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tain for it. Ordinarily, they have only one of two courses—to reduce themselves to starvation, or to outbid one another in lowering the value of each other's labour. This, then, is unwilling competition. Oppression, competition, and opposition, baving nearly the same signification, the first and second are frequently used by us synonimously with the third. The word pauperism is not always applied to signify extreme destitution, but to the not having sufficient wealth for all reasonable desires. By the expression national churches, we mean those wherein the ministers are not appointed by the persons over whom they preside ; and which ministers are consequently supported by compulsory taxation. An awkwardness has been felt in the application of the term love in reference to mankind, but we know of no other to supply its place. It is ever used by us in the way our Lord applies it.-(Mat. xxII.—37 to 39). By the phrase political right, we mean the right of making and executing the laws of a nation. This right, in every country and age, we shall endeavour to make appear, is alone centered in all the native adult males. When the word lawfully, or terms of similar import, are used, we mean them in reference to that which accords with the law of God; and wholly irrespective of the human laws of any country.

Against some of the things advanced in the following Essay, the most violent opposition may be expected from a certain class. Whenever, therefore, we found any thing expressing our views, we gladly seized the opportunity to transfer it to our pages; that such of our readers as are unaccustomed to the inquiries therein pursued, may see that a most material part of what we advance, is fully supported by preceding writers. Many of the quotations are extracted from various parts of their authors' works. They do not in the Essay always follow each other in the order they stand in the originals. An apology is due to the reader, as to these, for not noting that they are composed of isolated passages. The having failed so to note them arose entirely from inadvertence. It is, however, unimportant. The titles of the works and names of the authors being given, the reader may refer to the originals. The sole object in thus giving the quotations, was to condense the most important truths into the smallest compass. To certain opinions, entertained by some of the writers, from whom quotations are made, no man can be more opposed than the author of the following Essay. With these opinions be has nothing to do, but to lament that they were ever formed. What is by him quoted from the authors alluded to, he believes to be some of the most important truths that have ever been promulgated; and the most material of them are acquiesced in by Milton, Locke, Hooker, Blackstone ; and other writers of equal celebrity. With reference to the views of any persons whatever, he has been, as far as his judgment allowed, guided by the words of Dr. Watts :

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perfectly than it ought, by created beings educing less good to themselves than he designed that they should. It might also have been rebelled against, by created beings either singly or in association educing positive evil to themeelves and others. The intimations in sacred writ of the angels which kept not their first estate,” and the past and present state of our world, too sadly evince that both have been realized ! All the good effects educed throughout the three great departments of the Universe, may therefore be considered to arise from right obedience to the one simple and sublime Law of Association ; all the less beneficial, and positively evil ones, from Moral Agents not obeying such law according to their Creator's will. The Material world, from its having no volition, must necessarily ever be obedient to the divine will. Some modes in which men may associate so as to educe evil, are obvious to the most superficial observer. The manner in which they may associate commercially and politically so as to educe evil, is less apparent. To this, and other matters therewith connected, the reader's attention is solicited in the following Essay.

A necessity has arisen to treat of political questions of the highest import. But any allusion, direct or indirect, to any person or persons whatever that have lived, do now, or shall hereafter live on the British Islands, or any part of the globe under the control of the British government; is to be considered as entirely avoided (except when any one or more of such persons are expressly adverted to); though, to prevent tautology, he, she, or they, is not, or are not, declared to be excepted, when allusion is made to a part or the whole of mankind.

To prevent misapprehension, an explanation may be given of some expressions. The word oppression, following the Bible, we apply in two senses,-political, that which abstracts from men their rights ;commercial, that which deprives them of their labour or any part of its produce ; either by reducing them to that kind of slavery where they are sold and bought like bales of goods, or by buying labour or its produce at a rate unfairly low, or selling either at a rate unfairly high ;-in other words, buying too cheaply, or selling too dearly. The commercial term competition may thus be explained :-Suppose there are three linendrapers in a country town, each desirous of doing as much business as possible. Each bays as cheaply as he can, that by underselling his neighbours he may engross a large share of trade. And thus they compete with one another. In a lower sense, competition consists in all the modes commercial men adopt, each to augment his own trade, without regarding how prejudicially he influences his brother competitors, or mankind in general. This, then, is willing competition. An other kind exists which may be thus explained :-Mechanics and others, who labour by the day, must sell their time at any price they can obtain for it. Ordinarily, they have only one of two courses—to reduce themselves to starvation, or to outbid one another in lowering the value of each other's labour. This, then, is unwilling competition. Oppression, competition, and opposition, having nearly the same signification, the first and second are frequently used by us synonimously with the third. The word pauperism is not always applied to signify extreme destitution, but to the not having sufficient wealth for all reasonable desires. By the expression national churches, we mean those wherein the ministers are not appointed by the persons over whom they preside ; and which ministers are consequently supported by compulsory taxation. An awkwardness has been felt in the application of the term love in reference to mankind, but we know of no other to supply its place. It is ever used by us in the way our Lord applies it.-(Mat.xxi.37 to 39). By the phrase political right, we mean the right of making and executing the laws of a nation. This right, in every country and age, we shall endeavour to make appcar, is alone centered in all the native adult males. When the word lawfully, or terms of similar import, are used, we mean them in reference to that which accords with the law of God; and wholly irrespective of the human laws of any country.

Against some of the things advanced in the following Essay, the most violent opposition may be expected from a certain class. Whenever, therefore, we found any thing expressing our views, we gladly seized the opportunity to transfer it to our pages; that such of our readers as are unaccustomed to the inquiries therein pursued, may see that a most material part of what we advance, is fully supported by preceding writers. Many of the quotations are extracted from various parts of their authors' works. They do not in the Essay always follow each other in the order they stand in the originals. An apology is due to the reader, as to these, for not noting that they are composed of isolated passages. The having failed so to note them arose entirely from inadvertence. It is, however, unimportant. The titles of the works and names of the authors being given, the reader may refer to the originals. The sole object in thus giving the quotations, was to condense the most important truths into the smallest compass. To certain opinions, entertained by some of the writers, from whom quotations are made, no man can be more opposed than the author of the following Essay. With these opinions be has nothing to do, but to lament that they were ever formed. What is by him quoted from the authors alluded to, he believes to be some of the most important truths that have ever been promulgated; and the most material of them are acquiesced in by Milton, Locke, Hooker, Blackstone ; and other writers of equal celebrity. With reference to the views of any persons whatever, he has been, as far as his judgment allowed, guided by the words of Dr. Watts :

perfectly than it ought, by created beings cducing less good to themselves than he designed that they should. It might also have been rebelled against, by created beings either singly or in association educing positive evil to themselves and others. The intimations in sacred writ of the angels which kept not their first estate," and the past and present state of our world, too sadly evince that both have been realized ! All the good effects educed throughout the three great departments of the Universe, may therefore be considered to arise from right obedience to the one simple and sublime Law of Association ; all the less beneficial, and positively evil ones, from Moral Agents not obeying such law according to their Creator's will. The Material world, from its having no volition, must necessarily ever be obedient to the divine will. Some modes in which men may associate so as to educe evil, are obvious to the most superficial observer. The manner in which they may associate commercially and politically so as to educe evil, is less apparent. To this, and other matters therewith connected, the reader's attention is solicited in the following Essay.

A necessity has arisen to treat of political questions of the highest import. But any allusion, direct or indirect, to any person or persons whatever that have lived, do now, or shall hereafter live on the British Islands, or any part of the globe under the control of the British government; is to be considered as entirely avoided (except when any one or more of such persons are expressly adverted to); though, to prevent tautology, he, she, or they, is not, or are not, declared to be excepted, when allusion is made to a part or the whole of mankind.

To prevent misapprehension, an explanation may be given of some expressions. The word oppression, following the Bible, we apply in two senses,--political, that which abstracts from men their rights ;commercial, that which deprives them of their labour or any part of its produce ; either by reducing them to that kind of slavery where they are sold and bought like bales of goods, or by buying labour or its produce at a rate unfairly low, or selling either at a rate unfairly high ;-in other words, buying too cheaply, or selling too dearly. The commercial term competition may thus be explained :-Suppose there are three linendrapers in a country town, each desirous of doing as much business as possible. Each buys as cheaply as he can, that by underselling his neighbours he may engross a large share of trade. And thus they compete with one another. In a lower sense, competition consists in all the modes commercial men adopt, each to augment his own trade, without regarding how prejudicially he influences his brother competitors, or mankind in general. This, then, is willing competition. Another kind exists which may be thus explained :-Mechanics and others, who labour by the day, must sell their time at any price they can ob

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