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tells us, the reputation of the universities had already suffered much, and the authorities began to look about for ways and means to end the disgrace. Germany broke up the custom about 1660, and similar action became more or less general, thus giving rise to marked improvement in the university life and work.

REFERENCES 1. Myers' “General History." 2. Monroe's “Cyclopedia of Education.” 3. Graves' “History of Education,” vol. III, “Modern Times.” 4. Parker's “Modern Elementary Education.” 5. Duggan's “History of Education.” 6. Lord's "Beacon Lights of History.” 7. Guizot's “History of Civilization." 8. Schwickerath's "Jesuit' Education." 9. Mombert's “Great Lives." 10. Quick's “Educational Reformers.” 11. Hughes’ “Loyola."

QUESTIONS

1. Trace the course of the Reformation as an educational event.

2. Consider Luther in the making as fully as possible. Why did Luther insist on an "open Bible”? Compare his position with that of paganism, Romanism, and modern Prussianism as an educational ideal. How were his writings related to the ends in view? Gather up Luther's ideas on education, and compare each with present ideas on the same subjects. Estimate the greatness of Luther as a force in educational progress.

3. What was there in his training and personality that made Melanchthon such a valuable coworker of Luther? In what three ways did Melanchthon serve the cause of education ? Explain these services at length.

4. Account for Zwingli as an educational reformer, and describe his services to the cause of education.

5. Account as fully as possible for Calvin's presence at Geneva, and explain his services to the cause of education.

6. Account for John Knox as an educational reformer, and describe his services to the cause.

7. Give the fundamental aná secondary reasons for the stimulating effect which the Reformation had on elementary education. Trace this effect in Germany, England, and elsewhere. Account for the narrow curriculum, mechanical methods, and harsh discipline in the "country schools."

8. Describe the education which the Reformation offered to gir s.

9. Why did the Reformation promote interest in secondary education ? Describe the education thus planned for princes.

10. How did the Reformation help to produce the Latin schools (gymnasiums)? Trace this movement in several countries.

II. Account for Sturm's humanism. Describe his gymnasium as a system of means to ends. Estimate the influence of Sturm.

12. How did Loyola come to found the Jesuits? Describe the Jesuit gymnasiums and the Jesuit colleges as a system of means to ends. Describe their pedagogical mistakes, and account for their career.

13. How did the Reformation affect the number, course, and morals of the universities?

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CHAPTER XIII

THE JANSENISTS, THE CHRISTIAN BROTHERS, AND

THE PIETISTS

The time came in Europe--it was hastened by the misfortunes and the sorrows of the Thirty Years' War ---when thoughtful men of every creed began to realize the insufficiency of a religion that did not satisfy the heart and provide life with powerful motives in the service of God. In France this conviction produced especially the teaching orders known as the Jansenists and the Christian Brothers, while in Protestant Germany it produced the Pietists.

Cornelius Jansen (1585–1638), a Dutch professor at the University of Louvain, and later Bishop of Ypres, had made a profound study of St. Augustine, and reached conclusions regarding the grace of God somewhat similar to those of Calvin. Although his doctrines fell under the ban of the church, his followers, like the bishop himself, remained loyal to the church. Men of prominence and ability became deeply interested, and under the leadership of his friend the Abbé de St. Cyran, a number of them established themselves at Port Royal, near Versailles, to devote themselves to various ascetic activities through which they hoped to save souls.

The Port Royalists.—The Port Royal Jansenists felt that the corruption to which flesh was heir could be eliminated, and the number of the elect saved, only by religious and moral watchfulness against the wiles of the devil. In 1643, Abbé de St. Cyran, moved by this profound concern for souls, laid the foundation of schools in which the children should be under supervision day and night. A school was to consist of twenty-five boys or less, and no master was to have personal charge of more than five or six pupils. For this reason, and also to keep the universities from thinking that, like the Jesuits, they were going to compete with them, the Port Royalists called themselves the "little schools." Similar arrangements were made for girls, who were placed in charge of women of rare and beautiful character. Like the “Oratorians,” another teaching congregation founded in 1611, the Port Royal Jansenists accepted the philosophy of Descartes, and held to the development of “reason,” thus coming into early conflict with the Jesuits, who, as we have seen, made much of authority and routine. The result was that in 1660, after an existence of less than a quarter of a century, Louis XIV, instigated by the Jesuits, suppressed the "little schools," and dispersed the teachers, thus, as Paroz says, robbing France of almost two centuries of progress.

Definite Purpose. — The fundamental purpose of Jansenism, as already stated, was to fortify the baptized soul against the wiles of the devil. This purpose was to be accomplished by inculcating genuine Christian piety as the only sufficient guarantee. On this point St. Cyran himself says: “It is always necessary to be on guard as in a beleaguered city. The devil makes his circuit outside; he early attacks the baptized; he comes to reconnoitre the place; if the Holy Spirit does not fill it, he will fill it."

Closely associated with the fundamental purpose of Jansenism was that of developing the reason--"to carry forward intelligence," as Nicole puts it; "to impart to the mind a love and discernment of truth; to render it delicate in discovering false reasoning; to let it not be put off with obscure words and principles, and not to be satisfied until the foundations are reached; to render it subtle in seizing the point in complicated questions, and to discover what is relevant; to fill it with principles of truth which will be helpful in finding it in all things."

Curriculum.-Children were taken at nine or ten years of age and kept through the difficult years of the “teens” if possible. “Up to the age of twelve,” we are told, the pupils were occupied with sacred history, geography, and history, under the form of amusements, in a manner to develop their intelligence without wearying it. The regular course of study began at twelve and included the Greek and Latin classics, together with grammar, rhetoric, logic, mathematics, and the Church Fathers. Physical culture and science received scant notice. Said Nicole: “The sciences should be employed only as an instrument for perfecting the reason."

Methods. In order to carry the intellect of the pupil to the highest point, the Jansenists avoided the deadening routine of the Jesuits, and boldly followed reason. Accordingly they addressed instruction "first to the senses” if possible, and used pictures. Pascal invented phonic spelling. The first schoolbooks were not Latin, but French texts prepared by the Port Royalists themselves, and excellent expurgated translations of the Greek and Latin classics, through which the learner was introduced to the thought before he took up the

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