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witnessed these gallant struggles, still dwell upon the theme with pride and delight. The army of Napoleon amounted to no more than 85,000 at the utmost, computing all the regular troops, excepting those of Marshal Soult; and with these the French Emperor was so near obtaining a final success over the multitude of his opponents, that, before the allies moved for the last time upon Paris, the order was given, and was in force for twenty-four hours, for a retreat to the Rhine. Of this fact assurance was given me, from indubitable authority at Paris, a few days after the capitulation, and my informant added, that the second in command in the Austrian army told him, when the advance was resolved upon, that he expected to be marched prisoner into the French capital. The head-quarters of the Emperor of Austria were by chance separated from those of * the grand army, so that the inclination - of the Prince Schwartzenberg to retreat could not be backed by a precise order | from his master; and when that general insisted upon waiting for instructions from his court, the Emperor Alexander, affirming the distance would cause too great a delay, took the responsibility of the advance upon himself, and the movement was commenced in precise opposition to the wishes of the commander in chief and the whole Austrian army. The allies found themselves at Paris they knew not how. THE RETURN FROM ELP. A. The Emperor Alexander was amusing himself at Vienna at a dressing match with Madame , in which the auo tocratofall the Russias, although he employed only a minute and fifty seconds at this toilet, was beaten by his fair rival by twenty-five seconds; the King of | France was grubbing for the bones of | the Dauphin; and the Duchess of Angoulême, having made her uncle promise

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Napoleon's Return from Elba. 583

Jermanouski, commandant of the Polish lancers of the guard who accompanied the Emperor to Elba; and, as they tally with the accounts circulated here, both in print and conversation, as well as with the famous bulletin of the niteur, I shall venture to give you a short detail of his information. The colonel commanded at Porto Longone, and had, besides his lancers, about three hundred soldiers in his garrison. Six days before the embarkation the Fmperor had sent for him, and, enquiring what number of vessels were in his harbour, desired him to hire and provision them on his return, and to prevent all boats from leaving the port. He followed his instructions, and was speedily visited by an Englishman who was detained by this measure, and who represented to him, in the most violent terms, that his detention was unjust, and might cause a war between Elba and Great Britain. The colonel smiled, represented the inequality of the powers, but still obeyed his instructions. The day before the embarkation he received orders to disburse three or four thousand francs, for making a road, and had almost forgotten the embargo, when, on the 26th of February, whilst he was working in his little garden, an aide-de-camp from the Emperor directed him to embark all his men by six o'clock in the evening, and repair to the flotilla off Porto Ferrajo, at a given time the same night. It was so late, that he could not put his soldiers on board before half past seven, at which time he got into a boat, and rowing to the station, arrived at the imperial brig the Inconstant, which was under sail. On mounting the deck, the Emperor accosted him with “comment ce va-t-il 2 of est votre monde?” and, on receiving the answer, said no more. The colonel learned that the little garrison of Porto Ferrajo had not received orders to embark until one o'clock the same day, that they had got on board at four, and that the Emperor, with Bertrand, Drouet, his staff, arrived at eight when a single gun gave the signal, and they set sail. The flotilla consisted of the Inconstant of twenty-six guns, L'Etoile, and La Caroline, bombardes, and four feluccas. The soldiers on board the Inconstant were four hundred of the old guard. The colonel knew not, and no one appeared



to know, whither they were going, but the guard, when drawn out on the beach, had shouted “Paris, ou la mort,” as if by a presentiment of their destination. The wind blew from the south, and at first rather strong, but subsided into a calm, so that by daylight they had made no more than six leagues, and were between Elba and Caprai, in sight of the English and French cruisers. The night, however, had not been totally lost, for during the darkness the soldiers and “rew had been let over the sides of the brig, and had entirely changed her painting from yellow and grey to black and white, in order to escape the observation of those who were acquainted with the vessel. It was proposed to return to Porto Ferrajo, but Napoleon ordered the flotilla to continue its route, determining, in case of necessity, to attack the IFrench cruisers, two frigates and a brig, which however it was thought would join rather than oppose them. At twelve the same day the wind freshened, and the flotilla, at four o'clock, was off the headland of Leghorn. Three men of war were in sight, and one of them, a brig, bearing down on the Inconstant, the ports were taken up, and some preparations made ior action. The guard, however, were ordered to take off their caps and lie down on the deck, Napoleon intending to board the vessel only as a last resource, and in case the inconstant should not be permitted to pass without a visit. But the Zephyr, so she was called, only passed alongside the brig, and her captain, Andrieux, being hailed by Lieutenant Taillade, who was known to him, only asked whither the Inconstant was bound? —Taillode answered “to Genoa,” and wished to know if he could execute any commission for the captain of the Zephyr —Andrieux said no, and at parting cried out “how's the Emperor * Napoleon himself exclaimed—“wonderfully well.” and the ships dropped away from each other. The wind increased during the night of the 27th, and at day-light of the 28th the coasts of Provence were in sight. A seventy-four gun ship was seen steering apparently for Sardinia. The colonel said, that before this time it was generally thought on board that the flotilla was going to Naples. Many questions

were put to the officers by the men, and by the officers even to the Emperor, who smiled, and said nothing: at last, however, he exclaimed—“eh bien c'est la France.” Immediately every body was in activity, and crowded round the Emperor, to hear his intention. The first step he took was to order two or three of the commissaries of his little army to prepare their pens and paper, which they accordingly got in order, and, resting on the companion, took down, from the Emperor's mouth, the proclamations to the army and to the French. When these compositions were written, they were read aloud; Napoleon disliked some portions of them, and made alterations; they were again read, and again altered; until after at least ten revisions, he said “that will do, now copy them.” At the word, all the soldiers and sailors who could write laid themselves down on the deck, with their paper and implements, and completed a sufficient number for immediate dispersion on landing. The next object was the preparation of the tricoloured cockades, which was easily managed, by ripping off one of the circles of the Elbese cockade, which had, at their first arrival on the island, been even more like the French national colours, but had been changed by the Emperor, who thought it might be the cause of suspicion. During these occupations and for the latter part of the voyage, the officers, soldiers, and sailors surrounded Napoleon, who took very little sleep, and was generally on deck. Lying down, sitting, standing, and strolling about him, familiarly, they asked him unceasing questions, to which he as unreservedly and without one sign of anger or impatience replied, although some were not a little indiscreet, for they required his opinions on many living characters, kings, marshals, and ministers, and discussed notorious passages of his own campaigns, and even of his domestic policy. After satisfying or eluding their curiosity, he would himself enter into details of his own conduct, of that of his rivals, or of his friends; and then from the examination of contemporary merit, touched upon such historical topics as related more particularly to the military events of modern up to ancient times. All this he did with an easy persuasive eloquence


The Landing at Cannes. . 585

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came to an anchor in the gulf of Juan,

and they were delivered with a more set phrase, as a sort of final address, to the companions of his great enterprise. THE LANDING AT can NEs. Antibes had been in sight since midday, on the 28th, and on the 1st of March, at three o'clock in the afternoon, the flotilla anchored in the bay. A captain and five and twenty men were dispatched to make themselves masters of any battery which might command the landing-place, and the officer finding none, marched without orders to Antibes, which he entered, but was made prisoner by the officer commanding the garrison. The troops were disembarked

by five in the evening, on the beach at

Cannes; the Emperor was the last to leave the brig. Napoleon took some refreshment and repose in a bivouac, which was prepared for him in a meadow surrounded by olive trees, near the shore, where there is now a small column raised to commemorate the event, and where they shew the table on which he was served. The Emperor, previously calling Jermanouski, asked him if he knew what cavalry horses had been embarked at Elba : the colonel told him, he knew nothing of the matter, and that he himself had not brought one. “Well,” replied Napoleon, “I have brought four horses ; let us divide them. I fear I must have one : as you command my cavalry, you must have another. Bertrand, Drouot, and Cambrone, must settle

about the other two as well as they can.” The horses had been landed some way farther down, so that, the bivouac being broken up, Napoleon and his staff proceeded to the spot on foot. The Emperor walked alone, interrogating some peasants whom he met. Jermanouski and the generals followed, carrying their own saddles. When they found the horses, Bertrand, the grand marshal, refused to take one; he said he would walk, Drouot followed his example, Cambrone and Molat were the other two mounted officers. The Emperor then gave Colonel Jermanouski a handful of Napoleons, and ordered him to procure some horses for immediate use. The colonel bought fifteen, giving any thing the peasants asked. These were harnessed to three pieces of cannon which were brought from Elba, and to a coach, given to her brother by the Princess Pauline. News came of the failure at Antibes. “We have made a bad beginning,” said the Emperor; “but we have nothing to do but to march as fast as we can, and get to the passes before the news of our arrival.” The moon rose, and Napoleon, with his invading army, moved forwards at eleven o'clock. They marched all night: the peasants of the villages through which they passed said nothing—they stared, shrugged up their shoulders, and shook their heads, when they were told the Emperor was returned. At Grasse, a town of six thousand inhabitants, where there was a report that pirates had landed, every thing was in a state of alarm. Shops and windows were shut, and the crowds in the street, notwithstanding the national cockade, and the shouts of Vive l'Empereur, suffered the troops to march without a word, or sign, either of disapprobation or approval. They halted for an hour on a hill above the town, and the soldiers began to look at each other with an air of doubt and dissatisfaction ; when, on a sudden, a body of the townspeople were seen coming towards them with provisions, and crying, Vive l'Empereur ! From this moment the people of the country seemed satisfied that the Emperor had landed, and his march was rather a triumph than an invasion. The cannons and the carriage were left at |Moon, MAG, No. 286.

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Grasse; and, as the roads were steep and bad in the course of this first march, which was twenty leagues, (for they reached the village of Cérénon in the evening of the 2d,) the Emperor frequently walked on foot with his grenadiers, whom, when they complained of their hardships, he called his grumblers, and who laughed at him when he stumbled and fell. The familiar appellations by which he was known to his soldiers at this time were, Not a petit tondu, and Jean de l'epée ; and he frequently heard these names repeated in a half - whisper, as he was scrambling up the ascents amidst his veterans. He slept at Barème on the third, and dined at Digne on the fourth : it was either here, or at Castellan, as the colonel said, that Napoleon endeavoured to persuade the landlord of the inn at which he stopped, to cry Vive l'Empereur ! and when the man positively refused, and exclaimed, on the contrary, Vive le Roi / so far from being angry, praised his loyalty, and only asked him to drink his health, to which mine host acceded. At Digne, the proclamations to the army and to the French people were printed, and circulated with such rapidity throughout Dauphiny, that, on his route, Napoleon found the towns and villages ready to receive him. As yet, however, only one soldier had joined him, a grenadier, whom Colonel Jermanouski met on the road; and, informing him of the attempt in which he was engaged, endeavoured to persuade into the service. The soldier being told that the Emperor was advancing, laughed heartily, and said, “Good I shall have something to tell at home to-night.” Iłe was with some difficulty convinced that the colonel was not in jest; but, when he believed him, consented readily to enlist. “Where shall you sleep to-night?” said he to the officer; and, on being told, rejoined, “My mother lives three leagues hence; I must take leave of her ; but will be with you to-night.” Jermanouski was accosted some time after arriving in his quarters that evening, by his recruit, who tapped him on the shoulder, and would not be satisfied until promised that the Emperor should be instantly informed that Melon, the grenadier, had kept his word, and had joined fortunas

with his ancient master. Napoleon slept at Gap on the fifth, attended only by ten cavalry soldiers and forty grenadiers. The fortresses and bridge of Sisteron were the same day occupied by General Cambrome, at the head of forty grena

diers. But Melon was the only recruit;

so that the inhabitants of the towns and villages, particularly at St. Bonnet, wished to sound the tocsin, and rise in mass to accompany the little army; and, notwithstanding they were refused, almost blocked up the roads, and impeded the march by pressing round the Emperor, who sometimes walked on foot. On the 6th, Napoleon slept at Gap, and General Cambrone, with his forty, at Mure, towards which place the advanced guard of the garrison of Grenoble, of six thousand men, had marched to stop their further progress, and refused to parley with the general. Colonel Jermamouski, being on , the advance, saw a body of troops with a white flag drawn up in a defile near Vizille. He attempted to parley, but an officer, advancing towards him, cried out, “Retire, I can have no communication with you; kee

your distance; my men will fire.” The colonel tried to pacify him, telling him, it was with the Emperor Napoleon that he would have to speak, not with himself. But the officer still threatened, and gave the same answer to Raoul, an aide-de-camp of the staff, so that the colonel returned to the Emperor, and reported his failure. Napoleon said to Jermanouski, smiling, “If that is the case, I must try what I can do myself.” He dismounted ; and ordering about fifty of his grenadiers to advance, with arms reversed, walked quietly towards

the defile, where he found a battalion of

the fifth of the line, a company of sappers, and another of miners, amounting in all to seven or eight hundred men, drawn up to oppose him. The officer commanding continued to vociferate, sometimes against the Emperor, calling out, it is an impostor, it is not he ; and sometimes against his troops, ordering them to fire. The troops were silent and motionless; for an instant, it appeared, they were about to raise their muskets, when Napoleon, halting his grenadiers, walked calmly up to the battalion, and, when close to the line, stopped short in the

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themselves round the imperial eagles

amidst the acclamations of the Elbese army, and that of the population of Wizille. Advancing towards Grenoble, the Colonel Jermanouski was met by an officer on full gallop, who said, “I salute you on the part of the Colonel Henry Labedoyère.” The colonel soon arrived at the head of the 4th regiment of hussars, carrying an eagle, which had been hidden in the military chest. He arrived at Fontainbleau at four on the morning of the 20th of March ; there he reviewed a regiment of lancers in that court-yard, in which, eleven months ago, he had bid adieu to his army and to France: at seven he learnt that Louis had fled from Paris ; and, at twelve, his army having arrived from Auxerre, he departed for the capital. Besides the troops of Elba, Grenoble, Lyons, and Lons le Saulnier, the emperor's force had been augmented by a large body of officers of every rank; who since his entry into Grenoble, had from all quarters joined the old guard, and formed themselves into what they called a sacred battalion : a great number of soldiers on half-pay, or on leave, or dismissed, flocked also to the imperial standard. The peasants could with difficulty be prevented from marching with the army to Paris. The emperor was met near Essonne by Count , formerly his aide-de-camp, who brought a superb carriage and six horses for him, as did many others of his partisans, to favour his entry into the capital. This was at six in the evening ; Napoleon, however, remained in his travelling car

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riage, drawn by post-horses, and unaccompanied, o: by a crowd of generals and other officers, which prevented even his chariot from being seen. He entered Paris by the Boulevards neufs. The royal army, that had marched to oppose him in the morning, joined him near the gates of Paris; but the brilliant imposing scene described in the journals as occurring at Melun, did not take place. The five thousand young nobles of the royal body guard, who had taken leave of their friends in the morning, to fly to their posts and cover their king and their capital, were seen in the saloons in the evening, and told how, finding themselves in their respective positions without any men to command, they had thought it advisable to be themselves the heralds of their retreat, and of their submission to the new order of things. Napoleon came through the gate of the Tuileries opposite the Pont Royal, and alighted at the palace at eleven o'clock —a crowd of officers rushed upon him— in an instant he was carried off his legs —his hat fell off, and he was borne upon the shoulders of the eager multiude up the great staircase into his apartments, where he was welcomed by some ladies of his former court; one of whom, the most beautiful of the party, in a transport of delight, threw her arms round his neck, and burst into tears. -

Before I close this letter, I cannot help mentioning,that Napoleon, notwithstanding the fatigues of his late journey, to which some repose might have been granted, did not retire to rest until midnight, and was transacting business by four o'clock the next morning. At one in the afternoon of the 21st he reviewed the army of Paris, and the guard of Elba.


The reader may add to the above remarks on the comparison between the landing at Torbay and at Cannes, that if some circumstances are more favourable to William than to Napoleon, there are others which tend td"the preference of the latter exploit. The expedition of the Prince of Orange was not entirely English: that of the Fumperor was exclusively French, both in its design and execution. The parallel between Ney and Churchill is altogether to the advan

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