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brightness distribution is symmetrical about a vertical semicircle passing through the sun. Such measurements were made on days that were (1) perfectly clear, (2) overcast with thin clouds or dense haze, (3) completely overcast with clouds or dense fog, so that neither sun nor blue sky could be seen, (4) overcast with clouds from which rain or snow was falling, and (5) partly overcast, in an irregular manner.

On clear days it was found that the sky brightness at Washington has somewhat the following distribution: The brightest part of the sky is, of course, that close about the sun. The darkest part is that in the solar vertical about 90° distant from the sun. In general, the sky increases in brightness toward the horizon, although there is a "dark valley" extending from the dark point in the solar vertical to a point about midway between the sun and the horizon. This distribution agrees closely with that observed by Dorno at Davos, Switzerland, except that the Swiss sky is brighter than that at Washington. This difference in brightness is probably the result of secondary reflection of light from the Alpine

snows.

In comparison with observations made at Chicago University and on the roof of the Federal Building in "Loop" district of Chicago, it was found that the distribution there is much the same, except that the horizon opposite the sun is darker at Chicago than at Washington. This is attributed to smoke, from which the Washington atmosphere is particularly free.

The brightest type of sky measured at Washington is that completely overcast with thin clouds or dense haze. With clouds from which rain is falling, the distribution is about the same as with thin clouds, but its intensity is only half as great.

Measurements of the illumination on horizontal and vertical surfaces were made at Washington and at the two Chicago stations mentioned above. It was found with respect to the variations with change of solar altitude that the illumination on horizontal surfaces increased markedly with increase of solar altitude; but in the case of illumination on vertical surfaces the difference between a surface facing

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is given for computing the shading effect of buildings on the opposite side of the street. is the angular height of a building as seen from the center of a window across the street, the width of the street being w. The horizontal angle between a normal to the window and a line joining a point p on the building opposite is x, and h is the height of the obstructing building above the point p. The author gives a table showing the relation between x and for various values of h/w. Attention is directed to the fact that the horizon is the most effective illuminating agent for vertical surfaces, hence buildings and other objects on the horizon are the most serious obstacles in the question of illuminating rooms through vertically placed windows, especially with a clear sky.

Two interesting examples of the relation between electric light load and sky brightness are given. At Washington, on July 15 and 29, 1921, there occurred thunderstorms about 2:30 p.m. and noon, respectively. On the former occasion, the daylight intensity fell rather quickly to about one foot-candle and the sudden increase in electric light load caused by the nearly simultaneous turning on of thousands of electric lights was sufficient to put the power plant out of commission. The statistician for the company states that

During the day in the business section a sudden increase in current consumption occurs when the day light illumination intensity falls below 1,500 foot-candles. The lower the intensity, the higher the current consumption, but fluctuations in intensity above 1,800 foot-candles have only a negligible effect.

It appears that some arrangement whereby power companies supplying large cities could have recourse to observations of daylight of daylight illumination, especially during the thunderstorm season, would be of decided benefit to them, for the falling off of this illumination would afford an index as to the proper time to prepare to supply additional current.

This sketch is sufficient to indicate the character of the important work being done by Dr. Kimball and to suggest some of the industrial benefits to be derived from the study of daylight under various types of cloudy and smoky sky.

WASHINGTON, D. C.

C. LE ROY MEISINGER

ON STEREOTROPISM AS A CAUSE OF CELL
DEGENERATION AND DEATH, AND ON
MEANS TO PROLONG THE LIFE
OF CELLS

IN former investigations we have shown 1, 2 that amoebocytes of Limulus have the tendency to move and to spread out in contact with solid bodies. We thus found another instance of a reaction which is common to many kinds of cells and which we observed and analyzed in 1897 and subsequent years and which we designated as stereotropism of tissue cells 3.

We further found that the blood cells of Limulus, as a result of this stereotropic response and the concomitant spreading out of their protoplasm along the surface of the solid body, underwent degenerative changes; they lost their granules, became hyaline and gradually motionless and then died. There was some indication that this spreading out of the cells was accompanied by a taking up of fluid from the surrounding medium and that this led to processes of solution which initiated the retrogressive changes. 1, 2, 4

In order to prolong the life of these cells it was therefore necessary to retard this exaggera

1 Leo Loeb, Journal Medical Research, 1902, II 145. Virchow's Archiv. 1903, Vol. 173, 35. 2 Leo Loeb, Folia Haematologica 1907, IV 313. Pflüger's Archiv. 1910 Vol. 131, 465.

3 Leo Loeb, Archiv. f. Entwickelungsmech. 1898 VI 297. Anatomical Record 1912, VI 109.

ted stereotropic response which led to a spreading out of the cell in contact with the solid body. We found previously that this can be done not only by keeping the cells at a lower temperature, which retards other activities as well as the stereotropic reactions and is therefore not specific, but in a specific manner by enabling the cells to rest on a surface previously covered with a thin film of paraffine or vaseline. 4 In contact with such a surface the spreading out of the cells is considerably retarded and the life of the cells and the duration of their amoeboid movement is prolonged. In carrying out these experiments, we make use of the experimental cell fibrin (amoebocyte) tissue, a small piece of which we place on the prepared surface and surround with the desired kind of fluid.

5

Last summer at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory we continued these experiments with the cooperation of Mr. K. C. Blanchard and found an additional method of preventing the extension of the cells and thus to prolong their life and activities. This can be accomplished by making the medium into which the cells enter from the piece of tissue very slightly acid, an observation which agrees with our previous finding according to which the cells perish in a neutral solution of isotonic sodium chloride, but are preserved in such solutions after addition of a very small amount of either acid of alkali.2

In our recent experiments we found that in such slightly acid media the cells leave the tissue in dense masses and continue to move for a considerable period of time; they are preserved, their spreading out is much retarded and their motor activity in consequence much prolonged. In alkali the cells are likewise preserved for some time, but they begin to spread out and become dissolved much earlier than in acid.

It is possible to grade the effect of acid upon the cells. If the acid used is too strong and

4 Leo Loeb, Washington University Studies 1920 VIII 3. American Journ. Physiol. 1921, Vol. 56 140.

5 These experiments will be more fully described by the writer and Mr. K. C. Blanchard elsewhere.

consequently the consistency of the cell too great, their motility is diminished. If it is used in too weak a concentration, the spreading out and solution processes are not sufficiently delayed. In an intermediate concentration of the acid, the consistency is such that the migration of the cells out of the piece is readily possible and at the same time the cells are preserved and the stereotropic reaction is retarded. But ultimately the cells begin to spread out and now retrogressive changes set in even in these favorable media. However, it may be possible to keep the cells active for six days or longer even at room temperature, at which under ordinary conditions the cells spread out and become hyaline on the first or second day.

In this case we recognize thus as the principal cause of cell death an extreme degree of reactivity of the cells in contact with solid surfaces. There is good reason for assuming that this reaction leads to an increased permeability of the surface of the cell which reaches a degree which is injurious and is thus responsible for the subsequent degenerative processes.

Conditions which prevent this extreme stereotropic reaction tend therefore to prolong the life of the cells. Acid acts in this way apparently by increasing the consistency of the cells, at least of its outer layer.

As we have shown elsewhere there exists a striking analogy between the behavior of the amoebocytes and ordinary tissue cells. Through agglutination the amoebocytes produce sheets of a tissue-like material. After an incision in such a tissue cells migrate from the cut edge into the defect, in a way similar to tissue cells adjoining a wound. In both cases two factors determine the direction of migration: (a) The stereotropic reaction, (b) a tendency towards centrifugal movement.

During the process of movement the amoebocytes spread out and thus produce structures totally unlike the original amoebocytes, but closely resembling various tissues. A similar change from agglutinated round cells to cells spreading out in contact with a solid or viscous substratum underlies the embryonic tissue formation. Under the influence of mechanical factors a system of fibrillation can be produced in this experimental amoebocyte tissue which

indicates the direction in which the mechanical factors act. In an analogous way we know that certain mechanical effects determine the fibrillation in certain higher tissues. In both cases the tissue formation leads to the production of an elastic tension under which the tissues are held, which latter retract after an incision had been made. The processes of tissue formation had led to the production of potential energy stored in the tissues.

The transformations which we observe in the amoebocytes in the case of tissue formation are, as far as our evidence shows at present, due mainly to two factors: (a) changes in consistency primarily in the outer layer of the cells; this depends in all probability upon a taking up of fluid from the surrounding medium and a different distribution of fluid within the cell, and (b) an increased permeability of the outer layer of the cell. These changes may lead to degenerative processes in the cell.

In some respects the differentiation and specialization of tissue cells in higher organisms has likewise the aspect of retrogressive changes; it may diminish the power of resistance of these differentiating cells. This suggests very strongly that changes of a similar character, although perhaps quantitatively weaker, may take place in the higher tissue cells during the process of tissue formation.

LEO LOEB DEPARTMENT OF COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY, WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL
SOCIETY
(Continued)

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY OF MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
CHARLES E. CASPARI, chairman.
EDGAR B. CARTER, secretary.

Arsphenamine and neoarsphenamine: GEORGE W. RAIZISS, JOSEPH GAVRON AND M. FALKOV. Arsphenamine and neoarsphenamine are indispensable in the treatment of spirochaetic infections. The elimination of the alarming symptoms or "reactions" attendant upon the use of these drugs is a problem of increasing importance. These have been attributed to chemical impurities which the authors have tried to identify. Incidentally, samples, of unusually high chemotherapeutic indices have been obtained. Methyl alco

hol and crystallization have been found in two of the American made products. Experiments show that this does not exert any untoward effect upon the drug. A study of the colloidal properties and the relationship to toxicity has also been undertaken in order to explain the above "reactions.''

Hydrogen peroxide, its manufacture and preservation: PAUL POETSCHKE. The quality of the chemicals needed and the equipment required for manufacturing the product and a detailed account of the various stages of the process are given. Briefly, the process consists in hydrating barium peroxide with distilled water and adding this mixture to a dilute solution of phosphoric acid which forms barium phosphate and hydrogen peroxide. Sulphuric acid is then added which regenerates the phosphoric acid converting the barium phosphate into barium sulphate and phosphoric acid. In this way the phosphoric acid is used over and over again. The insoluble barium sulphate and phosphate is then removed by filtration and the filtered hydrogen peroxide purified and adjusted to the proper strength. Experiments with quinine sulphate show that this substance has many advantages over acetanilid as a preservative, particularly in that only 1/10th the amount is required and it does not cause any foreign odor or discoloration. A mixture of benzoic acid and salicylic acid is also effective. Storage in glass bottles of suitable quality, and exclusion of light, are far more effective in restraining decomposition than any of the preservatives studied.

Developments in mercurial antiseptics: EDWIN C. WHITE AND JUSTINA H. HILL.

The preparation of certain arsenic-free reagents: G. D. BEAL AND K. E. SPARKS.

The preparation of pure fatty acids: G. D. BEAL AND J. B. BROWN.

The preparation of cholesterol esters of fatty acids: G. D. BEAL AND J. B. BROWN.

The determination of aldehydes in essential oils: FRANCIS D. DODGE. The use of bisulfite solutions in the technical determination of aldehydes is sometimes inconvenient, OWing to the relative insolubility of the bisulfite compounds. The writer has found the solution of lithium bisulfite quite useful in such cases, the lithium compounds being in general more soluble than the sodium or potassium derivatives. A serious error arises, however, when unsaturated alcohols such as geraniol, linallol, or terpineol are present. The latter react slowly with bisulfite, yielding soluble sulfonic com

pounds and the aldehyde determination becomes quite inaccurate. Details are also given of experimental work with some other aldehyde reagents.

Crystalline ethyldihydrocupreine (optochin) base: MICHAEL HEIDELBERGER AND WALTER A. JACOBS. Hitherto only crystalline salts of ethyldihydrocupreine (optochin) have been reported. Having found that dihydroquinine could be advantageously recrystallized from toluene, we dissolved ethyldihydrocupreine in this solvent and allowed the solution to evaporate spontaneously, crystals forming after several days. On seeding a concentrated solution and letting stand the base separated as irregular leaflets containing toluene of crystallization, a portion of which was retained on air-drying, but could be removed by heating in vacuo. The base so obtained has approximately the properties of the purest commercial samples of the substance.

(optochin)

Crystalline ethyldihydrocupreine base: MICHAEL HEIDELBERGER AND WALTER A. JACOBS.

The purification of tuberculin and the preparation of ophthalmic tuberculin discs: M. DORSET AND J. A. EMERY.

Food as a medicine: HARVEY A. WILEY.

The need for an improved formula for infusion of digitalis, U. S. P.: A. RICHARD BLISS, JR. In response to the complaints of clinicians concerning the unreliability, lack of uniformity, etc., of the Infusion of Digitalis of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, a pharmacodynamic study of twenty samples of the Infusion was made. Fifteen of the samples were collected at random from retail drug stores, and five of the samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the unofficial method advocated by Hatcher and Eggleston. The method of pharmacodynamic assay employed was that known as the Hatcher and Brody Cat Method, a total of seventy-four estimations being made by this method. Ten of the drug store samples, prepared by the method of the U. S. P. IX, showed an average activity of but 38.1 per cent. of the theoretical activity; five of the drug store samples, prepared by diluting the fluid extract, showed an average activity of but 62.6 per cent. of the theoretical activity; and the five samples, prepared according to the method of Hatcher and Eggleston, showed an average activity of 95 per cent. of the theoretic activity. The dropping of the infusion as prepared by the present U. S. P. method, or the substitution of an improved formula, such as that

of Hatcher and Eggleston, is recommended by the author.

The toxicity of Benzyl alcohol and its homologues: OLIVER KAMM. The acute toxicities towards paramecia of homologues of benzyl alcohol agree well with the values predicted on the basis of experimental results obtained with aliphatic alcohols. Given the experimental value for one straight-chain aliphatic alcohol, the toxicities of the remaining members may be calculated by means of the "rule of thirds.' The common branched-chain members also fit into the prediction scheme, two methyl groups in the form of sidechains being equivalent to one additional carbon atom in a straight-chain. To predict toxicities in the benzyl series it is simply necessary to apply in addition the previous presented "molecular volume relationship." Illustrative examples are presented.

Pharmacological examination of isopropyl alcohol: DAVID I. MACHT. Acute toxicity of isopropyl alcohol on intravenous injection in cats is greater than that of isopropyl alcohol; but is somewhat less than that of the normal propyl alcohol. The toxicity by mouth gives figures which run parallel to those for intravenous injection. Administration of small doses of isopropyl alcohol (2 ce per kilo) through stomach tube to dogs produced no marked permanent deleterious effects even when continued repeatedly over a number of days. Rats exposed to the fumes of isopropyl alcohol for a series of days showed no signs of poisoning. A large number of experiments performed for the purpose of ascertaining whether isopropyl alcohol would produce toxic symptoms after repeated applications to the skin yielded negative results. In common with other alcohols of the fatty acid series both normal and isopropyl alcohols are toxic for the isolated heart and excised muscle tissues. The effect on circulation is not much depressant in the intact animal when the drug is administered in smaller doses. Death after lethal doses is due in most cases to paralysis of the respiratory center but smaller doses produce no dangerous depression of the respiration.

SECTION OF SUGAR CHEMISTRY

C. A. BROWNE, chairman. FREDERICK BATES, secretary. Modified sulfate methods for ash in sugar and molasses: E. H. ADKINS AND J. R. WITHROW.

Some studies on decolorizing chars: C. E. COATES. A study was made of the possibility of making a decolorizing char for use in the cane

industry from cane bagasse. The material was charred boiled with caustic soda and washed with hydrochloric acid and heated to 850 degrees. An excellent carbon was obtained by this method. Certain observations are given concerning methods for color comparisons with various types of tintometers and colorimeters.

The comparison of various carbons upon the American market: CHR. E. G. PORST AND JOHN M. KRNO. The decolorizing value of various carbons on the market was determined. By the use of steam activation and leaching and other means, carbons were produced from lignite, sawdust, spent boneblack and other materials. These were equal, and in some cases superior, as regards their decolorizing value, to those on the market. A method of grading the carbon was suggested.

Absorption isotherms of some decolorizing carbons: F. W. ZERBAN AND S. BYALL. Isotherms have been determined for the decolorization by six different decolorizing carbons of molasses solutions of varying concentration, and it has been found that, while for one carbon and one concentration the logarithmic curves closely approximate straight lines, there is a marked difference in the constants of the adsorption formula for one carbon at varying initial concentrations of molasses solution, and for the same initial concentration, using different carbons.

Mechanical clarification of cane sugar liquors: A. S. ELSENBAST. Cane sugar liquors are clarified and filtered without the use of chemical defecants by means of the specially prepared filtering medium, Filter-Cel. Details are given for operating with plantation white sugar, plantation white sugar by lime sulphur process, cane and sorghum syrups, raw sugar and standard granulated white sugar in cane sugar refineries.

Decolorizing carbons: H. H. PETERS AND F. P. PHELPS. Twenty different carbons have been used, under identical conditions, for the decolorization of one quality raw sugar, and some of them on the affined sugar and the raw wash resulting from the affination process. The effect is shown on the basis of spectrophotometric analysis which establishes new standards for a correct judgment, far more rigorous than at present accepted by technical colorimetric methods. The names of the carbons are withheld at this time. Not only does the quality of some carbons vary, but new equipment had to be ordered for a systematic and complete inquiry into the nature of the coloring bodies.

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