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“do we not suffer like the rest ?”

Ali Bey's Travels in Morocco, Tripoli, &c.

unhappy destiny, as every one thought only of saving himself. Several mules with their burdens were left behind, and I found on my way two of my trunks on the ground, without knowing what was become of the mules which had been carrying them, the drivers had forsaken them as well as the care of my effects and of my instruments. I looked upon this loss with the greatest indifference as if they had not belonged to me, and pushed on. But my horse began now to tremble under me, and yet he was the strongest of the whole Garavan. We proceeded in silent despair. When I endeavoured to encourage any of them to increase his pace, he answered me by looking steadily at me, and by putting his forefinger to his mouth to indicate the great thirst by which he was affected. As I was reproaching our conducting officers for their inattention which had occasioned this want of water, they excused themselves from the mutiny of the oudaias; and besides, added they, Our fate was the more shocking, as every one of us was sensible of the impossibility of supporting the fatigue to the place where we were to meet with water again. At last, at about four in the evening, I had my turn, and fell down with thirst and

fatigue.

Bonded without consciousness on the ground, in the middle of the desert, left only with four or five men, one of whom had dropped at the same moment with myself, and all without any means of assisting me, because they knew not where to find water, and if they had known it, had not strength to fetch it. I should have perished with them on the spot, if Providence, by a kind of miracle, had not preserved us.

Half an hour had already elapsed since I had fallen senseless to the ground, (as I have since been told,) when, at some distance, a considerable caravan, of more than two thousand souls, was seen to be advancing. It was under the di. rection of a marebout or saint called Sidi Alarbi, who was sent by the Sultan to Ttemsen or Tremeceu. Seeing us in this distressed situation, he ordered some skins of water to be thrown over us. After I had received several of them over my face and hands, I recovered my

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senses, opened my eyes, and looked around me, without being able to discern

any body. At last, however, I distin

guished seven or eight sherifs and fakihs, who gave me their assistance, and shewed me much kindness. I endeavoured to speak to them, but an invincible knot in my throat seemed to hinder me; I could only make myself understood by signs and by pointing to my mouth with my finger. They continued pouring water over my face, arms, and hands, and at last I was able to swallow small mouthfulls of water. This enabled me to ask, “Who are you?” When they heard me speak, they expressed their joy, and answered me, “Fear nothing; far from being robbers, we are your friends,” and every one mentioned his name. I began by degrees to recollect their faces, but was not able to remember their names. They poured again over me a still greater quantity of water, gave me some to drink, filled some of my leather bags, and left me in haste, as every minute spent in this place was precious to them, and could not be repaired. This attack of thirst is perceived all of a sudden by an extreme aridity of the skin; the eyes appear to be bloody, the tongue and mouth both inside and outside are covered with a crust of the thickness of a crown piece; this crust is of a dark yellow colour, of an insipid taste, and of a consistence like the soft wax from a beehive. A faintness or languor takes away the power to move; a kind of knot in the throat and diaphragm, attended with great pain, interrupts respiration. Some wandering tears escape from the eyes, and at last the sufferer drops down to the earth, and in a few moments loses all consciousness. These are the symptoms which I remarked in my unfortunate fellow travellers, and which I experienced myself. I got with difficulty on my horse again, and we proceeded on our journey. My . Beduins and my faithful Salem were gone in different directions to find out some water, and two hours afterwards they returned one after another, carrying along with them some good or bad water, as they had been able to find it; every one presented to me part of what he had brought; I was obliged to taste it, and I

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spit or to speak.

The greatest part of the soil of the desert consists of pure clay, except some small traces of a calcareous nature. The whole surface is covered with a bed of chalky calcareous stone of a whitish coiour, smooth, round, and loose, and of the size of the fist ; they are almost all of the same dimension, and their surface is carious like pieces of old mortar; I look upon this to be a true volcanic production. This bed is extended with such perfect regularity, that the whole desert is covered with it, a circumstance which makes pacing over it very fatigu

ing for the traveller. There is no animal of any kind to be seen in this desert, neither quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, nor insects, nor any plant whatsoever, and the traveller who is obliged to pass through it, is surrounded by the silence of death. It was not till four in the evening that we began to distinguish some small plants, burnt with the sun, and a tree of a thorny nature without blossom or fruit. I had gathered in the desert two pebbles, a piece of clay, and two pieces of ore, but they

were all lost. THE DESERTS. Ali what we know of the deserts of sand which surround the chain of the Atlas to the east and south sides, proves that they are not like those of Tartary, composed of the humus depauperatus of Linneus; that is to say, of an earth which, in consequence of perpetual tillage and production, is become exhausted and deprived of those organic particles which are necessary to vegetation.

One may easily judge of the deserts which lie to the south of the Atlas, by those which I have seen to its north and west; I observed in these latter nothing but large beds of glutinous clay, which I consider as a volcanic sub-marine production ; plains of moving sand, entirely composed of a flinty dust of quartz and feldspath mixed with finely pulverized

shells ; and banks of a recent chalky

marl, evidently formed by the glutination

of the sand, or pulverized animal sub

Stances.
I have in fact not found in these des-

erts any complete remains of sea-animals; but my situation prevented me from making assiduous researches, and it is possible that such remains, if they exist, are only to be found at a great distance to the south or west of the Atlas, as the fury of the waves pulverizes every thing that in these parts is raised to the surface of the sea. The shock of the waves is so great, that even at times of the most perfect calm, and without any preceding storm, and when the surface of the sea is entirely quiet at a distance, the shore is nevertheless so forcibly beaten by the surge, that mountains of foam from 50 to 60. feet high, arise not only upon the rocks, but also on the sandy flats. MECCA. At midnight, between Thursday and Friday, the 23d of January, 1807, or the 14th of the month Doukaada, in the year 1221 of the Hegira, I arrived, through the favour of divine mercy, at the first houses of the holy city of Mecca, fifteen months after my departure from Morocco. - There were at the entrance of the town several Mogrebins, or Arabs of the West, who were waiting my arrival, with little pitchers of the water from the well of Zemzem, which they presented me to drink, begging me not to take it of any other person, and offering to supply my house. They told me, secretly, never to drink the water which the chief of the wells should offer to me. . . Several other persons, who were also waiting, disputed between themselves which should have me for a lodger; for the lodgings are one of the principal speculations of the inhabitants. But the persons who were charged with providing every thing for me during my stay at Djedda, soon put an end to these disputes, by taking me to a house that had been prepared for me. It was situated near the temple, and the house inhabited by the Sultan Scherif. Pilgrims ought to enter on foot int Mecca ; but, in consequence of my illness, I remained upon my camel until I arrived at my lodging. The moment I entered I performed a general ablution; after which I was conducted in procession towards the temple, with all my people, by a person ap

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. cloth.

Ali Bey's Travels in Morocco, Tripoli, &c. 625

pointed for that purpose, who, as he walked along, recited different prayers in a loud voice, which we repeated altogether, word for word, in the same tone. I was supported by two persons, on account of my extreme weakness.

. In this manner we arrived at the temple, making a tour by the principal street to enter at the Beb-es-selem, or Gate of Health, which they look upon as a happy auspice. After having taken off our sandals we entered in at this blessed gate, which is placed near the northern angle of the temple. We had already traversed the portal or gallery, and were upon the point of entering the great space where the House of God, or El Kaaba, is situated, when our guide arrested our steps, and, pointing with his finger towards it, said with emphasis, “Schouf.schouf,el beit Allah el Haram.”

. “Look, look, the house of God, the pro

hibited.” The crowd that surrounded me, the portico of columns half hid from view, the immense size of the temple, the Kaaba, or house of God, covered with the black cloth from top to bottom, and surrounded with a circle of lamps or lanterns, the hour, the silence of the night, and this man speaking in a solemn tone, as if he had been inspired, all served to form an imposing picture, which will never be effaced from my memory. We entered into the court by a path a foot high, bordering diagonally upon the .northern angle of the Kaaba, which is nearly in the centre of the temple. Before we arrived at it, we passed under a sort of isolated triumphal arch, called Beb-es-selem, like the gate by which we had entered. Being arrived at the house of God, we repeated a little prayer, kissed the sacred black stone brought by the angel Gabriel, named IIajera el Assouad, or the heavenly stone ; and, having the guide at our head, we performed the first tour round the Kaaba, reciting prayers at the same time. The Kaaba is a quadrilateral tower, entirely covered with an immense black cloth, except the base. The black stone is discovered through an opening in the It is encrusted on the eastern

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north-west side rises a parapet about a leaning height, forming nearly a semicircle, separated from the building, called El Hajar Ismail, or the Stones of Is

mael.

The following is a detail of the ultericr ceremonies which are observed in this religious act, such as I performed them myself at this period. The pilgrims go seven times round the Kaaba, beginning at the black stone, or the eastern angle, and passing the principal front, in which is the door; from whence turning to the west and south, outside of the stones of Ismael. Being arrived at the southern angle, they stretch out the right arm; when having touched the angular marble with the hand, taking great care that the lower part of their garment does not touch the uncovered base, they pass it over the face and beard, saying, “In the name of God, the greatest God, praises be to God;” and they continue to walk towards the north-east, saying, “Oh great God! be with me! Give me the good things of this world. and those of the next.” to the eastern angle, they raise their hands as at the beginning of the canonical prayer, and cry, “In the name of God, the greatest God.” They afterwards say, with their hands down, “Praises be to God ;” and kiss the black stone. Thus terminates the first tour. The second is like the first, except that the prayers are different from the angle of the black stone to that of the south;

but they are the same from the latter to:

the former, and are repeated with the same forms during the seven rounds. The traditional law orders that the last rounds should be made in a quick step, but, in consequence of my weak state, we went very slowly. At the end of the seventh, and after having kissed the black stone, they recite in common a short prayer, standing near the door of the Kaaba, from whence they go to a sort $. called Makam Ibrahim, or the place of Abraham, situated between Kaaba and the arch Bebes-selem, when they recite a common prayer. They then go to the well Zems zem, and draw buckets of water, of which they drink as much as they can swallow. After this they leave the tem

Mox. MAG, No. 286.

Being returned

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ple by El Beb Saffa, or the gate of Saffa, from whence they go up a small street facing, which forms what is called Djebel Saffa, or the hill of Safia. At the end of this street, which is terminated by a portico, composed of three rches upon columns, ascended by steps, is the sacred place called Saffa. When the pilgrims have arrived there, they turn their faces towards the gate of the temple, and recite a short prayer standing. The procession then directs its course through the principal street, and passes a part of Djebel Meroua, or the hill of Meroua, the pilgrims reciting some prayers at the end of the street, which is terminated by a great wall. They then ascend some steps; and, turning their faces towards the temple, the view of which is interrupted by the intervening houses, recite a short prayer standing, and continue to go from the one hill to the other seven times, repeating prayers in a loud voice as they proceed, and short ones at the two sacred places, which constitute the seven journeys between the two hills. These being completed, there are a number of barbers in waiting to shave the pilgrims' heads, which they do very quickly, at the same time saying prayers in a loud tone, which the former repeat after them word for word. This operation terminates the first ceremonies of the pilgrimage to Mecca. The next day, Saturday the 24th of January, 1807, the 15th of the month Doulkaada, in the year 1221 of the Hegira, they opened the door of the Kaaba, which is shut the whole year, except three days; on the first of which all the men who are at Mecca may go in and say their prayers. On the second and following day it is dedicated to the women, who go to pray; and the third, five days afterwards, is appropriated to washing and purifying it. It is on this account that the pilgrims, who generally stay only eight days at the period of the

pilgrimage to Aarafat, return without

having visited the inside of the Kaaba. Having entered the only hall in the Kaaba, I was immediately conducted to the southern corner, where, placing my body and face as close as possible to the

wall, I repeated a prayer in a loud voice,

and afterwards the ordinary prayer. I went successively to the west and north

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turned home. MOUNT ARAFAT. On Tuesday, the 17th of February, 1807, 9th Doulhagea, in the year 1221 of the Hegira, at six o'clock in the morning, we all set out towards the S.E. # E. At a short distance we passed a house of the Scherif: and at seven we arrived at. Mosdelisa, a small chapel with a high minaret, situated in a small valley; after leaving which, we defiled through a very narrow passage between the mountains, and traversed a second valley to the north-east, which lay at the foot of Mount Arafat, where we arrived at nine. Mount Arafat is the principal object of the pilgrimage of the Mussulmen; and several doctors assert, that, if the house of God ceased to exist, the pilgrimage to the former would be completely meritorious, and would produce the same degree of satisfaction. This is my opinion likewise. It is here that the grand spectacle of

the pilgrimage of the Mussulmen must

be seen—an innumerable crowd of men from all nations, and of all colours, coming from the extremities of the earth, through a thousand dangers, and encountering fatigues of every description, to adore together the same God, the God of nature. The native of Circassia presents his hand, in a friendly manner, to the Ethiopian, or the negro of Guinea; the Indian and the Persian embrace the inhabitant of Barbary and Morocco; all looking upon each other as brothers, or individuals of the same family, united by the bands of religion; and the greater part speaking, or understanding, more or less, the same language, the language of

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Ali Bey's Travels in Morocco, Tripoli, &c. 627

Arabia. No; there is not any religion that presents to the senses a spectacle more simple, affecting, and majestic | Philosophers of the earth! permit me, Ali Bey, to defend my religion, as you defend spiritual things from those which are material, the plenum against a vacuum, and the necessary existence of the Creation. Here, as I remarked in the narrative of my voyage to Morocco, is no intermediary between man and the Divinity; all individuals are equal before their Creator ; all are intimately persuaded that their works alone reconcile them to, or separate them from the Supreme Being, without any foreign hand being able to change the order of immutable justice? What a curb to sin ' What an encouragement to virtue! But what a misfortune that, with so many advantages, we should not be better than the Calvinists' Arafat is a small mountain of granite rock, the same as those that surround it; it is about 150 feet high, and is situated at the foot of a higher mountain to the E. S. E., in a plain about three quarters of a league in diameter, surrounded by barren mountains. It is inclosed by a wall, and is ascended by staircases, partly cut in the rock, and partly composed of masonry. There is a chapel upon its summit, which the Wehhabites were then in the act of pulling to pieces in the interior. It was inpossible for me to visit it, because the individuals who follow the same rite as my

self, that is to say, the Maleki, are for

bidden. to ascend the top, according to the instructions of the Imam, the founder of the rite. It was, therefore, that we stopped when we were half way up, to recite our prayer. At the foot of the mountain there is a platform erected for this purpose, called Djamaa Arrahma, or Mosque of Mercy, upon which, according to tradition, the prophet used to say his prayer. Near the mountain are fourteen large

basons, which the Sultan Saaoud has put

in repair. They furnish a great abundance of excellent water, very good to drink, and which serves also for the pilgrims to wash themselves with upon this solemn day. The Scherif has a house close to the south-west side of the moun

tain. Towards the north-west there is a second platform for offering up prayers, which is situated about a quarter of a league from the first, and is called Djamåa Ibrahim, or the Mosque of Abraham.

It was upon Mount Arafat that the common father of all mankind met Eve

after a long separation; and it is on that.

account that it is called Arafat, that is to say, gratitude. It is believed that it was

Adam himself who built this chapel.

The ritual commands, that, after having repeated the afternoon prayer, which we did in our tents, we should repair to the foot of the mountain, and wait there the setting of the sun. The Wehhabites who were encamped at great distances, with a view to obey this precept, began to approach, having at their head the Sultan Saaoud, and Abounocta their second chief; and in short time I saw an army of forty-five thousand men pass before me, almost all of whom were mounted upon camels and dromedaries, with a thousand camels carrying water, tents, fire-wood, and dry grass for the camels of the chiefs. A body of two hundred men on horseback carried colours of different kinds, fixed upon lances. This cavalry, I was informed, belonged to Abounocta. There were also eight or ten colours among the camels, but without any other customary appendage. All this body of men, entirely naked, marched in the same order that I have formerly remarked.

We waited upon the mountain for the period of the sun's setting. The instant it occurred, what a tremendous noise ! Let us imagine an assemblage of eighty thousand men, two thousand women, and a thousand little children, sixty or sevenry thousand calmels, asses, and horses, which at the commencement of night began to move in a quick pace along a narrow valley, according to the ritual, marching one after the other in a cloud of sand, and delayed by a forest of lances, guns, swords, &c.; in short, forcing their pas

sage as they could. Pressed and hurried

on by those behind, we only took an hour and a half to return to Mosdelifa, notwithstanding it had taken us more than two hours to arrive in the morning. The motive of this precipitation ordered by the ritual, is, that the prayer of the setting sun, or Mogareb, ought not to be

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