M.E. Sharpe, 1999 M03 26
This short and accessible introductory text discusses how people in a pluralistic society such as ours can accept a common social ethic--a publicly justified morality. It presents clear analyses of the basic concepts, including justifications of liberty, harm to others, private property rights, distributive justice, environmental harms, help to others and offensive behavior. Gaus acquaints the reader with the major figures in social philosophy--John Stuart Mill, Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, John Rawls, David Gauthier, and Joel Feinberg--as well as recent communitarian philosophers. The basic technical aspects of social philosophy are also introduced: game theory, social choice theory, the ideas rational action, rational bargaining, and public goods. Throughout, helpful short examples and stories are used to illustrate the material.
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62 Two Key Criticisms of Rawlss Contractual Theory
63 Liberal Contractualism
A Framework for Public Morality
72 Mills Case for Liberty of Action
24 Public Justification and Reasonableness
25 Consensus and Convergence Justifications
Valuepromoting Public Moralities
32 Competing Values and Public Justification
Wide Consensus on Basic Goods
Utilitarianism as a Public Morality
42 Jeremy Bentham and Utilitarianism
43 Wantsatisfaction Utilitarianism
44 The Problems of Interpersonal Comparisons and Aggregating Preferences
45 Is Value Impersonal?
46 Nonteleological Utilitarianism
47 Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy
52 Simple NeoHobbesianism
53 Gauthiers Reformulation of Hobbesian Moral Contractualism
54 Is Strong Contractualism Really About Social Morality?
The Harm Principle
82 Psychological Harms
83 Is It Always a Harm to Set Back an Interest?
84 Risk of Harm
85 Harmful Acts and Omissions
92 Lockean Theory and the Proviso
Compensation for Losses
94 Desert Distributive Justice and Property
Public Harms and Common Goods
102 The Public Goods Principle
103 Common Goods
Two QuasiMillian Principles
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Page 48 - Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do.
Page 3 - It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question. The other party to the comparison knows both sides.
Page 99 - Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all.
Page 142 - There are many who consider as an injury to themselves any conduct which they have a distaste for, and resent it as an outrage to their feelings; as a religious bigot, when charged with disregarding the religious feelings of others, has been known to retort that they disregard his feelings, by persisting in their abominable worship or creed.
Page 14 - In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain, and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and, which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor,...
Page 200 - But the strongest of all the arguments against the interference of the public with purely personal conduct is that, when it does interfere, the odds are that it interferes wrongly and in the wrong place.