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said at Arafat, but at Mosdelifa, at the same time as the night prayer, or Ascha, which ought to be said at the last moment of twilight, that is, an hour and a half after sun-set. These prayers are repeated by each group or family privately. We hastened to say them upon our arrival, before we pitched our tents; and the day was terminated by mutual felicitations upon the happiness of our sanctification by the pilgrimage to the mount. I must praise the moderation and good order which reigned amidst this number of individuals belonging to different nations. Two thousand women who were among them did not occasion the least disorder; and though there were more than forty or fifty thousand guns, there was only one let off, which happened near me. At the same instant one of the chiefs ran to the man who had fired, and reprimanded him, saying “Why did you do this? are we going to make war here?” Thi E TEMPLE OF MECCA. The temple of Mecca is known by Mussulmen under the name of El Haram, or the Temple of Excellence. It is composed of the House of God, Beit Allah, or, as it is called also, La Kaaba; of the Well of Zemzem, Bir Zemzem; of the Cobba, or Place of Abraham, Makham Ibrahim; of the places of the four orthodox rites, Makam Hnaneffi, Makam Shafi, Makam Maleki, and Makam Hhanbeli; of two Cobbas, or Chapels, El Cobbatain; of an arch, galled Babes-selem (in the same style as a triumphal arch), near the place of Abraham; of El Mónbar or the Tribune for the Priest, upon Fridays; of the wooden staircase, Daureh, which leads to the saloon of the house of God; of an immense court, surrounded by a triple row of arches; of two smaller courts, surrounded with elegant piazzas; of nineteen doors; and of seven towers, or minarets, five of which adhere to the edifice and the other two are placed between the neighbouring houses, out of the inclosure. La Kaaba, Béit Allah, or the House of God, is a quadrilateral tower, the sides and angles of which are unequal, so that its plan forms a true trapezium. The size of the edifice, and the black cloth which covers it, make this irregularity disappear, and give to it the figure of a
perfect square. I looked upon it as such at first sight, but soon discovered my mistake. . . . " The black stone, Hbajera el Assouăd,
or Heavenly Stone, is raised forty-two
inches above the surface, and is bordered. all round with a large plate of silver,
about a foot broad. The part of the
stone that is not covered by the silver at the angle is almost a semi-circle, six inches in height, by eight inches six lines: diameter at its base. - We believe that this miraculous stone was a transparent hyacinth, brought from heaven to Abraham by the angel Gabriel, as a pledge of his divinity, and, being touched by an impure woman, became black and opaque. This stone is a fragment of volcanie basalts, which is sprinkled throughout its circumference with small pointed coloured crystals, and varied with red feldspath, upon a dark black ground like coal, except one of its protuberances, which is a little reddish. The continual kisses and touchings of the faithful have worn the surface uneven, so that it now has a muscular appearance. It has nearly fifteen muscles, and one deep hollow. Upon comparing the borders of the stone that are covered and secured by the silver with the uncovered part, I found the latter had lost nearly twelve lines of its thickness; from whence we may infer, that, if the stone was smooth and even, in the time of the prophet, it has lost a line during each succeeding agre. *the interior of the Kaaba consists only of a hall, which is raised above the outside plane, the same height as the door. It has been already remarked, that the house of God is entirely covered on the outside with a large black cloth, called Tob el Kaaba, or the shirt of the Kaaba, suspended from the terrace, and fastened below by means of strings, which answer to the bronze rings that are fixed in the base. The Kaaba is the only ancient edifice that exists in the temple of Mecca; all the others have been added at a later period. El Haram, or the Temple, is situated nearly in the middle of the city, which is built in a valley, that has a considerable
Ali Bey's Travels in Morocco, Tripoli, &c.
: The Kaaba, and the stones of Ismael, are situated nearly in the centre of the temple, and occupy the middle of an oval or irregular elliptical surface, which forms a zone of thirty-nine feet wide round the edifice, upon which the pilgrims make their tours round the Kaaba. It is paved with fine marble, and is situated upon the lowest plane of the temple. The walls of the temple are connected on the outside by houses, so that it has not any external front, and there are some of the houses which have windows that overlook the interior of the building. The two sacred hilis, Saffa and Mèroua, may be considered as dependent on the temple, by the obligation imposed upon all the pilgrims to visit them as soon as they have been round the Kaaba. They were situated outside of the town in the time of the Prophet, but are now within the confines, in consequence of the increase of buildings ; there are even whole streets of houses erected upon the mountains themselves. Saffa is at a short distance from the temple. It is situated to the south-east, and obliquely opposite to the door of the same name, at the foot of the mountain Djebel Koubis. It is the spot where the black stone descended from heaven. Formerly the numerous caravans which arrived from all quarters of the globe,
selves to the pilgrim, whom they believe to be rich ; so that he cannot quit without leaving 1,500 or 2,000 francs in alms and remuneration to them and the temple. There are not any of the pilgrims, even the poorest, who undertake the
The brim is of journey at the expence of public charity,
or who beg their way, that are not obliged to leave some crowns. The pilgrims once had several stoppages to make, which produced many benefits to those employed ; but the Wehhabites have abolished all. The mosque and the chapel where the Prophet was born ; El Djebel Nor, where he received the first revelation from heaven; the house of Aboutaleb, where he passed a part of his life; several places where he used to pray; the mountain Djebel Koubis, where the miraculous black stone descended; the chapels of Setna Fathma, daughter of the Prophet ; of Sidi Mahmud, and other saints; no longer exist. The pilgrims are consequently deprived of the spiritual merit which they would have acquired, by making their pious visits to these holy places; and the good inhabitants of the holy city have lost the temporal wealth which resulted from these acts of devotion. MECCA. The city of Mecca, called Mekka in Arabic, is situated in a very narrow valley, the mean breadth of which may be about 155 toises, that winds irregularly between mountains from the north-east to the south-west; so that the city, which follows the windings of the valley, is quite irregular ; and the houses being also built upon the sides of the mountains, render the plan of it still more so. The principal streets are regular enough ; they may even be called handsome, on account of the pretty fronts of the houses. They are sanded, level, and very convenient. I had been so long accustomed to live in the indifferent towns of Africa, that I was quite surprised at the fine appearance of the buildings of Mecca. The houses are solidly built with stone; they are three and four stories high, and even more sometimes. The fronts are ornamented with bases, mouldings, and paintings, which gives them a very graceful appearance. It is very rare to find a door that has not a base with steps, and small seats on both sides. The blinds of the balconies are not very close : and holes are cut besides in different parts of them. I believe there is no Mussulman city where the arts are so little known as at Mecca. There is not a man to be found that is capable of making a lock or forging a key. All the doors are locked with large wooden keys, and the trunks and cases with padlocks broughtfrom Europe: I therefore was unable to replace the key of a trunk, and that of my telescope box, which where stolen at Mina. The slippers and sandals are brought from Constantinople and Egypt; for they know not how to make them at Mecca, exceptindeed those of wood or untanned leather, which are very bad. There is not a single man to be found who knows how to engrave an inscription, or any kind of design upon a hewn stone, as formerly; nor a single gunsmith or cutler able to make a screw, or to replace a piece of the lock of an European gun ; those of the country being only able to manufacture their rude matchlocks, their bent knives, lances, and halberds. Mecca is so poor by nature, that, if the house of God ceased to exist, it would be inevitably deserted in two years, or at least be reduced to a simple douar, or hamlet ; for the inhabitants, in general, subsist for the rest of the year upon what they accumulate during the time of the pilgrimage, at which period the place puts on a lively appearance, commerce is animated, and the half of the people are transformed into hosts, merchants, porters, servants, &c.; and the other, attached entirely to the service of the temple, live upon the alms and gifts of the pilgrims. HOLY LAND OF Isl, A.M. The Beledel Haram, or the Holy Land of Islam, of which Mecca is the capital, is comprehended between the Red Sea and an irregular line, which, commencing at Arabog, about twenty-one leagues to the north of Djedda, forms a bend from the north-east to the south-east, in passing by Yelemlem two days’ journey to the north-east of Mecca ; from thence it continues to Karna, about twenty-one leagues to the east of the same place, and eight leagues to the west of Ta'if,
which is without the Holy Land ; after which, turning to the west-south-west, it passes by Drataerk, and terminates at Mehherma upon the coast, at the port. named Almarsa Ibrahim, nearly thirtytwo leagues to the south-east of Djedda. It appears, therefore, that the Holy Land is fifty-seven leagues in length from the north-west to the south-east, and twenty-eight in breadth from the northeast to the south-west. . . . . This space is comprehended in that part of Arabia known by the name of El Hedjeaz, or the Land of Pilgrimage, the limits of which are not sufficiently known to me to hazard a description of them. Medina and Taif are included in the Hedjeaz, but are without the Beled El Haram. There is no river in the Holy Land. The only water to be found is that of some inconsiderable springs, which are. not numerous, and the brackish water obtained from the deep wells. Thus it is a real desert. It is only at Mecca and Medina that they have wrought cisterns to preserve the rain water, on which account it is very rare. that a garden is to be seen throughout this large territory. The plains are either composed of sand or bad earth, entirely abandoned; and, as the people do not sow any kind of grain in any part of the country, they are fed with flour, &c. which comes from Upper Egypt, from Yemen, from Taif, where a little island is cultivated, and from India. Although the whole of the Beled El Haram is covered with mountains, which I believe to be formed of schistus and porphyry, yet these do not exist in long chains. The highest are those of Medina and Ta'if; which towns are situated upon a bountiful land, with plenty of water, and covered with gardens and planta-. tions. The Holy Land does not contain any other considerable towns than Mecca and Djedda. As for the rest, they are generally little else than miserable villages, composed of barracks and tents, established near a well or a spring, except: some few pointed out upon my geographical map. When pilgrims arrive upon the confines of the Beled El Haram, from whatever country they may come, whether by
Morocco, Tripoli, &c. 631
woman, as also a crown and wings; the prophet, after leaving El Borak at the gate of the temple, came to offer up his prayer upon El Sahhara, with the other prophets and angels, who, having saluted him respectfully, yielded to him the place of honour. At the moment when the prophetstood upon El Sahhara, the rock, sensible of the happiness of bearing the holy burden, depressed itself, and, becoming like soft wax, received the print of his sacred foot upon the upper part towards the south-west border. This print is now covered with a large sort of cage of gilt metal wire, worked in such a manner that the print cannot be seen on account of the darkness within, but it may be touched with the hand, through a hole made on purpose. The believers, after having touched the print, proceed to sanctify themselves by passing the hand over the face and beard. In the interior of the rock is a cave, into which they descend by a staircase on the southeast side. There is a room, forming an irregular square of about eighteen feet surface, and eight feet high in the middle. The roof is a natural irregular vault. In descending the staircase, there is upon the right, at the bottom, a little tablet of marble, bearing the name of, El Makan Souliman, or The Place of Solomon. A similar one upon the left is named El Makam Davoud, or The Place of David. A cavity or niche on the south-west side of the rock is called, El Makam Ibrahim, or the Place of Abraham. A similar circular concave step at the north-west angle is named, El Makan Djibrila, or the Place of Gabriel; and a sort of table of stone at the northeast angle is called, El Makam el Hodér, or the Place of Elias. THE SEPULCHRE of DAVID. After having completed all the cere
monies, and discharged all the alms due
to the temple, on the very day of my arrival at Jerusalem ; I was conducted on the next day (Friday) to the sepulchre of Đavid. Leaving the city by the gate Beb Davoud, or of David, to the south-east, we found, at 150 toises distance, an edifice, which has the appearance of an ancient Greek Church. Upon entering it we turned to the left, and arrived at the se\
pulchre by a gallery upon the ground floor, enclosed by several doors and railings of iron. The monument is a species of bier covered with fine silk stuffs of different colours, richly embroidered ; it occupies all the end wall of the gallery, which is about thirteen feet wide. Having finished my prayers at the Sepulchre of David, I was conducted towards the east, along the outside of the walls of the city, and descending a rapid slope arrived near the only spring which is in the place, called by the Christians the Fountain of Nehemiah. The Mussulmen believe that the water of this spring, by a miracle of divine power, is *ade to come from the well of Zemzem at Mecca. The Mussulmen say prayers in all the holy places consecrated to the memory of Jesus Christ and the Virgin, except the tomb of Jesus Christ, which they do not acknowledge. They believe that Christ did not die, but that he ascended alive into heaven, leaving the likeness of his face to Judas, who was condemned to die for him ; and that, in consequence, Judas having been crucified, his body might have been contained in this sepulochre, but not that of Jesus Christ. It is for this reason that the Mussulmen do not perform any act of devotion at this inonument, and that they ridicule the Christians who go to revere it.
The Mussulmen at Jerusalem revere
the remains, or the tombs of a great number of saints, which form a branch of speculation to many individuals, either by the administration of the funds, or pious foundations annexed to each tomb : or by the collection of the alms, which ought indispensably to accompany each V1Slt. Although the inhabitants of Jerusalem are composed of people of different nations and different religions, who inwardly dispise each other on account of their various opinions; yet as the Christians are the most numerous, there reigns a good deal of social intercourse among them in their affairs and amusements. The followers of Jesus Christ mix indiscriminately with the disciples of Mahomet, and this amalgamation produces a much more extended degree of liberty at Jerusalem, than in any other country subjugated to Islamism.
[At a time when the distresses of the entire population of a country possessing so many capabilities of permanent prosperity, prove that “ something is rotten in the state,” no literary service could have been performed more important than that of developing the corruptions and abuses of the parliamentary representation, as the primary source of afi the misfortunes of the people. Our extracts will prove how interestingly and how honestly Mr. OLDFIELD has performed his task, and will, doubtless, stimulate every literary association, and every public spirited nobleman and gentleman to encourage its universal circulation. Among societies of parliamentary reformers, such a work must necessarily become a sort of political Bible, serv. ing as the just foundation of their cause, and exciting by its details of profligacy, their most zealous exertions. We lament that the space which we are able to devote to this publication has obliged us to limit our anecdotes of corruption to a few of the statements in a single volume of the four which are occupied by similar materials; but we have extracted enough to prove the inestimable value of the work, at this crisis, to every man who loves his country. To render it a complete library on its P. subjects, Mr. Oldfield has devoted one volume to a learned and elaborate history of parliaments; and he has, in an Appendix to the last volume, given tables of patrons, lists of disfranchised boroughs, a list of members of the common-wealth parliament, when the rotten boroughs were disfranchised, a table of the duration of parliaments, a list of speakers, and an abstract of the laws of election.]