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reasoning could give. The true cause as the monsters our own crimes have was, however, one of general in- made them! We shudder with horror fluence, that which has stagnated at the very name of an Indian tomacommerce, and given a prevalence hawk; we pity and execrate that to misery through every country that dreadful barbarism that gratifies its has been cursed with its introduction. tevenge with the mangled scalps of “They did not think (says the author) its enemies; but we forget that we of that which has exhausted Italy, too are warriors, with no barbarian Switzerland, Germany, and in short blindness to palliate our outrage! all Europe. A philanthropist how. We are philosophers, philanthropists, ever, a citizen of the world, a bro- and Christians, yet we advocate war, ther in the great human family, and practise its atrocities! What unbiassed by national interest, un- better are we, then, than an Indian blinded by national pride, recognizes savage ? but that, as we possess more the cause in a moment, and weeps ingenuity, more arts and arms than at the prospect. He knows that it they, we are become the more exis War; deadly, insatiate, demoraliz- pert, the more cunning, the more ing, destructive war,-carrying fire, savage warriors! The Indian howfamine, and crime, from nation to na ever is not blind to conviction, and we tion,—blasting the bosom of creation, may reasonably hope, from the foldisorganizing society, and leaving lowing conversation, that as the work behind, not merely the wounds of of civilization proceeds, their the infatuated warrior, the scattered ness to war may vanish with the other relics of fathers, husbands, and bro- features of the savage. thers, the tears of the widow, and Among

the most inveterate atthe cry of orphan infancy, but a tachments of the Indians, is that of gangrene in society, a palsy in com

Jonathan Thomas (a Friend merce, which henceforth diffuse, for who has spent the last 23 years in years, wherever their operations ex- civilizing these children of the forest;) tend, nothing but pollution, poverty, is considered their friend, and hoand suffering."

noured as their father. They enter The second extract is taken from his house when they please, and sit the 8th letter, addressed from Tu- down without asking. He is their nisassah, one of the settlements of adviser in difficulties, and the result the Friends among the Indians. of their councils is often submitted

"This injured and interesting people, to him. He can frequently prevail who have been stigmatized by their upon them to alter their plans and ferocious conquerors as pertidious abandon their prejudices. He has barbarians, who have been repre- often discussed this subject with sented as possessing no principles of Tekianda (an Indian chief from whom faith or honour, and no desires but the author received several civilities) those of rapine and plunder, have but he always replied, that war was been found, by their affectionate and pleasing to the Great Spirit, for he peaceable civilizers, to possess ex

had commanded their ancestors to cellent dispositions, firm faith, and, fight and destroy their - enemies. but for the caution which the crimes J. Thomas could never silence him, of their enlightened conquerors have but on one occasion. His long resitaught them, generous hospitality. dence here has enabled him not only The barbarism of war has shewn us to acquire a full knowledge of their them through a perverted medium. language, but likewise of the signiWe make them our enemies, we fication of their hieroglyphics. One give birth to the most direful propen- alone he found inscribed upon

a tree, .sities of human nature among them, which he could never decipher. This and then declare them to the world Tekianda explained to him, shewing

war.

him that it commemorated the return

The following Translation from an of a celebrated chief from a war,

enlightened Foreigner, on the subbringing so many scalps, and having

ject of War, is presented to The acquired uncommon glory. From

Herald of Peace, for whose use it this explanation they again fell upon

was made. the subject, in a gradual and almost insensible manner, as they walked After having glanced at the conalong. At length J. T. said. Well, stitution of civil society, and the arTekianda, thou thinkest war is please rangements necessary for their policy, ing to the Great Spirit?? Yes, he is we must cast our eyes on the causes, the father of the Indians, he made foreign or domestic, which may disthem.' He made the white people turb their tranquillity. too, and he gave them all things best War is the grand disturber. It is for them ?' Yes, certainly, he finds of three kinds; offensive, which is them all, and makes the ground waged against the territories of an fraitful for them.' 'He watches over enemy; defensive, which is mainthem and takes care of them, for he tained upon our own soil ; and civil, loves them?' • Yes.'-Well, thou when the members of the same society hast several children. Thou bringest are armed against each other. them up hardily. Thou teachest them The first is the least severe, for it to hunt, and to use every sport and screens the property of the citizens exercise that may make them strong, from being ravaged, or burnt, and and capable of living honourably, their families from insult. The second, and of destroying their enemies ; thou more tormenting, exposes us to all wouldest like to see them like thyself, these evils ;' and the third is most great warriors ?? «Yes.'-'Well, when bitter, for it breaks the bonds of so they are grown up, and are strong, ciety, even among the nearest kinand warlike and famous, and all thy dred, and renders men barbarous." ; hopes are fulfilled, thou wouldest If a society is happy in proportion

like to see them "strike one another, as the prince is conformed to the laws and kill one another, and shew great of justice, and the state ; as the mabravery?'. What! strike! kill one gistrate obeys the laws of the prince ; another! No, I should be ready to the citizen the commands of the makill them! Indians must love one gistrate; the son the father; and the another, they must kill only their servant the master; while concord enemies. Well, thou sayest the binds all the subjects together ;-we Great Spirit is the father of all the must say, that War, which is destrucIndians, and the white people and tive of all this order, is in its very the black people. That he loves essence the scourge of man, and the them all, and especially his real bane of bliss. children. Dost thou think he likes to That overthrow of all subordination, see his children fight and kill one of which I have spoken, is more paranother? Is he not very angry at ticularly the effect of civil war; but this?' Tekianda was silent."

we may say that the spirit of war, I am, with very sincere wishes for taken in general, includes the germe the success of the cause,

of all disorder. Your advocate truly, &c.

In fact, what is so perfect a conM. BOTHAM.

trast to a philosopher, as a warrior;

what is so opposed to economy, as a Uttoxeter, 12th Mo. 12, 1820. destroyer; who is so opposite to a

labourer, as a soldier ; and who are I beg leave to observe a small error

so unlike sages, as madmen? and of the press in the signature to my last, what madness is equal to that of war? which should have been M. instead of Ir. If war is an evil so pernicious,

ought not to undertake it, but in order causes that make men pretend they to avoid an evil as great, or greater. are afraid another may attack them. This way of estimating things, go. It is a deceitful veil, that may cover vernments ought ever to have before truth or lies. Was it necessary to their eyes.

attack our neighbour, who by the Those who love war, resemble very supposition had not yet attacked those insects which cannot walk on a us? Were we really afraid he would ! smooth surface, but seek something Who should pluck the veil from these rough, in which their forked feet may secrets ? Yet under such pretexts, stick. Ever restless, ever agitated, Europe is kept in flames. ever changing, with the idea of seek

Speculative philosophers have ing a situation more suited to their, asked, whether, when the power genius, they set no bounds to their that threatens only seeks to rule desire of being better off. Such is over a part of the territory, which the heart of man.

he says belongs to him, if he does The chained slave thinks he only not wish to injure the inhabitants, to desires to be rid of the weight of his change their laws, nor deteriorate fetters; if he gets rid of them, he their condition ; whether this were a wishes for complete liberty; when legitimate reason for making two nafree, he demands the privileges of a tions drink all the bitters of the

cup citizen; become a citizen, he aims at of War? or whether, even the one being a magistrate; he is not yet that is in the right, ought not to give content, he aspires after the first dig- way, rather than expose myriads to nities ; if he arrives at them, he must such horror? be then made a sovereign prince, The condition of both nations whose will is law. Pompey said to would be the same. It is very much the king of the Parthians, that “ The, a matter of indifference to the boundary of a wise republic is people, what prince rules, if the justice;” Agesilaus replied, “ It is ordinary laws remain the same; ad the point of the spear.". The one if some injury should be done, it úttered the sentiment which ought to would be far less than that created animate men, the other that which by a bloody war. actually does influence them.

AC These are questions that sove cording to this last, Politics supposes reigns only have to answer; and that it must always be upon the look- they think little of the interests of out, to guard against those who would the people in such cases, which in attack us.

It is said, that we must fact could never arise if princes had always be in a condition to repel the not thought that the welfare of the foreigner, who would seize our fron- people was distinct from and inferior tiers; and sometimes under the name to their own. of self-defence, we attack those whom A nation is sometimes astonished we fear.

to learn that it is become the enemy This cause of war is placed among of another people, which has taken the most legitimate; the usefulness away nothing from them, and which of its effects is so striking : thus we claims nothing belonging to them; take care that the war shall be of the they do not understand that a match first kind we mentioned: we transport is intended for one of the family of the war into our enemy's territories. the prince, and that war must be

But what a field for abuse and made, in order that this alliance may perversion is opened by this political be one of the articles of the peace. maxim! What a varnish is this to They are not aware that one of the cover all that is vile! For cupidity, governments has been inspired with ambition, or perhaps the mere ennui jealousy or vengeance towards the of a long peace, are the agitating other ; that a court favourite wishes

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to get into some office, or aims at a, is only a mass of duels in all their change of ministry, or that the minis- madness. A declaration of war in. ter wants to embroil the country, in nothing but a challenge. If we conorder to make himself of importance, sider that man, when left to himself, or to fix, himself in his seat, and is a being who submits to nothing but that every member of the body his passions, we shall cease to wonpolitic must shed its blood, and ex- der that wars are so frequent. Good haust its fortune, for these frivolous plain people, who see the differences causes ; as if they were considera- among individuals terminated by justions essential to their safety and tice, think that justice ought to bliss.

terminate the quarrels of states. One would think that the linuits

But man only obeys justice when of two countries, once settled, would he is forced. Free those who reason never after create occasions of war thus from all obedience to a superior between them. This supposition power, and they will rarely submit would be true, if the boundaries of to a sentence given against themcountries could limit pride and cupi- selves. Sovereign states, and those dity. Man, insatiable in his desire who preside over them, recognise of property and rule, will search neither law nor superior, except when after pretexts for war, in the sea, or force makes them feel : this is the beyond it, if the land will not supply state of barbarous nature, and this them. Nothing contributes more to is the state of war. give existence and influence to the False glory, which has caused many trifling causes which, in defiance of breaches of peace, still prolongs their humanity, cause millions of men to continuance I make no difference perish and make the rest wretched, between false glory and false shame, than the distinct profession of the they are the same feeling. It sets, military art. Those who follow this itself in opposition to the steps which trade say, that they are the noblest reason would induce us to take, in portion of the state ; and who will order to propose peace. They seek dare to enter the lists, to dispute with a third party, they temporise, they armed men ? and the gallantry on wait till their subjects are in a ferwhich they pique themselves has ment before they will submit. procured for them the suffrages of Pope Julian, reduced to this the fair sex.

extremity, was forced to ask peace This point decided, they have of Henry II., King of France, but formed the court of kings; they have still, deceived by the self-love which filled the imagination of kings with forbids us to admit that we are wrong, notions of glory and of the point he wrote to the King, that he cited of honour, such as suit their in- him before God, to answer for the interest or their idleness. It is not justice that he had done him. Henry to be wondered at, that the nobility granted him peace, and answered, and gentry, at once proud and idle, that he should appear before God, should turn the mind of the king, but he doubted whether he should find whom they surround, from the thought the Pope there." of the frightful evils of war, and of his obligation to study the happiness

From the same Foreign Writer. of his people. It is easy to fascinate Can any good arise from War ? the eye, when the charm is conferred Let a people or a prince extend its of all that flatters the strongest pas- frontiers, let the capture of a strong sions. How strange is the power of place skreen them from the incurprejudice and self-love! A great sions of their neighbours; let a victory king, who has seen all the infamy of make the nation respected or feared; duelling, could not perceive that war these are the blessings that war is

said to procure, but they are not the to popular republics, to save them advantages of war considered in itself. from internal troubles, and that

This people, or this prince, might war without produced tranquillity at be happy in a territory less extended; home. But these men forget that this fortress, or this victory, only it is war which introduces the serve to avert war. It is that which of sedition, and that it is the origin

spirit crushes the cockatrice in the egg; it of all the evil. The Roman people would be better not to have the egg began by being warlike, before they laid.

were seditious. Their first sentiment Some will have it, that war, even was Ambition. They took arms to intestine war, may be a blessing. make conquests ; they accustomed This is the opinion of those who fol- themselves to movement, to tumult; low the trade of war, and those who this taste followed them within their love paradoxes may make such walls. assertions. They have affirmed, that, Have we reflected, that they found however good the laws may be, they within their city no occupation, neicannot hinder vicious characters from ther arts, nor commerce, nor pleainfecting society; War purges it from sures! Something was necessary to

this corruption. Intestine commo- feed the spirits made lofty by success. itions manifest turbulent spirits, and The senators, who were warriors

for the most part they perish in these as well as the people, found nó relief, troubles. But wars, and above all, but in that which was the very cause

civil wars, make no distinction between of the evil. t's good and bad citizens ; they are fatal But war is only necessary, because

to both. A pestilence may do this we have already been at war. Milder

kind of good ;—but who calls the means of relief would not suit the # plague a blessing ?

taste of a people spoiled by war. Charles V. sent the Constable de The immoderate desire of conqueri Gregolin to the assistance of the ing which the Romans caught from d Bastard of Castile, more for the their Sibylline books, rendered all

sake of clearing France of disturbers other means unfit to be proposed to than to dethrone Peter the Cruel. them.

A very common source of But if we seek after the cause of this error is, to make a general maxim h number of bad subjects, who in these out of a practice which has succeeded & times create intestine broils, we shall in a particular case. War, it is

find scarcely any other than War. true, sometimes saved Rome from - We see that War accustoms men to its own fury; but war is the last

licentiousness, to rapine, to blood, means we should employ to save it and that the licentiousness of the troops ' a falling state.

is the the source of the plundering The Republic of Venice has not s that infests towns and roads. War followed the example of the Romans. ed is then a terrible evil, if it requires When Venice made war with her d a sword to cure the evils that a own troops, seditions did not cease ud former war has left behind.

to trouble her, and divisions to rend But it is added, that two hostile her in pieces. In these extremities, powers are kept by emulation in the they resolved to use mercenary troops practice of virtue. Scipio the younger and a foreign general ; but the evils opposed the ruin of Carthage; he of this conduct are tremendous. foresaw that Rome, having no rival, But these wise republicans have would destroy herself, and he was found out the way of sheltering themnot deceived.

selves from both evils. They reflected The example of Rome has also that the glory of arms does not render established the maxim, that a foreign a republic happy; that it may become war was often necessary, above all so rather by renouncing the spirit of

C

VOL. III.

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