistaken, that he has painted ambition, love, jear lousy, &c. It is the sublime moralist, the most astonishing and true painter of the human heart, that we must admire in Shakspeare, rather than the simple dramatic author.”

Possessing a perfect knowledge of the two tongues, it is greatly to be lamented that the count, instead of bestowing his immense erudition upon a Grammar radically imperfect, had not chosen to compose one entirely original, which would have no rival to contend with ; and, as no person is so highly sensible as himself of the necessity of such a work, and no one is equally capable of writing it, we will hope that the indolence of ease will one day be overcome by the ardent desire to benefit his fellowCreatures.

Histoire Nuturelle de la Parole, &c.

atural History of Speech ; or an Universal Grammar for the Use of Young Persons, by Count de Gibelin; with a Preliminary Discourse and Notes, by Count Lamjuinais, Peer of France, &c. &c.—3 plates, 1 vol. 8vo, It is a delightful object to behold one of the most illustrious of the sons of freedom and lovers of true liberty, not only maintaining the principles of the latter, but boldly defending the principles of justice and humanity.* and stoop

with having despised the sacred laws of Peers had no jurisdiction to try him; and, if

the three unities: but was it not neces

* He refused to vote on the case of Marshal Ney, because, he said, “The Chamber of

it had, he was saved by the capitulation of Paris, which the Chamber refused to hear

sary to attain the object he had in view, allodoreño

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ing to “teach the young idea how to shoot.” that two of the worthiest champions of liberty should have devoted their talents to the same object, the Count Lanjuinais and the Count du Roure; both occupy themselves on grammar, not as original authors, but perfecting what others had begun. The Count Lanjuinais thinks it necessary to trace a sketch of his qualifications for this task, being formerly professor of law, professor of legislation, and pro temp. professor of grammar at Rennes. His views of the importance of grammar is admirable.—“I have long been convinced that the science of general grammar might be blended with good metaphysics and good logic, and even lay the foundation of natural morals.” “When elected a member of the French senate, and following a noble example set me by my illustrious colleagues in the other sciences, to satisfy in part the necessity of public instruction, I gave at Paris public lessons on legislation; and recommended, with success to my pupils, the study of general grammar and the other parts of rational philosophy.” After tracing at some length his philological pursuits, and the literary and moral character of the author he had chosen to comment upon, he traces his ideas of general grammar, and gives a rapid sketch of the works published on general grammar prior to that of his author. “General grammar is the expression of our ideas by discourse. “It is properly a science, and not an art, for it is principally composed of coordinate facts, and the explanation of these facts; it describes in what various modes we may, with the faculties of our mind, and our vocal organs, or the aid of writing, express our ideas with clearness and precision, at least in certain languages. “Every particular grammar being a collection of rules to practise, constitutes an art. \ “Generalgrammar is a generalscience, because it has not for its object any determinate idiom, but treats either of matters common to all languages, or matters common to several.

It is a singular coincidence,

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If there be one, thing we would wish to change, it is, that instead of being an excellent gommentator, he had chosen

to compileon entirely original work. It

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