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1816.] Chemical Report.—Commercial Report. 557

symptoms have come on, they prove hurtful; and this is also the case if they are exhibited
before the expulsion of the poison, for the following reasons:---1. they do not favour vomit-
ing: 2. they dissolve the active parts; and facilitate their absorption.
* 5. If these means have allayed the nervous symptoms, the inflammatory, which almost
always follow, must be ...ho...?by changing the aridulous fluids, for demulcent infusions
and decoctions; and leeches may be applied upon the abdomen.”
- As the Upas-tieuté, Nur Womica, St. Ignatius' bean, Angustura pseudo-ferruginea, Ticunas,
PWoorara, Upas-autiar, Camphor, and Menispermum coccullus, produce symptoms of asphyxia;

in the treatment of cases of poisoning by them it is necessary, besides employing emetics and

other means for expelling the poison, to practise tracheotomy, and the artificial inflation of the
lungs with air. In the case of wounds by weapons, poisoned with . of these substances, the
application of a ligature, and the deep cauterization of the wounds are the means recom-
mended. We are of opinion, however, that more benefit would result from the complete ex-
eision of the weapon, and then the immediate application of cupping glasses with an exhaust-
ing syringe over the part.
iih regard to the treatment of cases of poisoning by the fungi (champignons), M. Orfila
details the results of a series of experiments, made with the view of ascertaining the value of
the different substances which have been considered antidotes, in such cases. Vinegar is use-
ful when the poisonous fungus has been expelled by vomiting; but the reverse is the case if it

still remain in the stomach, as this acid dissolves the poisomous principle, and thereby facili:

tates its absorption. Common salt (muriate of soda) acts in the same manner as vinegar; and therefore requires to be employed under the same limitations. Sulphuric ether, as it also takes up the poisonous part of the fungi, should not be employed previous to the evacuation of the stomach; but afterwards, it is of the greatest utility. Emetics and emeto cathartics are the most useful remedies in the cases under consideration. Volatile alkali is more hurtful than salutary; and oil, theriac, butter, and milk, are useless in this kind of poisoning.

Mr. Stephen LEE, in a memoir on the dispersive power of the atmosphere, presented to the Royal Society, and its effect on astronomical observations, has observed, that tars of different colours must be differently refracted, and that the apparent altitude of the sun must vary, according to the colour of the dark glass through which it is viewed. It is evident to the naked eye that the fixed stars do * from each other in colour: and this is still more apparent by means of optical instruments. The planets also differ from each other in the same respect. Mr. Lee conceives, from the result of a #. number of experiments, that the disagreement between the latitude of a place deduced from observations of circumpolar stars, and from observations of the sun, may be traced to the use of dark glasses.

Barley, it is proved, will rise, though sown ten inches deep, but will not rise if placed twelve inches deep. As this depends on the access of air to the grain, it proves how far under the surface of the earth the air is capable of penetrating.

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To: commercial distress described in our last continues with unabated rigour. All enter-
prize is destroyed with the men who were its soul, and who, one after another, to the
number of 20,000 have appeared in the Lendon Gazette since 1803, as victims of anti-British
wars. The chief feature of our ports is the portentous broom ; and of our manufacturin
towns, industrious artisans parading the streets ; while farming industry is equally de .#
the returns, it appears that 22,276 cwts. of cheese were imported last year, of which

13,000 cwt. were into the port of London.

It has been stated in Congress, that there are now in active operation in the cotton manufactories of the United States, 50,000 spindles, employing 100,000 persons, working annually 90,000 bags of cotton, of 3 cwt, each, and requiring a capital of 40,000,000 dollars. It appears, also, that American freight is 35 per cent. lower than in British vessels.

Ho-Am account of the duty payable on the growth of 1815,0istinguishing the different districts:

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, Premiums of Insurance at New Lloyd's Coffee House.---Guernsey or Jersey 13 g. Cork, Dublin, or Belfast, Ig. a 13. Hambro', 15s. Madeira, 20s. Jamaica, 50s, Newfoundland, 25s.--Southern Fishery, out and home, ---1. - Course of Erchange; June 21--Amsterdam, 398 B 2 U. Hamburgh, 36 12, U. Paris, 25 40... Leghorn, 474. Lishon, 56%. , Dublin, 15% per cent. At Messrs. Wolfe and Edmonds' Canal Offiée, Change, Alley, Cornhill ; Grand Junction SANA, shares sell for 148. Grand Union, 35l. Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union, 95l. Lancaster, 191.10. Worcester and Birmingham, 26]. Leeds and Liverpool, 230l. London Pock, 74%l. per share. West India, 148l. East India, 136]. 10s. East London WATERWoRks, 641. West Middlesex. 221. London Institution, 401. Surry, 111. Russell, 161. Imperial INsur ANCE-OF fice, 491. Albion, 25l. GAs Light CowPANY., at par. Gold in bars 41. per oz. . New doubloons 31.15s. Silver in bars 5s. 1d. The 3 per cent cons. on the 25th, were 63; 5 per cent. Navy 94.


so -

S a proof of the backwardness of the present season, it has been said, May did not present A us with an ear of wheat. The extrême changeableness of the weather which has prevailed so long, still continues; every flattering prospect of genial warmth has been quickly succeeded throughout the spring, wità the reversé of a chilling and parching, or damp, atmos: phere. . In Scotland snow laid upon the ground in May, several inches deep. Such an ungenial season has necessarily been unfavourable to all the productions of the earth, in a certain degree, exclusive of rendering them backward, and giving the assurance of a late harvest; so full of risk and expence in the northern parts. The wheats, both on light and cold lands, look poorly, and have a weak and thin plast, and the oats have a yellow and unhealthy appearance. Much wheat in the north has been ploughed up, and the land re-sown with barley, Beans and pease the best crops. The pastures bare, and the meadows in a backward state. with a very indifferent prospect for a crop of hay. The wireworm has been active on all the corn crops. Cultivation has been too generally deficient, from the distressed State of the country; Hohe labourers in husbanary, patient and submissive throughout North Britain, have endured the greatest privations. In the Southern parts, crops have a more favourable appearance, and the best wheat lands have great promise, also those of beams, pease, and oats. Pota1816.] State of Public Affairs in June. 559


toes and turnips have been well got into the ground; of the latter, the valuable Swedish variety has been this year, cultivated to an unusual extent. Hops have a healthier and stronger appearance than could be expected, and the orchard fruits have bloomed most luxuriantly.

, around the metropolis, will be an average crop. Sheep-shearing commenced sometime

, since. No alteration in the price of wool. Gradual decline in the prices of all the products

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-o-oBarometer. - Thermometer. Highest 29.84. June, 16 Wind N. W. Highest 70 deg. June 17 & 20. Wind S. W. Lowest 28.96. ----- 9, ------ N. W. Lowest 42 deg. May 22, Wind N.W.

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There has been rain on six days only, and then not in large quantities.

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The average height of the thermometer for the month is 55.5, that of the barometer is 29.64.

There have been twenty-one brilliant days, and six on which there has been rain; the others have been chiefly dull and cloudy. Notwithstanding, the backwardness of the season, the blights in the gardens have been very prevalent; much of the fruit of all kinds is cut off; there is however every prospect of a good hay-harvest.

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YHIS colossal power steadily pursues that system of aggrandizement which she begun under Peter the First: civilization produced power; power concentrated and extended the empire; and, having received full instructions from Britain, she now sets up for herself as a commercial and manufacturing nation. The new Russian Tariff, which prohibits most of the staples of this country, proves that the Emperor, his sister, and their ministers, visited this country with their eyes open. No one can blame them for availing themselves of the capabilities of their vast empire, but history will marvel at the infatuation which led certain other courts to sacrifice every thing to Russia, rather than remain at peace with him whose chief boast and glory was that of having been the pacificator

of Europe.


The fortunes of that French General who, after being exalted by the influence

*—— _*--- --- -- ~~~

of Napoleon, used his power to overthrow his patron, are said to be on the decline. His fall, if it take place, will produce feelings like those which followed the deaths of Moreau, Murat, Berthier, and Augereau ; for the sin of ingratitude is that which men least tolerate. At any rate, we hope, that justice will ultimately be done to Denmark, and that the forced union of Norway to Sweden will, in due time, be dissolved. It is one of those acts for which the ministers of England ought long since to have been impeached by a wise parliament, because Norway is the only country in Europe whence England can be invaded ; and, till the time arrived, when all the ancient policy of this empire was sacrificed to one master-passion in regard to Napoleon, it was the wise system of our statesmen to keep Norway in hands from whom little was to be feared, Norway, though Swedish, is now in effect Russian ; and, unhappily, we lost our moral force when we parted with this physical bulwark.


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frANCE. The patriots of Grenoble have fallen sacrifices to their premature exertions, and DIDIER, the leader, a man of acknowledged courage, has been executed as a traitor by the Bourbon government. The proscriptions, imprisonments, and banishments of the zealous adherents of liberty and French independance, and even the horrible persecutions of the Protestants in the department of Gard, continue to fill all good men with grief and indignation. The Duke of Wel. lington continues at the French court, apparently in high favour with the Bourbons and their ministers. GREAT BRIT Al N. The most active session of Parliament, which we rember has just terminated; but it has not been more active than the state of the country, and the exigences of the government required. We lament, however, that nothing has been effectually said in either house on the subject of the foreign policy of ministers, which, by alienating the affections of other people, occasions a diminished consumption of our manufactures, and is the primary cause of our distresses at home. Never was Parliament more liberal in its grants, though some reserves and some retrenchments have demonstrated a laudablespirit. During the month, the ministers were in a minority in an attempt made to introduce a new placeman into the House of Commons ; and, on returning to his constituents at Rochester, he was very properly rejected. The people of Liverpool were, however, less happy in their exertions to attain a similar object. Lord STANHope has rendered another service to his country, by procuring a &ommittee to revise and index the Statutes, now so confused and contradictory as often to defeat their own intention. Mr. BRough AM, in a committee, has brought forward some important evid nee on the subject of education, the substance of which we hope to be enabled soon to lay before our readers. Mr. Curwen's motion on the important and very pressing question of the Poor Laws, has ended in a brief report

of a committee, which defers the consi-. deration till the next sessions ! The Alien Bill, unhappily, has again passed, in spite of the vigorous opposition of many enlightened members of both houses. It might more properly. have been called a Bill to export the intelligence and genius of Europe to the. United States of America. The FINANCE REPORT, made up to Janury 5, 1816, has just been published, and it appears that the total expenditure of 1815, for Great Britain only, as laid by the minister before parliament, was 102,808,294l. ; and that the taxes and revenues paid into the Exchequer were 76,834,495. the remainder being supplied by loans of 39,421,952, raised for England and Ireland. The Expenditure for 1815 was as under:- 39

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quent additions—without reckoning either the expences of the royal family, the civil government, the army, navy, ordnance, and other public establishments t the same time it should be borne in mind, that the revenues of 1815 were swelled by the duties on an extraordinary government-expenditure of forty millions, and by undue exports to the United States of twenty millions on the conclusion of peace; while the distresses of the country, the total stagnation of trade and agriculture, and the curtailment of all expenditure, will tend to lower the revenue below its amount under ordinary circumstances. On the first of February the capitals of the public funded debt of Great Britain amounted to 835,523,517l. of which 40,392,540l. were in the hands of the commissioners for reducing the debt, and 3,097,5511. had been purchased in life annuities; the net interest being 27,233,933l.; and 12,798,225l. being applicable annually to the reduction of

the debt; the total annual charge being.

42,149,850l. for the funded debt, and 3,014,003l. for interest of an unsunded debt of 48,725,339l, making a total of annual charge growing out of the public debts of 45,163,853l, independently of what has since been added in consequence of the loans of bank notes from the Bank of England. Such are our views of this momentous subject, and which must in a short time force itself on the attention of every proprietor in the nation. In the course of the month, Mr. J. P. GRANT moved some resolutions, to the same effect, in the House of Commons, of which we subjoin a part. They were disposed of by the usual ministerial majority, after a brief reply from the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who observed that, “suffi

State of Public Affairs in June.

561 standing, during the present year, the sum of l.

2,260, That the said several sums, and others, forming, so far as the same can at present be ascertained, the expenditure to be defrayed by Great Britain, during the present year, exclusive of the charges on the Consolidated Fund, but including the proportion of the said expenditure .#. under the treaty of Union by #. amount to 30,085,7611. 10s. 1d. That, supposing the deficiency of the revenue of Ireland, in the present year, to be the same as in the last, the said sum of 1,031,284l,0s. 4.d.---together with the said sum of 1,605,585l. 2s. 6d. and the said sum of 30,085,7611. 10s. 1d. will form the whole expence of the United

Kingdom during the present year, so far as the

same can be at present ascertained, exclusive of the charges on the Consolidated Fund of Great Britain, and of the charges supposed to be provided for by the Revenue of Ireland, amount in all to the sum of 32,722,630l. 12s. 11d.

That the Ways and Means for defraying the above expenditure, by monies received or receivable within the year, have been calculated as follows:

From the surplus of Grants

for the year 1815 - £5,500,000 From the surplus of the Consolidated Fund . 3,000,000 From the annual Taxes - 3,000,000 From the War Duties of Customs and Excise . 4,000,000 From a lottery for Great Britain and Ireland 300,000 Amounting in all to - £15,800,000

That if the said sum of 15,800,000l. being the total amount of Ways and Means as aforesaid, is taken from the sum of 32,722,630l. 12s. 11d. the total expenditure there remains to be provided for by Loans, in this year of Peace, which have been or must be made, the sum of 16,922,630l. 12s. 11d.

By the estimate of my Lord Castlereagh, the Civil List for 1816 is proposed to cost the country 1,339,495l. ; and to meet this expenditure 255,778l. is to be paid, over and above the usual charges on the Consolidated Fund. The estimate of 1804 was 979,043l. while for 1815 it is 1,478,682. and the average of the last three years has been 1,497,786l. Of this sum 344,500l.consisted (in 1815) of pensions and allowances to the royal family; of the bills of his Majesty's tradesmen 254,300l.; of the Lord Chamberlain's department 137,858l. ; and of pensions 95,000l. The allowance to the judges, &c. is but 32,955l. In the new Finance Report for 1815, the following items are entered as debits to the public;His Mojo. Household . . . . . . 49898,000

cient for the day were the evils thereof.”
That there has been voted for the service of
#: oy. during 1816, the sum of 10,114,345l.
ls. 7d.
That the said several sums of 8,504,106l. 9s.
8d.-----405,240l. 9s. 10d.----178,626l.-----and

1,500,000l.--forming the total expence of the

army for 1816, amount to 10,587,972l. 19s. 6d.
That there has been voted for the charge of
the office of Ordnance, during 1816, the sum
of 1,696,185l. 3s. 2d.
That the Miscellaneous Services of 1816, may
be estimated at the suum of 2,000,000l.
That there has been voted for the interest
and Sinking Fund on Exchequer Bills out-

itto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60,000 ditto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,000 Duke of Clarence . . . . . . . . . . . 12,000 ------- of York . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,000 Carried forward 1,154,000 Mox. MAC. No. 285. _

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