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To John WALTERs, of Fenchurchbuildings, Architect and Engineer; for certain improvements in the Construction and Fastening of the Frametimbers or Bends of Ships or Vessels whether Building or under Repair.— Nov. 7. IN constructing the frame-timbers or bends, Mr. W. affixes to the sides of each, at the butting joints of the timbers of which it is composed, a plate of iron, or other metal, covering each joint, extending above and below, and bolted through the frame; and for fastening or connecting together the frames or bends, and thereby giving general strength throughout the whole frame or carcase of the vessel, he introduces through some section, athwart the ship or vessel to be built or repaired, somewhere near the centre of gravity, a principal frame secured to the keel, having internal diagonal braces, and being connected acrossship by one or more tie-bars or tiebeams at the height of the deck or decks; which principal frame and braces, and tiebar or bars, tie beam or beams, may be constructed of iron or other metal, or of

wood and metal, or he strengthens one of the common frames or bends of the ship or vessel with riders and internal diagonal braces, to constitute a principal frame; and in this case, the deck beams may be used for the tie bar.

It annexes or fixes to the sides of the ship or vessel certain braces, which he denominates principal hull braces, made of iron or other metal, let in flush on the outside of the frame timbers, and bolted to them, descending in an inclined direction from the upper part of the said principal frame, (to which they are made fast,) in the line of shortest distance over the curved surface down to the lower extremities of the vessel, and termina-. ting at such points, in the bottom, as may be found to afford the greatest facilities or convenience for being there fixed in a secure manner, so as to give support to the said extremities, and the whole of the intermediate frames, from the said principal frame. Also, (if the

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1816.]

principal hull braces, chocks, or strutting pieces of timber scantling o between frame and frame, acting as es, in the direction of the said braces. And for more effectually tying or binding together the whole structure, he employs in addition to the foregoing braces, one or more braces, which he denominates horizontal hull braces. The said horizontal hull braces are let in flush with the frame timbers, (to which they are bolted or made fast, as also in some cases to the principal frame,) and extend the whole length of the vessel on both sides, passing round the bow, and ha

wing the stern ends connected by a tie bar or tie beam, the whole forming a

kind of longitudinal hoop ; behind or within which chocks or strutting pieces may be tailed in between timber and timber, as described above, for the principal hull braces. Such is the general arrangement which he adopts in the application of his invention to practice, and the result, as will appear obvious to any competent mechanician, is a system of framing which resembles, in some of its qualities, and in its effects and operation, the trussing employed in the construction of roofs, bridges, and other framed carpentry of great span, so that the vessel to which it is applied may not improperly be termed a trussed ship or vessel. For joining or sastening together in a proper manner the different parts that have been described, he employs such methods as are commonly used and practised by ship-builders, architects, and civil engineers, adapting them to the nature and direction of the strain upon the different parts respectively. The lower extremities of the braces, in the concave parts of the bottom, may be secured by being strongly bolted to the dead wood and frame timbers, and connected (each with its opposite) by bolting through from the one to the other, or by any other convenient method. To George AustiN, of Wolton-underEdge, esq. and JAMEs DUTToN, jun. of Hillsley, Clothier; for certain Improvements in the Operation of fulling Woollen Cloth, and Improvements in Fulling-Mills for thal Purpose.— Nov. 23.

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New Patents lately Enrolled. 533

Mr. Dutron adopts a substance or substances different to any hitherto in use, as surfaces, linings, or casings, for fulling-mills, in those parts with which the cloth comes in contact during the process or processes of fulling, by which the cloth has the advantage, of being preserved from injury, which constitutes a decided improvement in the operation of fulling woolien cloth. Relative to the improvements in fulling-mills, he makes use of metallic surfaces, linings, or casings, or surfaces, linings, or casings, of any other suitable substance or substances, which can be rendered sufficiently hard and smooth, and which are not hitherto in use, and applies to the whole, or any part of that surface of a wood or cast-iron fulling-mill, with which the cloth comes in contact during the process or processes of fulling; for this purpose he takes copper, zinc, tin, lead, or any other suitable metal or metals, or any suitable mixture of these or other suitable substance or substances which can be rendered sufficiently hard and smooth, and which are not hitherto in use, and applies to any part, or the whole, of that surface, by any suitable method or methods. When his surfaces, linings, or casings, are made use of, which are not of themselves of sufficient strength to resist the fall of the foot, he makes use of linings of the old material, and dresses or cases the fulling mill to its original or any other convenient form and size, in the same manner as if it were to be put to work on the old plan.

He applies his surfaces, linings, or casings, to any part or parts of the foot. at pleasure, and fastens them on with screw-bolts, wood-pins, or any other fastenings, or by any other method or methods, as the workman shall find most convenient. When steam is used for the purpose of conveying temperature to the cloth while fulling, he leaves proper cavities under his surfaces, linings, or casings, for its reception; and his metallic surfaces, linings, or casings, afford an easy opportunity of making use of this agent, by the facility with which they transmit temperature from the steam to the cloth, as well as the superior durability of his surfaces, linings, or casings, to any substance or substances hitherto in use.

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water orair, or upon both of them,---March

Other Patents o granted, of which we solicit the Specifications. PIERRE FRANÇois Monroot.fren, of Leicester-square, engineer, and HENRY DANIEL DAYMe, of the same place, gentleman; for certain improvements in a machine which acts by the expansion or contraction of air heated by fire, and which machine is applicable to the raising of water, or giving motion to mills or other inachines.---March 14. JAMEs Dowson, of No. 68, Strand, esq. for certain new and improved means of producing or communicating motion in or unto bodies, either wholly or in part surrounded by water, or any of either of them, by the reaction of suitable apparatus upon the said *

Filkin, of No. 60, Old-street Road, itch, truss-maker; WILLIAM FILKIN, of the same place, truss-maker; and Joseph BART.on, of No. 20, Lombard-street, London, gentleman; for a new truss.---March 14. SAMUEL JEAN PAULEY, of No. 5, Knightsbridge, opposite the Cannon brew-house, engineer; for an article or substance for making, without seams, coats, great-coats, waistcoati, habits, cloaks, pantaloons, mantles, stockings, socks, and any other kind of clothing, covers for umbrellas, and for hats. Mattresses, seats, and cushions, filled with atmospheric air.--March 23. . .

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description, and to point out the places.

referred to in the descriptions of the mines, and in the detail of the mineralogical and botanical remarks, Dr. Horsefield has constructed the outlines of a map, on which are laid down the principal rivers, the mountains and ridges of hills, with the settlements of the Malays and Chinese, and the local subdivisions adopted by the original inhabitants. The elevated parts of Banca are ob. served to have the same constitution as the great continental chain, being composed principally of granite; after which occurs a species of rock which Dr. Horsefield terms red iron-stone, extensively distributed in situations of secondary elevation, in single rocks, or in veins covering large tracts of country. Tracts composed of this rock are bounded by alluvial districts, which are again subdivided into undulating hills, gradually

rising on others of apparently prior for

mation, and such as are low and level, of recent origin, and bordering on the mouths of the rivers. Those districts which, occurring in juxta-position with the primitive portions, fill that space between these latter and the veins of red iron-stone; or, again, between those and the alluvial parts, are stratified; and the strata uniformly horizontally arranged. It is through these horizontal strata that the tin ore is represented to be disseminated ; and, as far as has hitherto been remarked, it appears to be either immediately under the surface, or at no great distance from it. Another section of the report contains a view of the tin-mines, exhibiting a general enumeration of those worked at present, or in former periods; with an account of the process of mining, and the economy of the mines. The process of mining in Banca is remarkable for its simplicity. It consists in an excavation, of a square or oblong form, made by digging perpendicularly to the beds or strata containing the ore, and in a proper application of the water to facilitate the labours of the miners, and the washing of the ore. There is no necessity in Banca, as in countries where the metal lies concealed in deep veins, to have recourse to difficult operations, or expensive machinery ; and the process, indeed, requires so little previous instruction, that it is mostly performed by persons whose only qualification is a

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taining the ore, which is next deposited in heaps near the water, so far as *: placed conveniently for washing : aqueduct is lined with the bark of large trees, and a stronger current being produced by the admission of more water, the heaps are thrown in, and agitated by the workmen; the particles of the ore subsiding through their gravity, and those of common earth being carried avy by the current. hen a sufficient quantity of ore is thus accumulated, the process of smelting commences:—this is also very minutely and accurately described by Dr. Horsefield. It is unnecessary to observe, that almost all the operations connected with the process of mining and refining of metal, are performed by the Chinese. In his botanical pursuits, Dr. Horsefield has been peculiarly successful, his descriptions comprising a collection of upwards of five hundred plants, of which sixteen appear to be of doubtful genera. The inhabitants of Banca consist of Malays, “ Chinese, and indigenes, of whom the latter are subdivided into Grang Gunung (men of the mountains) , or Mountaineers; and rayads, or Orang Laut (men of the sea) or Sea-people. The Malays are few in number, of a peaceable but indolent disposition, and of little importance in the affairs of the island. The Chinese in Banca preserve their original habits of industry, enterprise, and perseverance; they are the most useful among the inhabitants, and indispensable in the labours of the mines. The general character of the Orang

Gunug, or Mountaineers, the original,

and, perhaps most interesting, portion of the population, is rude simplicity. Dispersed over large tracts in the interior of the country, they live nearly in a state of nature, but submit without resistance to the general regulations which have been established, and willingly perform the labours required of them : although

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Proceedings of Public Societies, 535

BORNEO.

In Borneo, if we have not enjoyed the advantage of scientific inquiry, we have yet added considerably to our stock of information, in a more correct knowledge of the character and habits of the native population; in the collection of vocabularies of various dialects of the country; and in the acquisition of many interesting particulars regarding the extensive colonies of Chinese, by whom the gold mines of this latter island are worked.

Some notices have been received of ruins of temples, of statues, and dilapidated cities in Borneo, and of the existence of various inscriptions, in different parts of the country, in characters unknown either to the Chinese, Malays, or Dayacs ; but the information yet obtained is too vague, and, in some instances, too contradictory to be relied upon ; and the question, whether this island, at any former period, rose to any considerable degree of greatness, must yet remain undecided. Embanking, as it were, the navigable pathway between the eastern and western hemispheres, and lying contiguous to the most populous regions of the globe (China and Japan,) there can be little doubt but at one period it must have risen far above its present state of degradation and neglect. That Borneo was visited, many centuries ago, by the Chinese and Japanese, is well established ; but whether it was ever more extensively colonized by either of those nations than it is at present from China,must be left to future inquiry. Porcelain jars, plates, vases, and earthen utensils of various descriptions, the manufacture of China and Japan, are frequently discovered in different parts of the country : and, such is the veneration in which these articies, so found, are held, that a single jar of this description has been known to be purchased by Dayacs of the interior, for a sum little short of two hundred pounds sterling. They are prized by the Dayacs as the supposed depositaries of the ashes of their forefathers.

CELEBEs.

The Macassar and Bugis tribes are

known to be the most bold, adventurous, and enterprising, of all the people of the Eastern Islands. They were formerly celebrated for their fidelity and their courage ; and, for this reason, were employed, like the Swiss in Europe, in foreign armies. They served in those of Siam, Camboja, and other countries, and also as guards to their own princes.

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The most singular political feature in Celebes is that of an elective monarchy, limited by an aristocracy generally hereditary, and exercising feudal authority over the minor chiefs and population, at all times prepared to take the field; a gonstitution of civil society, which, however common in Europe, is, perhaps, without parallel in Asia, where we seldom witness any considerable departure from the despotic sway of an individual. The whole of the states, in that portion of Celebes, to which I have alluded, are constituted on the peculiar principle stated :-the prince is chosen from the royal stock by a certain number of counsellors, who also possess the right of subsequently removing him. These counsellors are themselves elected from particular families of the hereditary chiefs of provinces; and, such is their influence, that the prince can neither go to war, nor, indeed, adopt any public measure, except in concert with them. They have the charge of the public treasure, and also appoint the prime minister. The prince cannot himself take the personal command of the army; but the usage of the country admits of a temporary resignation of office for this purpose; in which case, a regent succeeds provisionally to the rank of chief, and carries on the affairs of government in concert with the majority of the council. Women and minors are eligible to every department of the state, from the prince down to the lowest chief; and, when this takes place, an additional officer, having a title which literally means “ support,” or “ prop,” is appointed to assist. Some variation is observable in the different states. In Boni, the prince is elected by the Orang Pitu, or seven hereditary counsellors. In Goa, the prince is chosen by ten counsellors, of whom the first minister, termed Bechara Buta, in one. This last officer is himself appointed by the Council of Nine, termed the Nine Banners of the Country ; but in the exercise of his office he

possesses very extraordinary powers. He can even remove the prince himself, and call upon the electors to make another choice. The inferior chiefs or krains, who administer the dependent province, are appointed by the government, and not elected by a provincial council, although in the exercise of their office their power is in like manner limited. The number of the council varies, in different provinces, from two to seven. .. War being decided upon by the prince in council, the assembled chiefs, after sprinkling their banners with blood, proceed to take a solemn oath, by dipping their knives or daggers in a vessel of water, and afterwards dancing around the bloody banner, with frantic gesture, and a strange contortion of the body and limbs, so as to give the extended creese a tremulous motion. Each severally imprecates the vengeance of the Deity against his person if he violates his vow. An enemy is no sooner slain than the body is decapitated, and treated with every indignity which the barbarous triumph of savages can dictate. The heads are carried on poles, or sent in to the lord-paramount. Some accounts go so far as to represent them devouring the raw heart of their subdued enemy, and, whatever shadow of doubt humanity may throw over this appalling fact, it cannot be denied that their favourite meal is the raw heart and blood of the deer. This latter repast is termed Lor Dara, or the feast of the Bloody Heart, which they are said to devour, as among the Battas, in the season when limes and salt are plentiful. . . The inhabitants of the Wadju districts in particular, are celebrated for their enterprize and intelligence—extending their commercial speculations, with a high character for honourable and fair dealing, from the western shores of Siam to the eastern coast of New Holland. Women, as before observed, take an active part in all public concerns, and are in no instance secluded from society, being on a perfect equality with the men. The strongest attachment that is conceivable is felt for ancient customs, and relics of antiquity are held in the highest possible veneration. They are slow and deliberate in their decisions, but these,

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