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1816.j Mr. Marsham's Indications of Spring. 497 - Swallows appear. Cuckoo sings Nightingale sings - *Years Years Years EARLIEST l 1786 - March 30, 1752 - April 9 || 1752 - April 7 LATEST 1797 : April 26 | 1767 May 1 1792 : May 19 | * - - ---- - - - - - . GREATEST |Observed : Observed : ..., |Observed : o W DIFFERENCE in 62 years: 27 days in 51 years: 29 days i. 59 years: 42 days MEDIUM TIMEl 1777 ; April 13 | 1789 April 28 is ; April 28 o Hawthorn flowers | Frogs and Toads Sycamore leaf croak Years Years Years EARLIEST 1750 : April 13 1750 : Feb. 20 1750 : Feb. 22 LATEST 1799 June 2 1771 May 4 1771 May 4 GREATEST lobserved : Observed : -o a.... Observed : : DIFFERENCE in 59 years: 50 days [... years: 73 days ...; years: 71 days MEDIUM TIME | 1744 : May 12 1744 March 30 1744 ; March 30 Chesnut leaf Hornbean leaf Ash leaf Years Years Years EARLIEST 1794 March 28 1794 March 7 1779 April 2 LATEST 1770 : May 12 1771 : May 7 1772 May 26 r GREATEST Observed : | Observed : Observed : DIFFERENCE in 36 years: 45 days in 40 years: 61 days . 36 years: 54 days - MEDIUM TIME 1776 : April 21 1787 April 9 1787 : April 29 Churn Owl sings Yellow Butterfly Turnip flowers appears Years Years - Years EARLIEST 1781 April 29 1790 Jan. 4 1796 Jan. 10 LATEST 1792 : June 26 1783 April 17 1790 June 18 o —lGREATEST Observed : - Observed : Observed : DIFFERENCE in 46 years: 58 days in 36 years: 93 days i. years: 199 days | MEDIUM TIME 1760 May 29 | 1773 March 3 1742 : April 15 | Birch leaf Elm leaf Mountain Ash leaf - Years Years Years - EARLIEST 1750 Feb. 21 1779 March 4 1779 March 5 - - LATEST 1771 May 4 1784 May 6 1771 May 2 GREATEST Observed : - Observed : Observed : -DIFFERENCE in 52 years: 72 days i. years: 63 days ;... years: 57 days MEDIUM TIME. 1745 March 29 1773 : April 6 1773 April 6

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Ring Doves coo Rooks build Young Rooks Years Years e Years EARLIEST 1751 ; Dec. 27 1800 : Feb. 2 1747 : March 26 LATEST 1761 March 20 1757 : Mar. 14 1766 April 24 | GREATEST Observed : - Observed : Observed : DIFFERENCE in 47 years: 83 days i. 53years: 40 days '. years: 29 days | MEDIUM TIME 1750 : Jan. 22 1744 : Feb. 21 1789 : April 14 | Lime leaf Maple leaf Wood Anemone. . | Years Years Years EARLIEST 1794 : March 19 || 1794 Mar. 15 1790 : March 16 || || LATEST 1756 - May 7 1771 May 7 1784 : April 22 || GREATEST Observed : Observed : Observed : DIFFERENCF in 43 years: 49 days in 34 years: 53 days in 30 years: 37 days MEDIUM TIME 1796 : April 13 1788 : April 12 1778 April 5

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
SIR,

IN the first part of the Royal Institu

tion's Journals of Science and the Arts, Sir H. DAvy inserted a short paper on the wire-gauze safe-lamps for preventing explosions from fire-damp, and for giving light in explosive atmospheres in coal. mines. He remarks, that the dreadful accidents of explosions are occasioned by the firing of light carburetted inflammable gas, which is disengaged during the working of the coals, and from fissures in the strata; and which, when it has accumulated so as to form more than 1-13 part of the volume of the atmospherical air, becomes explosive by a lighted candle, or by any kind of flame. The apertures in the gauze should not be more than on of an inch square. As the firedamp is not inflamed by ignited wire, the thickness of the wire is not of importance, but wire from #5 to go of an inch in diameter is the most convenient. If the wire of is is found to wear out too soon in practice, the thickness may be increased to any extent; but the thicker the wire, the more the light will be intercepted, for the size of the apertures must never be more than 3% of an inch square. In the working models

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which he has sent to the mines, there are
748 apertures in the square inch.
When the wire-gaze safe-lamp is
lighted and introduced into an atmos-
phere gradually mixed with five damp,
the first effect of the fire-damp is to in-
crease the length and size of the flame.
When the inflammable gas forms as
much as or of the volume of the air, the
cylinder becomes filled with a feeble
blue flame, but the flame of the wick
appears burning brightly within the blue
flame, and the light of the wick contin-
ues till the fire-damp increases to # or 3,
when it is lost in the flame of the fire-
damp, which in this case fills the cylin-
der with a pretty strong light. As long
as any explosive mixture of gas exists in
contact with the lamp, so long it will
give light, and when it is extinguished,
which happens when the foul air con-
stitutes as much as # of the volume of
the atmosphere, the air is no longer
properfor respiration. In cases in which
the fire-damp is mixed only in its small-
est explosive proportion with air, the use
of the wire-gauze safe-lamp, which rap-
idly consumes the inflammable gas, will
soon reduce the quantity below the ex-
plosive point; and it can scarcely ever
happen, that a lamp will be exposed to

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1816. ... Topographical Surveys of the Vicinity of Port Jackson. 499

an explosive mixture containing the largest proportion of fire-damp; but even in this case the instrument is absolutely safe; and should the wires become redot, they have no power of communicating explosion. Should it ever be necessary for the miner to work for a great length of time in an explosive atmosphere by the wire-gauze, safe-lamp, it may be proper to cool the lamp occasionally by throwing water upon the top, or a little cistern for holding water may be attached to the top, the evaporation of which will prevent the heat from becoming excessive. . The figure beneath represents the parts of a wire-gauze safe-lamp.

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fi G. the second top 3 of an inch above the rSt. H. a copper plate, which may be in contact with the second top. I.I.I.I. thick wires surrounding the cage to preserve it from being bent, K.K. are rings to hold or hang itby.

By this description any of your foreign read

ers may get the lamp made. W

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR,

MY wife was afflicted with a glan

dular obstruction, exactly as described by your correspondent Y. of Hackney, at page 215 of your present volume. After trying various means to remove this complaint, and even subjecting the part to the scarifying processes of the Whitworth surgeons, without any good effect, she applied to the late emi

ment Mr. White, of Manchester, who

prescribed a remedy, which proved effectual; it was sea-bathing, long persevered in. To reside at a bathing place was impracticable. “It is not necessary,” (said Mr. White) “to go to the sea, because we can produce sea-water at home. Take one pound weight of bay salt, and put it into half a hogshead of common water. In this bathe three times a week, till the obstruction be removed, changing the water when it begins to be putrid.” The cure was completed in one year and a half. Twenty years have passed since that event, and the complaint has not returned. The bathing was commenced in the depth of winter, at first by tepid water, which in a few times was reduced to its natural coldness. G. N. S. Stourport ; May 16, 1816. For the Monthly Magazine, recent topographical surveys of the vicinity of Port JACKSoN. Government-House, Sydney, June 10, 1815. Mo. COX having reported the road as completed on the 21st of January, the governor, accompanied by Mrs. Macquarie and that gentleman, com: menced his tour on the 25th of April last, over the Blue Mountains, and was joined by Sir.JohnJamiesonat the Nepean, who accompanied him during the entire tour. The following gentlemen composed the governor's suite : Mr. Camp

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bell, secretary; Capt. Antill, major of brigade ; Lieut. Watts, aid-de-camp : Mr. Redfern, assistant-surgeon ; Mr. Oxley, surveyor-general ; Mr. Meehen, deputy-surveyor-general; Mr. Lewin, painter and naturalist; and Mr. G. W. Evans, deputy-surveyor of lands, who had been sent forward for the purpose of making further discoveries, and rejoined the party on the day of arrival at Bathurst Plains. The commencement of the ascent from Emu Plains to the first depot, and thence to a resting place, now called Spring Wood, distant twelve miles from Emu Ford, was through a very handsome open forest of lofty trees, and much more practicable and easy than was expected. The facility of the ascent for this distance excited surprise, and is certainly not well calculated to give the traveller a just idea of the difficulties he has afterwards to encounter. At a further distance of four miles, a sudden change is perceived in the appearance of the timber and the quality of the soil ; the former becoming stunted, and the latter barren and rocky. At this place the fatigues of the journey may be said to commence; here the country became altogether mountainous, and extremely rugged. Near to the eighteenth mile mark (it is to observed that the measure commences from Emu Ford) a pile of stones attracted attention; it is close to the line of road, on the top of a rugged and abrupt ascent, and is supposed to have been placed there by Mr. Caley, as the extreme limit of his tour; hence the governor gave that part of the mountain the name of Caley's Repulse. To have penetrated even so far, was, at that time, an effort of no small difficulty. From hence, forward to the twenty-sixth mile, is a succession of steep and rugged hills, some of which are almost so abrupt as to deny a passage altogether; but at this place a considerable extensive plain is arrived at, which constitutes the summit of the Western Mountains; and from thence a most extensive and beautiful prospect presents itself on all sides to the eye. The town of Windsor, the river Hawkesbury, Prospect Hill, and other objects within that part of the colony

now inhabited, of equal interest, are distinctly seen from hence. The majestic grandeur of the situation, combined with the various objects to be seen from this place, induced the governor to give it the appellation of the King's Table Land. On the south-west side of the King's Table Land the mountain terminates in abrupt precipices of immense depth, at the bottom of which is seen a glen, as romantically beautiful as can be imagined, bounded on the further side by mountains of great magnitude, terminating equally abruptly as the others; and the whole thickly covered with timber. The length of this picturesque and remarkable tract of country is about twenty-four miles, to which the governor gave the name of the Prince Regent's Glen. Proceeding hence to the thirty-third mile, on the top of a hill, an opening presents itself, on the south-west side of the Prince Regent's Glen, from whence a view is obtained particularly beautiful and grand—mountains rising beyond mountains, with stupendous masses of rock in the fore-ground, here strike the eye with admiration and astonishment. The circular form in which the whole is so wonderfully disposed, induced the governor to give the name of Pitt's Amphitheatre to this offset or branch from the Prince Regent's Glen. The road continues from hence, for the space of seventeen miles, on the ridge of the mountain which forms one side of the Prince Regent's Glen, and there it suddenly terminates in nearly a perpendicular precipice of 676 feet high, as ascertained by measurement. The road constructed by Mr. Cox down this rugged and tremendous descent, through all its windings, is no less than three-fourths of a mile in length, and has been executed with such skill and stability as reflects much credit on him. The labour here undergone, and the difficulties surmounted, can only be appreciated by those who view this scene. In order to perpetuate the memory of Mr. Cox's services, the governor deemed it a tribute justly due to him, to give his name to this grand and extraordinary pass, and he accordingly called it Cox's Pass.Having descended into the valley at the bottom of this pass, the retrospective view of the overhanging mountain is magnificently grand. Although the present pass is the only practicable point yet discovered for descending by, yet the mountain is much higher than those on either side of it, from whence it is distinguished at a considerable distance, when approaching it from the interior; and, in this point of view, it has the appearance of a very high distinct hill, although it is, in fact, only the abrupt termination of a ridge. The governor gave the name of Mount York to this termination of the ridge. On descending Cox's Pass, the governor was much gratified by the appearance of good pasture land and soil fit

1816.] Topographical Surveys of the Vicinity of Port Jackson.

for eultivation, which was the first he

had met with since the commencement of his tour. The valley at the base of Mount York he called, the Vale of Clwyd, in consequence of the strong resemblance it bore to the vale of that name in North Wales. The grass in this vałe is of a good quality, and very abundant; and a rivulet of fine water runs along it from the eastward, which unites itself at the western extremity of the vale with another rivulet, containing still more water. The junction of these two streams forms a very handsome river, now called by the governor Cox's River; which takes its course, as has been since ascertained, through the Prince Regent's Glen, and empties itself into the river Nepean; and it is conjectured, from the nature of the country through which it passes, that it must be one of the principal causes of the floods which have been occasionally felt on the low banks of the river Hawkesbury, into which the Nepean discharges itself. The vale of Clwyd, from the base of Mount York, extends six miles in a westerly direction, and has its termination at Cox's river. Westward of this river the country again becomes hilly, but is generally open forest land, and very good pasturage. Three miles to the westward of the Vale of Clwyd, Messrs. Blaxland, Wentworth, and Lawson, had formerly terminated their excursion; and when the various difficultics are considered which they had to contend with, especially un

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til they had esseeted the descent from Mount York, to which place they were obliged to pass through a thick brushwood, where they were under the necessity of cutting a passage for their baggage-horses, the severity of which labour had seriously affected their healths, their patient endurance of such fatigue cannot fail to excite much surprise and admiration. In commemoration of their merits, three beautiful high hills, joining each other, at the end of their tour at this place, have received their names in the following order:-viz. Mount Blaxland. Wentworth's Sugar Loaf, and Lawson's Sugar Loaf. A range of very lofty hills and narrow valleys alternately form the tract of country from Cox's River, for a distance of sixteen miles until the Fish River is arrived at ; and the stage between these rivers is consequently very severe and oppressive on the cattle. To this range the governor gave the name of Clarence Hilly Range. Proceeding from the Fish River, and, at a short distance from it, a very singular and beautiful mountain attracts the attention, its summit being crowned with a large and very extraordinary-looking rock, nearly circular in form, which gives to the whole very much the appearance of a hill fort, such as are frequent in India. To this lofty hill, Mr. Evans, who was the first European discoverer, gave the name of Mount Evans. Passing on from hence, the country continues hilly, but affords good pasturage; gradually improving to Sidmouth Walley, which is distant from the pass of the Fish River eight miles. The land here is level, and the first met with unencumbered with timber; it is not of very considerable extent, but abounds with a great variety of herbs and plants, such as would probably highly interest and gratify the scientific botanist. This beautiful little valley runs north-west and south-east, between hills of easy ascent, thinly covered with timber. Leaving Sidmouth Valley, the country becomes again hilly, and, in other respects, resembles very much the country to the eastward of the valley for some miles. Having reached Campbell River, distant thirteen miles from Sidmouth valley, the governor was highly .

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