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LEON. No, not these twenty years !

Though yet she speak not. Mark a little while.— PER.

So long could I Please you to interpose, fair madam ; kneel, Stand by, a looker-on.

And pray your mother's blessing.–Turn, good Paul. Either forbear,

lady; Quit presently the chapel, or resolve you

Our Perdita is found. For more amazement. If you can behold it, [Presenting PERDITA, who kneels to HERMIONE. I'll make the statue move ; indeed, descend

Her.

You gods, look down, And take you by the hand: but then you'll think And from your sacred vials pour your graces (Which I protest against) I am assisted

Upon my daughter's head !Tell me, mine own, By wicked powers.

Where hast thou been preservd ? where livd? LEON. What you can make her do,

how found I am content to look on : what to speak,

Thy father's court? for thou shalt hear that I,I am content to hear; for 't is as easy

Knowing by Paulina that the oracle To make her speak as move.

Gave hope thou wast in being,—have preserv'd PAUL.

It is requir’d

Myself, to see the issue. You do awake your faith. Then all stand still ; Paul.

There's time enough for that; Or * those that think it is unlawful business Lest they desire, upon this push, to trouble I am about, let them depart.

Your joys with like relation.—Go together, LEON.

Proceed!

You precious winners all; your exultation No foot shall stir.

Partake“ to every one. I, an old turtle, PAUL. Music, awake her, strike ! | Will wing me to some wither'd bough, and there

Music. My mate, that 's never to be found again, "T is time; descend; be stone no more; approach; | Lament till I am lost. Strike all that look upon with marvel! Come;

LEON.

O, peace, Paulina ! . I'll fill your grave up: stir; nay, come away; Thou shouldst a husband take by my consent, Bequeath to Death your numbness, for from him As I by thine a wife: this is a match, [mine; Dear Life redeems you.—You perceive she stirs ; | And made between's by vows. Thou hast found

[HERMIONE slowly descends from the pedestal. But how, is to be question'd, for I saw her, Start not; her actions shall be holy as

As I thought, dead ; and have, in vain, said You hear my spell is lawful: do not shun her,

many Until you see her die again ; for then

A prayer upon her grave. I'll not seek far You kill her double. Nay, present your hand : (For him, I partly know his mind) to find thee When she was young you woo'd her; now in age An honourable husband.—Come, Camillo, Is she become the suitor!

And take her by the hand :—whoseb worth and LEON. O, she's warm !

honesty

[Embracing her. Is richly noted ; and here justified If this be magic, let it be an art

By us, a pair of kings. Let's from this place. Lawful as eating.

What !- look upon my brother:_both your Pol. She embraces him !

pardons, Cam. She hangs about his neck!

That e'er I put between your holy looks If she pertain to life, let her speak too.

My ill suspicion. This your son-in-law, Por. Ay, and make 't manifest where she has | And son unto the king, whom heavens directing, liv'd,

Is troth-plight to your daughter.—Good Paulina, Or how stol'n from the dead !

Lead us from hence, where we may leisurely PAUL.

That she is living, Each one demand, and answer to his part Were it but told you, should be hooted at

Perform'd in this wide gap of time, since first Like an old tale ; but it appears she lives, We were dissever'd: hastily lead away. (Exeunt.

(*) old text, On. a Partake-) That is, parlicipate.

b – whose worth and honesty, &c.] "Whose " refers to Camillo, not to Paulina.

What !- look upon my brother :-) This unfolds a charming

and delicate trait of action in Hermione; remembering how sixteen sad years agone her innocent freedoms with Polixenes had been misconstrued, and keenly sensible, even amidst the joy of her present restoration to child and husband, of the bitter penalty they had involved, she now turns from him, when they meet, with feelings of mingled modesty and apprehension.

ILLUSTRATIVE COMMENTS.

ACT I.

(1) SCENE II.

Still virginalling

Upon his palm?] By “virginalling,” Leontes meant that Hermione was tapping or fingering on the hand of Polixenes, in the manner of a person playing on the “Virginals.” This instrument, which, with the spinet and harpsichord, Mr. Chappell tells us was the precursor of the modern pianoforte, was stringed, and played on with keys, formerly called jacks :

“ Where be these rascals that skip up and down,
Faster than virginal jacks?"

Ram Alley, or Merry Tricks, Act IV. Se, I. It was of an oblong shape, somewhat resembling a small square pianoforte, and, from the repeated mention of it in books of Shakespeare's age, as well as long afterwards, must have been in general vogue among the opulent. The name, as Nares supposed, was most probably derived from its being chiefly used by young girls. (2) SCENE II.

Are you mord, my lord ?] In Greene's novel, the theme of which, it will be seen from our extracts, Shakespeare pretty closely followed, except in the repulsive catastrophe, the scene of action is reversed ; Pandosto (Leontes) being King of Bohemia, and Egistus [Polixenes] King of Sicilia. After describing the visit paid by the latter to Pandosto, and the "honest familiarity which sprang up between him and Bellaria (Hermione), the novelist proceeds to expatiate on the effects of this familiarity upon the mind of Pandosto:

“He then began to measure all their actions, and to misconstrue of their too private familiaritie, judging that it was not for honest affection, but for disordinate fancy, so that hee began to watch them more narrowly to see if he coulde gette any true and certaine proofe to confirme his doubtfull suspition. While thus he noted their lookes and gestures and suspected their thoughtes and meaninges, they two seely soules, who doubted nothing of this his treacherous intent, frequented daily eache others companie, which drave him into such a franticke passion, that he beganne to beare a secret hate to Egistus and a lowring countenance to Bellaria ; who marveiling at such unaccustomed frowns, began to cast beeyond the moone, and to enter into a thousand sundrie thoughtes, which way she should offend her husband : but finding in her selfe a cleare conscience ceassed to muse, until such time as she might find fit opportunitie to demaund the cause of his dumps. In the meane time Pandostoes minde was so farre charged with jealousy, that he did no longer doubt, but was assured, (as he thought) that his friend Egistus had entered a wrong pointe in his tables, and so had played him false play.” (3) SCENE II.

I'll do't, my lord. Leon. I will seem friendly, as thou hast advis'd me.) Compare the corresponding circumstances as related in the novel :-"Devising with himself a long time how he might best put away Egistus without suspition of treacherous mur

der, hee concluded at last to poyson him; which opinion pleasing his humour, he became resolute in his determination, and the better to bring the matter to passe he called unto him his cupbearer, with whom in secret he brake the matter, promising to him for the performance thereof to geve him a thousande crownes of yearely revenues.

“ His cupbearer, eyther being of a good conscience or willing for fashion sake to deny such a bloudy request, began with great reasons to perswade Pandostó from his determinate mischief, showing him what an offence mur. ther was to the Gods; how such unnaturall actions did more displease the heavens than men, and that causelesse cruelty did sildome or never escape without revenge : he layd before his face that Egistus was his friend, a king, and one that was come into his kingdome to confirme a league of perpetuall amitie betwixt them; that he had and did shew him a most friendly countenance; how Egistus was not onely honoured of his owne people by obedience, but also loved of the Bohemians for his curtesie, and that if he now should without any just or manifest cause poyson him, it would not onely be a great dishonour to his majestie, and a meanes to sow perpetuall enmity between the Sycilians and the Bohemians, but also his owne subjects would repine at such treacherous cruelty. These and such like perswasions of Franion (for so was his cupbearer called) could no whit prevaile to diswade him from his devellish enterprize, but remaining resolute in his determination (his fury so fired with rage as it could not be appeased with reason), he began with bitter taunts to take up his man, and to lay before him two baites, preferment and death; saying that if he would poyson Egistus he would advance him to high dignities; if he refused to doe it of an obstinate minde, no torture should be too great to requite his disobedience. Franion, seeing that to perswade Pandosto any more was but to strive against the

streame, consented as soone as an opportunity would give him leave to dispatch Egistus: wherewith Pandosto remained somewhat satisfied, hoping now he should be fully revenged of such mistrusted injuries, intending also as soon as Egistus was dead to give his wife a sop of the same sawse, and so be rid of those which were the cause of his restles sorrow."

(4) SCENE II. - Come, sir, away! [Exeunt.] The betrayal of the king's jealous design is thus related in the story :-"Lingring thus in doubtfull feare, in an evening he went to Egistus lodging, and desirous to breake with him of certaine affaires that touched the king, after all were commanded out of the chamber, Franion made manifest the whole conspiracie which Pandosto had devised against him, desiring Egistus not to account him a traytor for bewraying his maisters counsaile, but to thinke that he did it for conscience: hoping that although his maister, inflamed with rage or incensed by some sinister reportes or slanderous speeches, had imagined such causelesse mischiefe, yet when time should pacifie his anger, and try those talebearers but flattering parasites, then he would count him as a faithfull servant that with such care had kept his maisters credite. Egistus had not fully heard Franion tell forth his tale, but a quaking feare possessed all his limnes, thinking that there was some treason wrought, and that Franion did but shaddow his craft with these false colours : wherefore he began to waxe in choller,

and saide that he doubted not Pandosto, sith he was his meaneng, sith his intent was to hinder treason, not to friend, and there had never as yet beene any breach of become a traytor; and to confirme his promises, if it amity. He had not sought to invade his lands, to conspire pleased his Majestie to fly into Sicilia for the safegarde with his enemies, to disswade his subjects from their alle of his life, hee would goe with him, and if then he found giance; but in word and thought he rested his at all not such a practice to be pretended, let his imagined times : he knew not therefore any cause that should moove treacherie be repayed with most monstrous torments. Pandosto to seeke his death, but suspected it to be a com Existus hearing the solemne protestations of Franion, pacted knavery of the Bohemians to bring the king and begann to consider that in love and kingdomes neither him to oddes.

faith nor lawe is to bee respected, doubting that Pandosto “ Franion staying him in the middst of his talke, told' thought by his death to destroy his men, and with speely him that to dally with princes was with the swannes to warre to invade Sicilia. These and such doubtes sing against their death, and that if the Bohemians had throughly weyghed he gave great thankes to Franion, intended any such mischiefe, it might have beene better promising if hee might with life returne to Syracusa, that brought to passe then by revealing the conspiracie ; he would create him a duke in Sycilia, craving his counsell therefore his Majestie did ill to misconstrue of his good how he might escape out of the countrie."

ACT II.

(1) SCENE I.

that although he might sufficiently requite his wives - Adieu, my lord:

falshood with the bitter plague of pinching penury, yet I never wish'd to see you sorry; now

his minde should never be glutted with revenge till he I trust I shall.]

might have fit time and opportunity to repay the “Whereupon he began to imagine that Franion and his treachery of Egistus with a totall injury. But a curst wife Bellaria had conspired with Egistus, and that the

cow hath oftentimes short hornes, and a willing minde fervent affection shee bare him was the onely meanes of but a weake arme ; for Pandosto, although he felt that his secret departure; in so much that incensed with rage

revenge was a spurre to warre, and that envy alwaies he commaundes that his wife should be carried straight proffereth steele, yet he saw that Egistus was not onely of to prison untill they heard further of his pleasure. The

great puissance and prowesse to withstand him, but had guarde, unwilling to lay their hands one such a vertuous

also many kings of his alliance to ayde him if neede should princesse and yet fearing the kings fury, went very

serve, for he married the Emperours daughter of Russia," sorrowfull to fulfill their charge. Comming to the

-Pandosto. The Triumph of Time, 1588. queenes lodging they found her playing with her yong sonne Garinter, unto whom with teares doing the mes. (2) SCENE III.--Poor thing, condemn'd to loss !] In the sage, Bellaria, astonished at such a hard censure and novel, as in the play, the unhappy queen, while in prison, finding her cleere consceence a sure advocate to pleade in gives birth to a daughter, which the king at first deterher cause, went to the prison most willingly, where with mines shall be burnt, but being diverted from this bloody sighes and teares shee past away the time till she might purpose by the remonstrance of his nobles, he resolves to come to her triall.

set the hapless infant adrift upon the sea :-—“The guard “But Pandosto, whose reason was suppressed with rage left her in this perplexitie, and carried the child to the and whose unbridled follie was incensed with fury, seeing king, who quite devoide of pity commanded that without Franion had bewrayed his secrets, and that Egistus might delay it should bee put in the boat, haying neither saile nor well be rayled on, but not revenged, determined to other [rudder ?] to guid it and so to be carried into the wreake all his wrath on poore Bellaria. He therefore midst of the sea, and there left to the wind and wave as causerl a generall proclamation to be made through all his the destinies please to appoint. The very ship-men, realme that the queene and Egistus had, by the help of seeing the sweete countenance of the yong babe, began Franion, not only committed most incestuous adultery, to accuse the king of rigor, and to pity the childs hard but also had conspired the kings death : whereupon the fortune ; but feare constrayned them to that which their traitor Franion was fled away with Egistus, and Bellaria nature did abhorre, so that they placed it in one of the was most justly imprisoned. This proclamation being ends of the boat, and with a few greene bows made a once blazed through the country, although the vertuous homely cabben to shrowd it as they could from wind and disposition of the queene did halfe discredit the contents, weather. Having thus trimmed tbe boat they tied it to yet the suddaine and speedy passage of Egistus, and the a ship and so haled it into the mayne sea, and then cut in secret departure of Franion, induced them (the circum sunder the coarde ; which they had no sooner done, but stances throughly considered) to thinke that both the there arose a mighty tempest, which tossed the little proclamation was true, and the king greatly injured : yet boate so vehemently in the waves that the ship men they pittyed her case, as sorrowful that so good a ladye thought it could not continue long without sincking; should be crossed with such adverse fortune. But the yea, the storm grew so great, that with much labour and king, whose restlesse rage would remit no pitty, thought perill they got to the shoare."

ACT III.

(1) SCENE II.-Look for no less than death.] " But leaving the childe to her fortunes, againe to Pandosto, who not yet glutted with sufficient revenge desired which way he should best increase his wives calamitie. But first assembling his pobles and counsellors, hee called her for the more reproch into open court, where it was objected against her that she had committed adulterie with

Eyistus, and conspired with Franion to poyson Pandosto her husband, but their pretence being partely spyed, she counselled them to flie away by night for their better safety. Bellaria, who standing like a prisoner at the barre, feeling in herselfe a cleare conscience to withstand her false accusers, seeing that no lesse than death could pacifie her husbands wrath, waxed bolde and desired that

she might have lawe and justice, for mercy shee neyther divine essence knew al secrets, gave answere that she was craved nor hoped for; and that those perjured wretches guiltie, she were content to suffer any torment were it which had falsely accused her to the king might be never so terrible. The request was so reasonable that brought before her face to give in evidence. But Pan Pandosto could not for shame deny it, unlesse he would dosto, whose rage and jealousie was such as no reason nor bee counted of all his subjects more wilfull than wise: he equitie could appease, tolde her, that for her accusers therefore agreed that with as much speede as might be they were of such credite as their wordes were sufficient there should be certaine Embassadores dispatched to the witnesse, and that the sodaine and secret flight of Egistus Ile of Delphos, and in the meane season he commanded and Franion confirmed that which they had confessed ; that his wife should be kept in close prison.” and as for her, it was her parte to deny such a monstrous crime, and to be impudent in forswearing the fact, since

(3) SCENE II.-And the king shall live without an heir, shee had past all shame in committing the fault: but her if that which is lost be not found.) The answer of the state countenaunce should stand for no coyne, for as the oracle in the play is almost literally the same as that in bastard which she bare was served, so she should with

the tale : some cruell death be requited.”—Pandosto. The Triumph

"THE ORACLE. of Time, 1588.

“Suspition is no proofe : Jealousie is an unequal judge :

Bellaria is chast: Égistus blameless: Franion a true sub(2) SCENE II.Your honours all,

ject: Pandosto treacherous : His babe innocent, and the

king shall live long without an heire, if that which is lost be I do refer me to the oracle:

not founde." Apollo be my judge !] The extracts here given will show that in most of the inci (4) SCENE III.—They have scared away two of my best dents connected with the arraignment of the queen, the sheep,-- if anyhere I have them, 'tis by the sea-side, great dramatist varies but little from the story. He has browzing of ivy.) This is one of the instances, proving that made one important change, however, without which we Shakespeare had the novel before him while composing his should have lost the finest scene in the play; for in the drama, in which the identical expression of the original is novel the unfortunate lady, overcome with grief for the transferred to the copy. After recounting how the babe, death of her eldest child, expires in the public court shortly which had been left to the mercies of the "gastfull seas," after the response of the oracle is declared.

“ floated two whole daies without succour, readie at every The noble men which sate in judgement said that Bel puffe to bee drowned in the sea, till at last the tempest laria spake reason, and intreated the king that the accusers ceased and the little boate was driven with the tyde into might be openly examined and sworne, and if then the the coaste of Sycilia, where sticking uppon the sandes it evidence were such as the jury might finde her guilty, (for rested,” the novelist proceeds to tell that, “It fortuned a seeing she was a prince she ought to be tryed by her peeres) poore mercenary sheepheard that dwelled in Sycilia, who then let her have such punishment as the extremitie of the got his living by other mens flockes, missed one of his law will assigne to such malefactors. The king presently sheepe, and thinking it had strayed into the covert that was made answere that in this case he might and would dis hard by, sought very diligently to find that which he could pence with the law, and that the jury being once panneld not see, fearing either that the wolves or eagles had unthey should take his word for sufficient evidence, other done him (for he was so poore as a sheepe was halfe his wise he would make the proudest of them repent it. The substance), wandered downe toward the sea cliffes to see if noble men seeing the king in choler were all whist; but perchaunce the sheepe was browsing on the sea ivy, whereon Bellaria, whose life then hung in the ballaunce, fearing more they greatly doe feede; but not finding her there, as he was perpetual infamie than momentarie death, told the king if ready to returne to his flocke hee heard a child crie, but his furie might stand for a law that it were vaine to have knowing there was no house nere, he thought he had misthe jury yeeld their verdict; and therefore she fell downe taken the sound and that it was the bleatyng of his sheepe. upon her knees, and desired the king that for the love he Wherefore looking more narrowely, as he cast his eye to bare to his young sonne Garinter, whome she brought into the sea, he spyed a little boate, from whence, as he attenthe world, that hee would grannt her a request; which tively listened, he might heare the cry to come. Standing was this, that it would please his majestie to send sixe of a good while in a maze, at last he went to the shoare, and his noble men whom he best trusted to the Isle of Delphos, wading to the boate, as he looked in he saw the little babe there to enquire of the oracle of Apollo whether she had lying al alone ready to die for hunger and colde, wrapped committed adultery with Egistus or conspired to poyson in a mantle of scarlet richely imbrodered with golde, and him with Franion) and if the god Apollo, who by his having a chayne about the necke."

Bell

ACT IV.

(1) SCENE II.-Trol-my-dames.] A game more anciently known as “Pigeon-holes," because the balls were driven through arches on the board resembling the apertures in a dove-cote. It is mentioned in a treatise, quoted by Farmer, on Buckstone Bathes ;"_"The ladyes, gentle woomen, wyves, maydes, if the weather be not agreeable, may have in the ende of a benche eleven holes made, intoo the which to troule pummits, either wyolent or softe, after their own discretion : thé pastyme troule in madame is termed;" and an illustration, showing the board and mode of play, will be found prefixed to Emblem No. II. in Quarles' “Emblems," 1635, which begins :

" Prepost'rous fool, thou troul'st amiss;

.” (2) SCENE II.-An ape-bearer.) In explanation of a passage in Massinger's play of “The Bondman," Act III. Sc. 3, Gifford has an amusing note on the excellence displayed by our ancestors in the education of animals :* Banks's horse far surpassed all that have been brought up in the academy of Mr. Astley; and the apes of these days are mere clowns to their progenitors. The apes of Massinger's time were gifted with a pretty smattering of politics and philosophy. The widow Wild had one of them: * He would come over for all my friends, but was the dog.

ged'st thing to my enemies; he would sit upon his tale
before them, and frown like John-a-napes when the pope
is named.'The Parson's Wedding.
Another may be found in Ram Ålley :-
"Men say you've tricks; remember, noble captain,

You skip when I shall shake my whip. Now, sir,
What can you do for the great Turk?

Jog on, jog on the foot - path way, And
What can you do for the Pope of Rome?
Lo!
He stirreth not, he moveth not, he waggeth not.
What can you do for the town of Geneva, sirrah?

[Captain holds up his hand," &c. The occupation of the ape-bearer, then, was to instruct apes in their tumbling, and to exhibit the learned animals for a consideration to the public. The course of tuition must have required no little patience on the part of the teacher, and great docility in the pupil.; for it usually ended in giving to the ape-bearer an absolute control over the creature, which, by means of some secret correspondence between them, could be made to express either anger

mer-ri - ly hent the stile, 0); A mer-ry heart goes or good-humour at the keeper's will. This perfect mastery gave occasion for a saying attributed to James I.--"If I have Jack-a-napes, I can make him bite you ; if you have Jack-a-napes, you can make him bite me." In the Induction to Ben Jonson's "Bartholomew Fair," the stagekeeper speaks of "a juggler with a well-educated ape, to come over the chain for a King of England, and back again for the prince; and sit still for the Pope and the King of Spain." This evolution of coming over, &c. was performed by the animal's placing his forepaws on the ground, and turning over the chain on his head, and going

[ T. back again in the same fashion, as the feat is represented in an illuminated manuscript of the fourteenth century.

all the day, Your sad tires in a mile, 0. (3) SCENE II.-- Then he compassed a motion of the Produgal Son.) A "Motion," though sometimes used to denote a puppet, more frequently signified a puppet-show. In these exhibitions, the successors of the ancient Mysteries, scriptural subjects appear to have been the most attractive. In Ben Jonson's ** Bartholomew Fair,” Act V. Sc. I., the master of a puppet-show ejaculates,-"O, the motions

(5) SCENE III. that I Lanthorn Leatherhead have given light to in my

I bless the time, time since my master, Pod, died ! Jerusalem was a stately

When my good falcon made her flight across thing, and so was Nineveh and the City of Norwich, and

Thy father's ground.] Sodom and Gomorrah," &c. Mr. Halliwell has given an engraving representing the performance of a Motion of the So in the tale :"It happened not long after this that Prodigal Son, copied from an English woodcut of the seven

there was a meeting of all the farmers daughters in Syteenth century; and Strutt, in his “Sports and Pastimes," cilia, whither Fawnia was also bidden as the mistres of the reprints a Bartholomew Fair showman's bill, which affords feast, who having attired her selfe in her best garments, a lively picture of what a Motion was in later times :"At went among the rest of her companions to the merry Crawley's Booth, over against the Crown Tavern in Smith meeting, there spending the day in such homely pastimes field, during the time of Bartholomew Fair, will be pre as shepheards use. As the evening grew on, and their sented a little opera called the Old Creation of the World, sportes ceased, ech taking their leave at other, Fawnia, yet newly revived; with the addition of Noah's Flood; desiring one of her companions to beare her companie, also several fountains playing water during the time of

went home by the flocke to see if they were well folded, the play.--The last scene does present Noah and his family and as they returned it fortuned that Dorastus (who ali coming out of the Ark with all the beasts two and two, that day had been hawking, and kilde store of game) inand all the fowls of the air seen in a prospect sitting upon

countred by the way these two mayds, and casting his eye trees; likewise over the Ark is seen the Sun rising in a sodenly on Fawnia he was halfe afraid fearing that with most glorious manner: moreover, a multitude of Angels

Acteon he had seene Diana ; for he thought such exquisite will be seen in a double rank, which presents a double perfection could not be founde in any mortall creature." prospect, one for the sun, the other for a palace, where will be seen six Angels ringing of bells.— Likewise

(6) SCENE IIT. Machines descend from above, double and treble, with Dives rising out of Hell, and Lazarus seen in Abraham's

The gods themselves, bosom," &c.

Humbling their deities to love, have taken

The shapes of beasts upon them: Jupiter (4) SCENE II.

Became a bull, and Vellow'd; the green Neptune Jog on, jog on, the foot-path way,

and bleated ; and the fire-rob'd god,
And merrily hent the stile-a.

Golden Apollo, a poor humble swain,
A merry heart goes all the day,

As I seem now.] Your sad tires in a mile-a.] These lines are part of a song found in a collection of Literally, this is from the novel ; but mark the change “ Witty Ballads, Jovial Songs, and Merry Catches," called effected by the few but admirably chosen epithets: An Antidote against Melancholy ;" 1661. It is said to "And yet, Dorastus, shame not at thy shepheards weede ; have been set as a round for three voices by John Hilton ; the heavenly godes have sometime earthly thoughtes. and the melody, a base and accompaniment being added, Neptune became a ram, Jupiter a bul, Apollo a shepis given as follows from “ The Dancing Master," 1650, by heard : they gods, and yet in love ; and thou a man Mr. Knight in his “ Pictorial Shakespeare:"

appointed to love."

A ram,

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