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be not of kin to God by his spirit, he is a base and ignoble creature. It destroys likewise magnanimity, and the raising human nature: for take an example of a dog, and mark what a generosity and courage he will put on, when he finds himself maintained by a man, who to him is instead of a god, or melior natura: which courage is manifestly such, as that creature, without that confidence of a better nature than his own, could never attain. So man, when he resteth and assureth himself upon Divine protection and favour, gathereth a force and faith, which human nature in itself could not obtain. Therefore as Atheism is in all respects hateful, so in this, that it depriveth human nature of the means to exalt itself above human frailty. As it is in particular persons, so it is in nations. Never was there such a State for magnanimity, as Rome. Of this State hear what Cicero saith :

Although, o Conscript Fathers, we may be as partial to ourselves as we please, yet it is neither by our numerous armies that we have subdued the Spaniards, nor by our strength the Gauls, nor by our stratagems the Carthaginians, nor by our skill in the arts the Grecians, nor lastly by this yery domestic and native sense of this nation and land have we subdued the Italians themselves and Latins; but by that piety and due sense of religion, because we have perceived that all things are ruled

and controlled by the power

of the immortal Gods, we have conquered all people and all nations."

Of Superstition. It were better to have no opinion of God at all, than such an opinion as is unworthy of him: for the one is unbelief, the other is contumely; and certainly Superstition is the reproach of the Deity. Plutarch saith well to that purpose : “ Surely (saith he) I had rather a great deal men should say, there was no such man at all as Plutarch, than that they should

say, that there was one Plutarch, that would eat his children as soon as they were born;" as the poets speak of Saturn. And as the contumely is greater towards God, so the danger is greater towards men.

Atheism leaves a man to sense, to philosophy, to natural piety, to laws, to reputation; all which

may be guides to an outward moral virtue, though religion were not: but Superstition dismounts all these, and erecteth an absolute monarchy in the minds of inen. Therefore Atheism did never perturb states; for it makes men wary of themselves, as looking no further : and we see the times inclined to Atheism (as the time of Augustus Cæsar) were civil times. But Superstition hath been the confusion of many states, and bringeth in a new primum mobile, that ravisheth all the spheres

of government. The master of Superstition is the people; and in all Superstition, wise men follow fools, and arguments are fitted to practice in a reversed order. It was gravely said by some of the prelates in the Council of Trent, where the doctrine of the school-men bare great sway, " That the school-men were like astronomers, which did feign eccentrics, and epicycles, and such engines of orbs, to save the phenomena; though they knew there were no such things," And ip like manner, that the school-men had framed a number of subtile and intricate axioms and theorems, to save the practice of the Church, The causes of Superstitions are, pleasing and sensual rites and ceremonies: excess of outward and Pharisaical holiness : over-great reverence of traditions, which cannot but load the Church: the stratagems of prelates for their own ambition and lucre; the favouring too much of good intentions, which openeth the gate to conceits and novelties: the taking an aim at Divine matters by human, which cannot but breed mixture of imaginations: and lastly, barbarous times, especially joiped with calamities and disasters. Superstition without a veil is a deformed thing: for, as it addeth deformity to an ape to be so like a man; so the similitude of Superstition to Religion makes it the more deformed.

And as wholesome meat corrupteth to little worms; so

good forms and orders corrupt into a number of petty observances.

There is a Superstition in avoiding Superstition, when men think to do best, if they go furthest from the Superstition formerly received. Therefore care should be had, that (as it fareth in ill purgings) the good be not taken away with the bad ; which commonly is done, when the people is the reformer.


Of Travel. Travel, in the younger sort, is a part of education ; in the elder, a part of experience. He that travelleth into a country before he bath some entrance into the language, goeth to school, and not to travel. That young men travel under some tutor, or grave servant, I allow well; so that he be such a one that hath the language, and hath been in the country before; whereby he may be able to tell them, what things are worthy to be seen in the country where they go, what acquaintances they are to seek, what exercises or discipline the place yieldeth. For else young men shall go hooded, and look abroad little. It is a strange thing, that in sea voyages, where there is nothing to be seen but sky and sea, men should make diaries ; but in landtravel, wherein so much is to be observed, for the most part they omit it: as if chance were fitter to

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be registered than observation. Let diaries therefore be brought in use. The things to be seen and observed, are the courts of princes, especially when they give audience to ambassadors : the courts of justice, while they sit and hear causes; and so of consistories ecclesiastic: the churches and monasteries, with the monuments which are therein extant: the walls and fortifications of cities and towns; and so the havens and harbours : antiquities and ruins : libraries, colleges, disputations and lectures, where any are: shipping and navies : houses and gardens of state and pleasure near great cities : armouries, arsenals, magazines, exchanges, burses, warehouses : exercises of horsemanship, fencing, training of soldiers, and the like: comedies, such whereunto the better sort of persons do resort. Treasuries of jewels and robes : cabinets and rarities. And to conclude, whatsoever is memorable in the places where they go. After all which the tutors or servants ought to make diligent inquiry. As for triumphs, masks, feasts, weddings, funerals, capital executions, and such shows; men need not be put in mind of them: yet are they not to be neglected. If


will have a young man to put his Travel into a little room, and in short time to gather much, this you must do. First, as was said, he must have some entrance into the language before he

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