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which, patho-genetically administered, they generate in the healthful.' This covers the whole pretension of the doctrine. It does not claim to be a new system of medicine. It only claims to have achieved the great desideratum of the healing art, the philosophical generalization of the curative powers of the materia medica, and to form in medicine the science of Therapeutics. It assumes to be the promulgator of a general law, whose truth and universality rest upon induction, and are capable of being demonstrated or disproved by experiment. Surely there is in all this nothing to excite the public distrust, or disturb professional equanimity.
The theory of Homeopathy assumes that all diseases are disorders of the common vital power, manifesting themselves in particular symptoms; that all medicines which can justly be considered remedies, are adapted to the specific cure of a certain exhibition of these symptoms; and that the general law of specific remedies, or the property which points out a substance for the cure of a disease, is the power of that substance to generate in the healthy subject effects similar to those of the disease it cures. With regard to the application of the last law, and the question of minute or infinitesimal doses, there is no teacher but the test of experiment. It is quite as difficult to understand the operation of a large dose as of a small one; and it is quite impossible to do away with the insuperable logic of fact, by the easy and ready resort of that ridicule which is more frequently the refuge of error, than the test of truth. To give a precise idea of the positive pretensions of Homeopathy, their extent and character, we copy a paragraph of the discourse before us, in which they are stated with great distinctness, and felicity of illustration :
Homeopathy is often styled New System of Medicine. This it does not claim to be ; for, a system of medicine must embrace all the important medical sciences. Now, Homeopathy came into existence not to supplant these ; not to subvert, indeed, any thing previously established; but to supply an acknowledged, an imperative want ; to complete, as it were, the arch of Scientific Medicine. So far from denying her obligations to the experience of past ages, in the very introduction of Hahnemann's Organow, its author has drawp largely upon this experience in support of his doetrine. So far from disowning the great advances which modern researches have effected in many departments of science, she frankly admits, and gladly avails herself of these essential elements of the great arch it was her province to complete; inr example, the sciences of Special and General Anatomy, of Phisiology, and General Pathology, on the one side, and the various departinents of Natural History and Chemistry, as sources of the Materia Medica, on the other. But, conceding even perfection to these indispensable sciences, it is manifest that without its key-stone, a scientific kystem of Therapeutics, the arch of the medical ciences was alike devoid of symmetry and strength. For, what could it avail to the Art of Healing, thougb on the one hand, every fibre and every function of the animal frame, in health and disease, were perfectly disclosed ; and on the other, creation had yielded up its stores, and Chemistry had' analyzed them all, and re-combined their elements without limits, if that science which should teach the adaptation of agents thus multiplied, to the removal of morbid action, was yet to be created? And that it was to be created, the whole history of Medicine testifies. All that was positively established on the subject, all that had efectually with stood the revolutions of medical opinion marking this history, consisted of a few specific medicines and a few specific practices, (for which the art was chiefly indebted to fortuitous or empirical sources,) and these not referred, bui deemed irreferable to any consiste ut system of general principles, and of course offering no claim to the appellation of a science.'
Our limits will not not permit us to pursue a subject, the discussion of which is doubtless better adapted to the pages of a medical than a literary journal. But the Homeopatbic doctrine has of late excited no little interest in our community. The recent establishment in this city of a beautiful and well-conducted monthly journal, devoted to its illustration and promulgation, will form an important era in its transatlantic history. Its professors are beginning to be treated with more forbearance and consideration by their brethren of the healing art ; they are increasing in numbers, and they enjoy, in a higher degree than hitherto, the respect and favor of the community. These are indications which promise well for the science. Physicians of established standing, practice, reputation, and prejudices according to the old system, begin to find that Homæopathy cannot be sneered down ; that it survives even the silent contempt of the profession, and what is still more fatal, the detected charlatanry of at least one of its pretended practi. tioners. We have been informed that numbers have so far surmounted their repugnance to small doses, as to commence inquiries; and it is not impossible that they may ulti
mately be induced to institute experiments. It is pretty bard, to be sure, to convince the * gentlemen of the old school that there is any virtue in infinitesimal particles; but when we know that the mere inhalation of an infected breath may be fatal to human life, we should scarcely be surprised that an equally imperceptible agency should be potent to sustain and preserve it.
We do not intend to enlist among the professed believers in the Homeopathic principle; although its beautiful generalization, in bringing light out of darkness, and order out of confusion, presents an interesting and attractive system of medical philosophy. It is certain, however, that the science is making rapid progress in the confidence of our metropolitan community, and that it is introduced with a show of authority which should incite the Allopathic school of physicians to investigate its merits with patience, even if they are not prepared to decide with impartiality. They have had their joke at the small doses, until the small doses seem to have got the laugh on their side.
We cannot take leave of this philosophical and original discourse, without alluding to the fact, that it has not yet been answered by any member of the body before which it was delivered, nor, as far as we have been able to learn, by any member of the medical profession, although it was first published more than a twelve-month since. The reason we take to be simply this, that the discourse is too closely reasoned, too logically put together, to be met in a manner that shall be altogether satisfactory to the 'NewYork Physicians' Society.' It demonstrates, beyond dispute, that a science has been hitherto wanting, 10 complete the circle of the medical sciences, and without which the whole system must be imperfect. Whether or not this defect is supplied by Homæopathy, may remain to be seen : but that the defect exists, is abundantly proved in this discourse, by its own conclusive exhibition, and by the cited admissions of many of the . most distinguished disciples of the Allopathic school. If the positions of this discourse are so well taken that they are impregnable, this fact may account for the silence of the profession; but if they are untenable, it is the duty of Aliopathists to expose their weakness. If they suffer their patients to be misled by the acute and plausible arguments of a writer so skilful as Dr. CHANNING, and will see these heresies running the lengths of a second edition, without rebuke or reply, they must not be surprised if popular faith should get the start of professional distrust, and regard Homeopathy as a science, even before it shall be duly recognized by the 'Society of Physicians.'
AN HISTORICAL DISCOURSE: Delivered at the Celebration of the Second Centennial
Anniversary of the First Baptist Church in Providence, R. I., November 7, 1839. By William HAGUE, Pastor of the Church. pp. 192. Providence : B. CRANSTON AND COMPANY.
We are glad to notice the increasing interest manifested in various parts of the Union, in collecting materials toward a more perfect history of our country and its institutions. Local histories, and the records of our primitive settlements, are among the most important materials for the future historian. Historical discourses, such as are frequently delivered at our public institutions, are of equal importance; as the authors are enabled, by confining their attention to a particular period, or a particular subject, to elucidate that subject more fully. As many of the old New-England towns were settled between the years 1630 and 1640, the present period has been prolific in the production of these valuable documents, as two centuries have passed away since their establishment. Next to the landing of the ‘Pilgrim Fathers,' and the settlement of Plymouth, no event of the times is so fraught with interest, as that of the founding of the colony of 'Rhode Island and Providence Plantations,' by Roger Williams. But it is not the history of this colony that forms the subject of Mr. Hague's discourse exclusively. It embraces a condensed history of the first Baptist church established in America ; also biographical notices of Roger Williams, the several presidents of Brown University, and other eminent men of the Baptist denomination, in this and other countries.
A LITTLE GOSSIP WITH OUR READERS. 'I hold it to be a good thing,' says the ete entertaining Defoe, “ to sit down, as it were, and conderse with my reader, as though be were by niy side, and his eye glancing ever and anon into mine. Of this kind of imaginary companionship, is begotten that ease and naturalness, so indespensable to true literary enjoyment.' We must ask a reduction of the force of this observation to the humble and unpremeditated matters which follow; wherein, if any thing that may seem to savor of reflected vainglory be encountered, it is desired that it may be placed to the account of a distinguished modern philosopher, who says that 'the world meets nobody half way.
In asking attention to the 'Lay Sermon of an exemplary and high-minded correspondent, in preceding pages, we must beg leave to say, that his defence of well-conducted theatres might have included a more serere reprehension of those which are rendered i ministers of evil,' by reason of the abuses which are tolerated within their walls. That which is the receptacle of open vice, can scarcely be considered subservient to the cause of virtue. An antagonistic correspondent, under the signature of 'Johnson,' whom we must arraign for great illiberality of spirit, in certain of his positions, is yet on tenable ground, when he inquires, in one part of his communication : Can that be deemed a 'school of morality,' which is the notorious gathering-place of the depraved and the vile? It may be argued, that things good in themselves are sometimes perverted to the worst purposes; that establishments founded on just and moral principles, are not always to be estimated by the consequences they produce; that the abuse of a privilege is no argument against its intrinsic excellence. All this is granted : but when original purposes become frustrate, by the permission of measures contrary to their spint and purity; when bad habits have obtained an ascendency over good manners; in short, when the most abandoned females are suffered to take their nightly station in a theatre, to insult the modest part of the audience by their presence and their actions ; what is such a theatre but a licensed house of assignation? While these things last, it is idle to talk of the morality of the stage.' We may write in its defence, we may declaim in its favor; but we are defending a nonentity, we are using a falsehood. Let us beware of sophisms. We cannot incite to virtue, and encourage vice, at the same time.' We may have men of genius to write for the stage, and able critics to point out the moral ; but is not all this nugatory, if PROSTITUTION be written, in large and legible characters, upon the walls ?' The force and justice of these remarks can neither be gainsa yed nor denied. We cannot agree, however, with our correspondent in his suecping remarks upon the example and influence of actors, as a class. It is true, indeed, that from those few members of the theatrical profession who may have sought to retrieve and obtain in this country the character and reputation which they have lost, or never possessed, in their own, little can be anticipated that is not baneful in its influence upon society, and especially upon the young and the thoughtless, who ape not only their thin varnish of external politeness, and their broad caricature of the true gentleman, but the vices which are inherent in their old habitudes and associations. Yet such members of the profession
soon lose their power of evil example. They are scarcely tolerated, we have often observed, by the better class of their brethren. Among these latter, in the various branches of dramatic art, we count many warm friends, whose hearts are generous, whose principles are honorable, and whose characters are in all respects beyond reproach ; and we have reason to believe, nay we know, that the only repugnance many of them ever feel to their occupation, arises from their temporary association with such persons as 'Johnson' describes. Doubtless this aversion, too, led SHAKSPEARE to leave behind him that memorable passage, in which he records his detestation of a theatrical life. He evidenıly did not so much grieve that his avocations compelled him to
go here and there,
but the rather, that he was thus thrown into contact with the ignoble and the vile. But we are getting toward the end of our tether; having present space but to add, that in our judgment, a theatre properly conducted, and with proper actors, may be made a place where one may be humanized without suffering; become acquainted with the manners of nations; acquire a polish without travelling; and without the trouble of study, imbibe lessons the most pleasing and useful.
It has ever been the fortune of historians, including the most conscientious and trustworthy, that their veritable records have come at last to be distrusted by an incredulous sew, among their posterity. Even the narrative of Sir John MAUNDEVILLE himself, the most veracious of chroniclers, has been considered fabulous, by divers narrow minded commentators, prone to believe in nothing which their eyes have not seen, or their ears heard. Coming down to our own era, we have seen certain tales and legends, the truth of which has been considered as firmly established, questioned by pragmatical unbelievers, and that in the very teeth of the strongest testimony. To this day, we make bold to assert, many unimaginative readers find it difficult to believe, that the 'Sleepy Hollow' of our own GEOFFREY Crayon was once actually bewitched by a high German doctor, and that it has ever since continued under the sway of a mysterious power, that holds a spell over the minds of the people who inhabit it, causing them to see marvellous sights, and to hear strange sounds. We ourselves have heard the fact questioned, within the short space of ten years. And yet nothing can be more true, than that there exists such a spell, which, as our historian well observes, is not confined to the native inhabitants of the valley, but is unconsciously imbibed by every one who resides there for a time. However wide awake they may be, before they enter that sleepy region, they are sure, in a little time, to inhale the witching influence of the air, and begin to grow imaginative; to dream dreams, and to see apparitions. We have just received from an estimable friend and correspondent at Tarrytown, a private confirmation of the 'sober truth of history,' which is too remarkable to be lost to the world; and which, we hope without a breach of friendly or social trust, we may venture to lay before our readers. "We have nothing new in these parts, excepting that there has been the deuce to pay of late in Sleepy Hollow; a circumstance, by the by, with which you of NewYork have some concern, as it is connected with your Croton aqueduct. This work traverses a thick wood, about the lower part of the Hollow, not far from the old Dutch hatinted church; and in the heart of the wood, an immense culvert, or stone arch, is thrown across the wizard stream of the Pocantico, to support the aqueduct. As the work is unfinished, a colony of Patlanders have been encamped about this place all winter, forming a kind of Patsylvania, in the midst of a 'wiltherness.' Now whether it is that they ever heard the old traditionary stories about the Hollow, which, all fanciful fabling and idle scribbling apart, is really one of the most haunted places in this part of the country, or whether the goblins of the Hollow, accustomed only to tolerate the neighborhood of the old Dutch families, have resented this intrusion into their solitudes,
by strangers of an unknown tongue, certain it is, that the poor paddies have been most grievously harried, for some time past, by all kinds of apparitions. A wagon-road, cut through the woods, and leading from their encampment, past the haunted church, and so on to certain whiskey establishments, has been especially beset by foul fiends; and the worthy Patlanders, on their way home at night, beheld misshapen monsters whisking about their paths, sometimes resembling men, sometimes bulls, sometimes horses, but invariably without heads ; which shows that they must be lineal descendants from the old goblin of the Hollow. These imps of darkness have grown more and more vexatious in their pranks; occasionally tripping up, or knocking down, the unlucky object of their hostility. In a word, the whole wood has become such a scene of spuking and diablerie, that the paddies will not any longer venture out of their shanties at night; and a whiskey-shop, in a neighboring village, where they used to hold their evening gatherings, has been obliged to shut up, for want of custom. This is a true story, and you may account for it as you please. The corporation of your city should look to it, for if this harrying continues, I should not be surprised if the Patlanders, tired of being cut off from their whiskey, should entirely abandon the goblin region of Sleepy Hollow, and the completion of the Croton water-works be seriously retarded.'
There is a vein of sly satire running through the 'leaves' of the Georgia Lawyer,' in preceding pages, which we would not have escape the uninitiated reader. A desire to flog a watchman, is in cities a well-defined symptom of the disease called drunkenness; and we suspect that this part of our correspondent's sketch must have been founded upon critical observation, gained, doubtless, by being mayor of a large metropolis, and holding a daily police court. Every lawyer will appreciate the faithfulness of the picture of the ' feniale witness ;' and as to 'homicidal insanity,' it is the great stumbling-block of the criminal writers and judges of the present day. Indeed it is amazing to see the extent to which men, intelligent in other respects, carry this absurd doctrine. By and by we shall arrive at the conclusion, that if a man kills another, it is prima facie evidence of insanity; ergo, he ought, as a proof of insanity, to be immediately discharged. Our correspondent enacts the legal Curtius, throwing himself manfully into the breach which threatens to swallow up the criminal justice of the country. Drunkenness, too, is latterly scarcely less abused than insanity, being often practically regarded as an apology for crime. The charge of the Georgia judge, with its very relevent phrenological digression, reminds us of a similar lucid effort, of which we have somewhere heard, that was intended to define the crime of murder to a Wolverine jury: 'Murder, gentlemen,' said the western Solon, ‘is where a man is murderously killed. The killer, in such a case, is a murderer. Now murder by poison, is as much murder, as murder with a gun. It is the murdering that constitutes murder, in the eye of the law. You will bear in mind that murder is one thing, and manslaughter another: therefore, if it is not manslaughter, it must be murder; and if it be not murder, it must be manslaughter. Self-murder has nothing to do in this case: one man cannot commit felo de se on another : that is clearly my view. Gentlemen, I think you can have no difficulty. Murder, I say, is murder. The murder of a brother is called fratricide; but it is not fratricide if a man murders his mother. You will make up your minds. You know what murder is, and I need not tell what it is not. I repeat, murder is murder. You can retire upon it, if you like!
The reader will need no incitement to a perusal of the history of that remarkable delusion, the 'Mississippi Bubble,' by Mr. Irving, the present issue. The diligent research which it has evidently cost the author, it will be conceded, is amply repaid by the almost romantic interest of the narrative, and the useful lessons with which it is replete. From a note, which should have accompanied the text, we learn, that in the preparation of the article, the following authentic works were consulted, most of them in the originals: MACPHERSON'S 'Annals of Commerce: Biographie Universelle; SAINT