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every disorderly passion, every rice Sentiments of Pious or Eminent

which modern Writers against War.

prompts men to commit mur

der. In all the wars which are waged, [From Pictures of War, by Irenicus.] one side is in fault, and sometimes (Continued from page 43.)

both ; and in this case war is no bet

ter than robbery and murder; the Ogden, 1766.-We may lament, if we do not condemn the slaughter, the guilt

of which lies, I do not say upon butchery of the human race, created hands is lodged the power of declaring

the soldiers, but upon those in whose after the image of God: nay, we may

It is agreed by all wise and condemn it. It can hardly be necessary and just on both sides -perhaps subject, that the justifying causes

good writers who have treated this it is so on neither ; and the authors, whosoever they be, must have much to manifest, and that nothing but extreme

of war ought to be very clear and answer for. It is boasted of in the course of his wars he had 'slain necessity can make it lawful and ex: three millions. You cannot compute is a dreadful calamity. The conse

pedient, since upon all suppositions it beforehand, how much mischief let loose, when you open the doors of quences of it are too well known, and

too much felt. They are the desola, war. Happy are we, if we be but tion of populous and flourishing resensible of our happiness, in our pa- gions, the loss of trade, the increase of cific enployments, and inferior sta- taxes and debts, poverty both public tions. How dangerous a thing is and private, the destruction of thoupower! Success, at last how fatal ! sands, and the ruin of almost as many queror, if he had been cut off in the families, besides the sicknesses,

the first battle,

before he was intoxicated which always accompany a state of with his victories, or had acquired hostility, and follow the camp. In that habitual thirst for the destruction such times, the more innocent, honest, of his fellow-creatures, which is called peaceable, laborious and useful memglory, but which

will cover him with bers of civil society, are often the eyerlasting confusion : " I beheld, and the heaven departed as a scrowi greatest sufferers, and property, by when it is rolled together; and every from the most deserving to the most

an unhappy circulation, is transferred mountain and island were moved out undeserving hands. But the state and of their places. And the kings of the common practice of the Christian the earth,

and the great men, and the world, in this respect, as in many rich men, and the chief captains, and other instances, show too evidently the mighty men, and every bondman, that most of those who call themselves and every freeman, hid themselves in Christians, are so in name only, and the dens and in the rocks of the neither understand nor regard the remountains; and said to the moun- ligion which they outwardly profess. tains and rocks, Fall on us, and Few things have had a worse effect hide us from the face of Him that


the minds and manners of men, sitteth on the throne, and from the than the admiring and extolling of wrath of the Lamb."--Rev. vi. 14-16. those warriors, commonly called

Jortin, 1770.- The wars which heroes; who, to gratify their ambitious are continually waged by Christian views, and their other vices, have carnations, are most notorious offences ried ruin and desolation far and wide; against the sixth commandment who deserve no more praise than an against the law of nature - against earthquake or pestilence, and who the laws of God given by Moses— are true images of the devil, of whom and against the Christian religion, it is said, " That he goeth about, seekwhich forbids not only murder, but ing whom he may devour."

Voltaire, 1773. -Ten thousand as- resist it: they are so far from being sassins, running about from one end encouraged to revenge injuries, that of Europe to the other, practise rapine one of their first duties iš to forgive and murder according to discipline, them; 80 far from being incited to because it is the most honourable em- destroy their enemies, that they are ployment in the world.

commanded to love them, and to serve

them to the utmost of their power. If Dr. Johnson, 1784.-Among the

Christian nations therefore were nacalamities of war, may be justly

tions of Christians, all war would be numbered the diminution of the love

impossible and unknown among them, of truth, by the falsehood which in

and valour could be neither of use terest dictates, and credulity encou

nor estimation; and therefore could rages.

never have a place in the catalogue Soame Jenyns, 1787.—Some qua- of Christian virtues, being irreconlities are omitted in the New Testa- cileable with all its precepts. I obment, because they have really no ject not to the praise and honour beintrinsic merit in them, and are totally stowed on the valiant. I assert only, incompatible with the genius and spirit that active courage can never be a of Christianity. Valour, for instance, Christian virtue, because a Christian or active courage, is for the most part can have nothing to do with it. Pasconstitutional, and therefore can have sive courage is indeed frequently, and no more claim to moral merit, than properly inculcated by this meek and wit, beauty, health, strength, or any suffering religion, under the titles of other endowment of the mind or body; patience and resignation : a real and and so far it is from producing any substantial virtue this, and a direct salutary effects, by introducing peace, contrast to the former; for passive order, or happiness into society, that courage arises from the noblest disit is the usual perpetrator of all the positions of the human mind- from a violences, which from retaliated inju- contempt of misfortunes, pain, and ries distract the world with bloodshed death, and a confidence in the proand devastation. It is the engine by tection of the Almighty. Valour is which the strong are enabled to plun- not that sort of violence, by which the der the weak ; the proud to trample kingdom of heaven is to be taken; upon the humble; and the guilty to nor are the turbulent spirits of heroes oppress the innocent. It is the chief and conquerors admissible into those instrument which ambition employs regions of peace, subordination, and in her unjust pursuits of wealth and tranquillity. power, and is therefore so much ex

Dr. Adam Smith, 1790.- It is retolled by her votaries. Valour was

marked by this writer, and the fact is indeed congenial with the religion of indeed notorious,

" That no man inPagans, whose gods were for the most

lists into the army with the consent part made out of deceased heroes,

either of his parents or friends. From exalted to heaven as a reward for the mischiefs which they had perpetrated lost, and exert all the influence they

that moment they consider him as upon earth, and therefore with them was the first of virtues, and had even

possess to deter him from what they

consider as a ruinous step.” engrossed that denomination to itself; but whatever merit it

Edmund Burke, 1797.—War sus

may sumed among Pagans, with Chris- pends the rules of moral obligation; tians it can pretend to none, and few and wbat is long suspended, is in danor none are the occasions in which ger of being totally abrogated. they are permitted to exert it. They Dr. Paley.-No two things can be are so far from being allowed to in- more different, than the heroic and flict evil, that they are forbid even to the Christian characters.

have as

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Dr. Moore.-The greatest part of the standing armies on the continent Opinions of the Hon. Txos. Jerof Europe, secure the despotism of PERSON and the Hon. John Jay, the prince, whose maintenance is a on the subjects of Peace and War. most severe burden upon the coun- [From the Friend of Peace.] tries which support them. The indi- Tae following letters of the above viduals who compose these armies are

gentlemen are in answer to commumiserable, by the tyranny exercised nications addressed to them respecover them; and are themselves the

tively, in 1817, by the Secretary of cause of misery to their fellow citi

the Massachusetts Peace Society. zens, by the tyranny they exercise. But it will be said, they defend the

Nov. 26, 1817. nation from foreign enemies. Alas!

SIR,—You have not been mistaken could a foreign conqueror occasion

in supposing my views and feelings to

be in favour of the abolition of War. more wretchedness than such defen

Of my disposition to maintain peace ders! When he who calls himself until its condition shall be made less protector, has stripped me of my pro

tolerable than that of war itself, the perty, and deprived me of my free- world has had proofs, and more perdom, I cannot return him very cordial haps than it has approved. I hope it thanks, when he tells me that he will is practicable by improving the minds defend me from every other robber.

and morals of society, to lessen the

disposition to war; but of its abolition Edward Gibbon, 1794.-If a Be- I despair. Still, on the axiom that a doween discovers from afar a solitary

less degree of evil is preferable to a traveller, he rides furiously against greater,

no means should be neglected

which may add weight to the better him, crying with a loud voice, “Un

scale. The enrolment you propose dress thyself

, thy aunt (my wife) is therefore, of my name, in the records without a garment.” A ready sub- of your society, cannot be unacceptmission entitles him

able to me; it will be a true testiance will provoke the aggressor, and mony of my principles and persuasion his own blood must expiate the blood that the state of peace is that which which he presumes to shed in legiti

most improves the manners and morals, mate defence. A single robber, or a

the prosperity and happiness, of manfew associates, are branded with their mise'myself

that it can be perpetually

kind; and although I dare not progenuine name; but the exploits of a maintained, yet if, by the inculcations numerous band assume the character of reason or religion, the perversities of a lawful and honourable war. of our nature can be so far corrected Bishop Watson.-Christianity, in either supposed or real, of an appeal

as sometimes to prevent the necessity, its regards, steps beyond the narrow to the blinder scourges of war, murder bounds of national advantage, in quest and devastation, the benevolent enof universal good; it does not encou- deavours of the friends of peace will rage particular patriotism, in opposi- not be entirely without remuneration. tion to general benignity; or prompt

I pray you to accept the assurance to love our country, at the expence

of of my respect and consideration.

Th. JeffeRSON. our integrity; or allow us to indulge our passions to the detriment of thousands. It looks


all the human The above letter from Mr. Jefferrace as children of the same Father, son was communicated to the trustees and wishes them equal blessings : in of the Massachusetts Peace Society ordering us to do good, to love as at an annual meeting, and he was brethren, to forgive injuries, and to admitted as an honorary member. study peace, it quite annihilates the Lest some should imagine that Mr. disposition for martial glory; and yt- Jefferson was not duly apprised of terly debases the pomp of war. the character and the object of the

mercy, resist



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Peace Society, when he gave his What constitutes a just and necesname to “add weight to the better sary war, is another question. The scale," it may be proper to state principles which decide it are obvious. that, from the time of the correspon- cording to the dictates of reason and

The difficulty is in applying them acdence, the several numbers of The conscience, unbiassed by certain pasFriend of Peace had been regularly sions which rarely accord with either. sent to him; and that a copy of the Until the gospel shall have extenconstitution of the Society was inclos- sively corrected the hereditary depraed in the letter to which he replied vity of mankind," the wickedness rein giving his consent to become a sulting from it will, in my opinion, member.

continue to produce national sins and As the Society was formed for no

national punishments; and, by causa

ing unjust wars, and other culpable party purpose, and as it embraces men of the different political

and reli- practices, to render just wars occa

sionally indispensable. gious denominations, we may hope Accept my thanks for the copy of that it will occasion greater amity the correspondence which was among the citizens of the United closed in your letter. With the respect States, as well as between them and and the sentiments of esteem which the people of other countries. The your office and character naturally continuance of peace with foreign obedient servant,

suggest, I am, reverend Sir, your

JOHN JAY, nations may greatly depend on our being at peace among ourselves.

On several interesting questions 12 Nov. 1817. there is a difference of opinion among Rey. Sing-On the 8th inst. I received by the mail your letter of the lition of war.

those who sincerely wish for the abo

Mr. Jay is doubtless 29th ult.

Having no desire either to conceal to be regarded as a friend of peace, or obtrude my opinion relative to the although he may dissent from others objects of the Peace Society, I will in some respects, as to the best means now endeavour to express it clearly, of attaining the end. In the followthough concisely:

ing paragraph he meets the views of So far as the object of the Society is the Peace Society :

“ So far as the to expose the guilt and the evils of object of the Society is to expose

the unjust and unnecessary war, I approve

guilt and the evils of unjust and unand cordially wish them success.

necessary war,

I As to war manifestly just and ne

approve of it; and cessary, the scriptures antecedent to cordially wish them success. This the Christian era regard it as being is saying much in few words; and consistent with the moral law; which Mr. Jay and the whole community, having proceeded from the wisdom may be assured, that it is not the and will of the Great Sovereign of the desire of the Peace Society, nor of universe, (who never contradicts himself) must be perfect, and require no

any of its members, to say or do any no change. The gospel explains, and thing in opposition to " war manienforces, but has not made a single

festly just and necessary.” alteration in the moral law; and con

But “ what constitutes a just and sequently allows and permits just and necessary war, is another question”. necessary war. I also concur in the a question too of the first magnitude, prevailing opinion, that prudence ex- and one which demands the serious horts every nation to be constantly attention of the members of the Peace prepared to wage such war; and that Society, and of every intelligent man. sion, it is their duty as well as their For, probably, there is no other point right to wage it with decision, energy,

respecting which men have been more and unanimity, until terms of


frequently deceived, fit to be demanded or accepted, shall

Hitherto there seems to have been be obtained.

no definite and acknowledged prin

of it;

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ciples relating to the question. Hence, than war for the mass of the people in every war, men have been divided concerned.-7. It is neither just nor in their opinions; while one has de- necessary for rulers to make war to clared it to be just and necessary, revenge a wrong, if by so doing they another has affirmed the contrary. will naturally bring on their own And it is certainly possible that such people greater evils, than even their light may yet arise, as will unite all enemies would otherwise think of inmen in the belief, that no war can be flicting.-8. No war can be manijust or necessary, except it be clearly festly just and necessary, in making required by God, and consistent with which, the natural rights, the happithe command—“ All things whatso- ness and the lives of subjects, are reever ye would that men should do to garded as the property of rulers, to you, do ye even so to them.”

be bartered away in projects of amThe letter of Mr. Jay naturally in- bition, conquest, or revenge.-9. No vites attention to the long neglected war can be “ manifestly just” which question—" What constitutes a just is made with the expectation, that the and necessary war ?" Other ques- evils to be inflicted will principally tions to which the letter would give fall not on the guilty but the innocent. rise have been discussed in preceding -10. It can never be “ manifestly Numbers. *

just and necessary” to make a volunIf it can be clearly ascertained tary sacrifice of the present peace what wars are not “ just and neces- and happiness of a nation, and involve sary," a great point will be gained. it in the crimes and calamities of war, For this purpose I shall state a num- unless there is solid ground of assurber of propositions, to which I be- ance, that this sacrifice of present good, lieve Mr. Jay will accede, and which and all the evils to be incurred, will may lead others to correct conclusions be overbalanced by the benefits which on this important subject.

will result from the contest.-11. It 1. A war manifesto, by a party in is not“ manifestly just and neceshis own cause, declaring a war to be sary” for rulers of different nations to just, is no valid evidence of the fact cali together armies of men, who asserted. For, says Frederic the have no just cause of complaint against Great, “When sovereigns are deter- each other, and then require these mined to come to a rupture, they will unoffending subjects to murder one not hesitate concerning materials for another, to decide an ungodly dispute a manifesto.”—2. No war can be just between their sovereigns.-12. There and necessary on both sides of the are at most but very few cases in contest; but it may on each side be which it can be “ manifestly just and both unjust and unnecessary.—3. Un, necessary” for rational beings, espéjust war is positively murderous, and cially for Christians, to debase themthe most atrocious of human crimes. selves to a level with wolves and

4. Every war is unjust which re- tigers, by deciding their quarrels, not sults from a thirst for military fame, by reason and justice, but by craft, wealth, or power.-5. No war can be dexterity and muscular force. just and necessary, which might be It is believed that few men of inavoided by the display of an upright telligence, candour, and serious reand pacific spirit on the part of those flection, will deny the correctness of by whom it is waged.–6. No war any of these twelve propositions. Let

manifestly just and neces- these then be admitted as the dictates sary,” if terms of accommodation are of reason, benevolence, and justice; attainable, which are really better and let the wars of - Christendoni, * See Review of the argument from

from the days of Constantine to the the Old Testament, pp. 28 and 58, of the present time, be impartially examined Herald of Peace, vol. ii.

by these principles, and what will be


can be 66

VOL. 111.

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