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which they adapted means to the ends in view, they have probably never been surpassed. The fundamental purposes of the order demanded that freedom of thought, original investigation, and individuality must be outlawed. It must, therefore, become the great task of Jesuit pedagogy to confine reasoning to the beaten track, and this task was accomplished with startling success by compelling the memory to work so hard that reason had but little chance to assert her claims.

Accordingly, the learner must acquire the new lesson not through text-books and private study, but through oral instruction in the classroom. A new lesson in Cicero, for example, began with the oral presentation of the sentences to be studied. When the lines had been committed by sufficient repetition, the general meaning of the lines and the sentence structure was explained. This was the "prelection.” Then followed "erudition,” which consisted of reference to authorities, rhetoric, and moral interpretations.

Each day's work began with a “review" of the work of the preceding day, and closed with a review of the work just mastered. Each week ended with a review of all the work of the week, and the last month of the year was devoted to the review of all the work of the year.

In his own education Loyola had learned by overwork how serious it is to health and happiness to undertake too much. He guarded against these results in his “Ratio Studiorum,” by advocating few studies, short lessons, short school hours, and physical exercise.

Perhaps the most distinctive feature of the Jesuit pedagogy was the extensive resort to "rivalry” as a stimulus to excellence in study and conduct. The pupils were arranged in pairs as “rivals,” each boy watching the other to catch him tripping, and then correcting him. In addition to the pairing process between classmates, the class was divided into hostile camps, called Rome and Carthage, for frequent pitched battles of questions on picked subjects. Then, too, there were public “disputations” every week, and prizes were awarded by judges. Many ingenious devices for rewards and penalties were systematically devised. Very creditable work led to honors, while particularly bad work led to disgrace. This highly organized system of competitions made even the hardest tasks of memorizing and reviewing almost a pleasure.

The Jesuit teachers took great pains to prove themselves the real friends of boys, devoting themselves almost to the point of self-effacement to this duty. Accordingly, they considered no service too onerous, and were absolutely approachable. In order to attach their pupils to themselves permanently, the Jesuit teachers seldom resorted to corporal punishment, and when such punishment became necessary, as in case of bad conduct, it was administered by outside persons called “correctors.”

Popularity.The growth of the Jesuit schools, as we might expect, was phenomenal. When Loyola died there were a hundred "lower colleges," and representatives had penetrated India, China, Japan, and Abyssinia, as well as Europe. Under Aquaviva the number of colleges and universities increased very rapidly, and in 1710 the order had over six hundred “lower colleges," over a hundred and fifty "upper colleges” in which teachers were being trained, and about twenty-five "upper colleges” that did university work. At this time there were seldom less than three hundred students in any school, and in 1675 the college of Clermont, in France, had three thousand students. Thus it came about that the Jesuits helped to shape an immense number of men who became famous as writers, statesmen, generals, etc.

They, however, failed to adjust themselves to the course of events in the eighteenth century, lost their efficiency, and deteriorated into a political machinery. Finally, after they had been banished from nearly every country of Europe, the pope himself, in 1773, suppressed the order. The order was restored early in the nineteenth century, but, although they still have great schools, the order has never recovered its former importance.

Estimate.-That the purposes for which the “order” was organized were largely accomplished cannot be denied; but the ends which they proposed are only doubtfully justifiable, and in the additional assumption that “the end justifies the means," the Jesuits could hardly avoid the use of means that were morally doubtful. In the effort to mould the higher classes to their purpose, they ignored the rights of the masses. In their ascetic ardor they closed the door of the school to woman, and ignored her possibilities.

In their pedagogy the Jesuits discouraged individual initiative and thus arrested development. The length to which they went in the use of rivalry as a stimulus often led to bitterness, and exalted success above moral honor. In short, while the claims of God were to be honored, these claims often degenerated into the ambitions of the order, and the rights of the individual were sacrificed to the demands of institutional control.


The universities allied themselves with the denominations which the Reformation produced, but humanism continued to give content to the curriculum, and morals suffered.

Alliance.-Many universities, among them Paris, remained loyal to Catholicism, and the Reformation, acting as a denominational stimulus, produced a number of new adherents, among them Dillingen (1554), Gratz (1586), Paderborn (1592), Salzburg (1622), Münster (1631), and several others. All of them recognized the church as their overlord.

In the states of Germany which espoused the cause of the Reformation, the majority of the universities followed the princes from the old to the new. Wittenberg, due to the influence of Luther and Melanchthon, was the first German university to become Protestant. This, as we recall, occurred in 1536. Marburg, Königsberg, Jena (1557), and others followed rapidly. Kiel was founded 1665, and Halle in 1694. They were Lutheran. Among the universities that allied themselves with Calvinistic (Reformed) Protestantism were Geneva (1558), Herborn (1654), and others. The English universities, Cambridge and Oxford, went over to Protestantism with the nation. Protestant universities very generally became state institutions.

Courses.-Instruction continued under four faculties as before, namely, philosophy, theology, law, and medicine. No really serious attention was paid to mathematics, and such sciences as physics, astronomy, and natural history continued to acknowledge Aris-, totle, Ptolemy, and Pliny as masters. Hippocrates and Galen remained the authorities in medicine. History and modern tongues were almost ignored, and even Greek received only inferior recognition. "All the time and strength of youth,” as Raumer tells us, “were forcibly concentrated upon the learning and exercising of Latin. Grammar was studied for years in order to learn to speak and write Latin correctly; dialectic, in order to use it logically; and rhetoric, in order to handle it oratorically. Facility was sought by means of debate, declamation, and representations of Terence. The classics were read in order to collect words and phrases from them for speaking and writing, without particular concern for the thought.” Thus it is seen that reason, whose high and holy cause both humanism and the Reformation had championed, once more fell back into slavery and formalism, and this not only in the Catholic universities, where Jesuit influence would account for it, but also in Protestant universities.

Morals.-The denominations which the Reformation produced, moved not only by the sense of duty, but also by keen competition, wanted teachers and leaders enough. This demand crowded the universities with students, and thus produced a state of morals that almost staggers imagination. Hazing, which resorted to barbarities now considered criminal, and scandalous orgies that sometimes ended in nothing less than murder, were all too common. In the beginning of the seventeenth century, as Duke Albrecht of Saxony*

* Painter, p. 186.

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