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broken of it, if they shall be preserved in vigour. Therefore it was great advantage in the ancient states of Sparta, Athens, Rome, and others, that they had the use of slaves, which commonly did rid those manufactures : but that is abolished, in greatest part, by the Christian law. That which cometh nearest to it, is, to leave those arts chiefly to strargers (which for that purpose are the more easily to be received), and to contain the principal bulk of the vulgar natives within those three kinds; tillers of the ground, free servants, and handicrafts-men of strong and manly arts ; as smiths, masons, carpenters, &c. not reckoning professed soldiers.
But above all, for Empire and Greatuess it importeth most, that a nation do profess arms as their principal honour, study, and occupation: for the things which we formerly have spoken of, are but habilitations towards arms; and what is habilitation, without intention and act? Romulus, after his death, (as they report or feign) sent a present to the Romans, that above all they should intend arms, and then they should prove the greatest Empire of the world. The fabric of the state of Sparta was wholly (though not wisely) framed and composed to that scope and end. The Persians and Macedonians had it for a flash. The Gauls, Germans, Goths, Saxons, Normans, and others, had it for a time. The Turks have it at this day, though in
great declination. Of Christian Europe, they that have it, are in effect only the Spaniards. But it is so plain, “ that every man profiteth in that he most intendeth," that it needeth not to be stood upon. It is enough to point at it, that no nation which doth not directly profess arms, may look to have Greatness fall into their mouths. And on the other side, it is a most certain oracle of time, that those States that continue long in that profession (as the Romans and Turks principally have done) do wonders; and those that have professed arms but for an age, have notwithstanding commonly attained that greatness in that age, which maintained them long after, when their profession and exercise of arms hath grown to decay.
Incident to this point is, for a State to have those laws or customs which may reach forth unto them just occasions (as may be pretended) of war: for there is that justice imprinted in the nature of men, that they enter not upon wars (whereof so many calamities do ensue) but upon some, or at least specious grounds and quarrels. The Turk hath at hand, for cause of war, the propagation of his law or sect, a quarrel that he may always command. The Romans, though they esteemed the extending the limits of their Enpire to be great honour to their generals, when it was done ; yet they never rested
upon that alone to begin a war. First, there
fore, let nations that pretend to Greatness, have this--that they be sensible of
upon borderers, merchants, or politic ministers; and that they sit not too long upon a provocation. Secondly, let them be pressed, and ready to give aids and succours to their confederates; as it ever was with the Romans : insomuch as if the confederate had leagues defensive with divers other States, and, upon invasion offered, did implore their aids severally; yet the Romans would ever be the foremost, and leave it to none other to have the honour. As for the wars which were anciently made on the behalf of a kind of party, or tacit conformity of estate, I do not well see, how they may be well justified: as when the Romans made a war for the liberty of Græcia ; or when the Lacedæmonians and Athenians made wars to set up or pull down democrácies and oligarchies; or when wars were made by foreigners, under the pretence of justice or protection, to deliver the subjects of others from tyranny and oppression, and the like. Let it suffice, that no Estate expect to be great, that is not awake, upon any just occasion of arming.
No body can be healthful without exercise, neither natural body nor politic; and certainly to a Kingdom or Estate, a just and honourable war is the true exercise. A civil war indeed is like the heat of a fever: but a for gn war is like the heat of ex
ercise, and serveth to keep the body in health: for in a slothful peace, both courages
will effeminate, and manners corrupt.
But howsoever it be for happiness, without all question, for Greatness, it maketh to be still, for the most part, in arms; and the strength of a veteran army (though it be a chargeable business) always on foot, is that which commonly giveth the law, or at least the reputation amongst all neighbour States; as may well be seen in Spain, which hath had in one part or other a veteran army, almost continually, now by the space of six-score years.
To be master of the sea, is an abridgment of a monarchy. Cicero writing to Atticus, of Pompey his preparation against Cæsar, saith: “ The design of Pompey is plainly the same as was that of Themistocles; for he thinks that he who obtains the dominion of the sea, must have dominion over every thing else.”
And without doubt Pompey had tired out Cæsar, if upon vain confidence he had not left that way. We see the great effects of battles by sea. The battle of Actium decided the empire of the world. The battle of Lepanto arrested the greatness of the Turk. There be many examples, where sea-fights have been final to the war; but this is when Princes or States have set up their rest upon the battles. But thus much is certain, that he that commands the sea, is at great
liberty, and may take as much, and as little of the war, as he will; whereas those that be strongest by land, are many times nevertheless in great straits. Surely at this day, with us of Europe, the vantage of strength at sea (which is one of the principal dowries of this kingdom of Great Britain) is great; both because most of the kingdoms of Europe are not merely in land, but girt with the sea, most part of their compass; and because the wealth of both Indies seems in great part but an accessary to the command of the seas.
The wars of latter ages seem to be made in the dark, in respect of the glory and honour which reflected upon men from the wars in antient time. There be now, for martial encouragement, some degrees and orders of chivalry, which nevertheless are conferred promiscuously upon soldiers and no soldiers ; and some remembrance perhaps upon the scutcheon; and some hospitals for maimed soldiers, and such like things. But in antient times, the trophies erected upon the place of the victory; the funeral laudatives and monuments for those that died in the wars; the crowns and garlands personal; the style of Emperor, which the great king of the world after borrowed; the triumphs of the Generals upon their return; the great donatives and largesses upon the disbanding of the armies, were things able to infame all men's courages. But