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would never make any threats; they taming the human passions. But the would never arm, and consequently subjugation of these is the immediate they would never fight. It would be object of our religion. To confess, owing, then, to these principles, or, in therefore, that wars must be, is either other words, to the adoption of the to utter a libel against Christianity, or policy of the Gospel, in preference to confess that we have not yet arof the policy of the world, that if the rived at the stature of real Christians. globe were to be peopled by this society there would be no wars. Now I would ask, what are Quakers, but Sentiments of Pious or Eminent men; and might not all, if they would modern Writers against War. suffer themselves to be cast in the same mould as the Quakers, come

[From Pictures of War, by Irenicus.] out of it in the same forni and cha- Erasmus, A.D. 1536.-War is every racter ?

where rashly, and on the slightest But I will go still further : I will pretext, undertaken; cruelly and sasuppose that any one of the four vagely conducted, not only by unquarters of the world, having been believers, but by Christians, not only previously divided into three parts, by laymen, but by priests and biwas governed only by three Quakers, shops ; not only by the young and and that these had the same authority inexperienced, but even by men far over their subjects as their respective advanced in life, who must have seen sovereigns have at present; and I will and felt its dreadful consequences; maintain that there would never be not only by the lower order, fickle in upon this quarter of the world, during their nature, but above all by princes, their respective administrations, an- whose duty is to compose the rash other war: for, first, many of the passions of the unthinking multitude causes of war would be cut off: thus, by superior wisdom, and the force of for instance, there would be no dis- reason. Nor are there ever wanting putes about insults offered to flags; men, learned in the law, and even there would be none, again, about the divines, who are ready to furnish firebalance of power: in short, it would brands for the nefarious work, and be laid down as a position, that no to fan the latent sparks into a flame. one was to do evil that good might View, with the eyes of your imagicome. But as, notwithstanding, there nation, savage troops of men, horrible might still be disputes from other in their very visages and voices; men causes, these would be amicably set- clad in steel, drawn up on every side tled: for, first, the same Christian in battle-array, armed with weapons, disposition would be manifested in the frightful in their crash and in their discussion, as in the former case: very glitter; mark the horrid murand, secondly, if the inatter should be mur of the confused multitude, their of an intricate nature, so that one threatening eye-balls, the harsh jarQuaker-government could not settle ring din of drums and clarions, the it with another, these would refer it, terrific sound of the trumpet, the according to their constitution, to a thunder of the cannon, a noise not third. This would be the “ ne plus less formidable than the real thunder ultra ” of the business. Both the dis- of heaven, and more hurtful, a mad cussion and the dispute would end shout like that of the shrieks of bedhere. What a folly, then, to talk of lamites, a furious onset, a cruel butchthe necessity of wars, when, if but ering of each other! See the slaughthree members of this society were tered and the slaughtering! Heaps to rule a continent, they would cease of dead bodies, fields flowing with there. There can be no plea for such blood, rivers reddened with human language, but the impossibility of gore!


It sometinres happens, that a bro- Sieur Charron, 1601.-One, and ther falls by the hand of a brother, a that indeed the usual and ancient kinsman upon his nearest kindred, a cause of war, is the insatiable thirst friend upon his friend, who, while of riches and dominion ; that abyss each is actuated by this fit of insanity, of avarice and ambition, which meaplunges the sword into the heart of sures the greatness of a prince's glory one by whom he was never offended, by the extent of his territories, and not even by word of his mouth! So enlargement of his conquests. The deep is the tragedy, that the bosom raging desire of gain, and the rash shudders even at the feeble descrip- heat of anger, are the disturbers of tion of it, and the hand of humanity peace, and the violators of leagues drops the pencil while it paints the and treaties.-On Wisdom.

Jeremy Taylor, 1642. — As conIn the mean time, I pass over the trary as cruelty is to mercy, tyranny corn fields trodden 'down, peaceful to charity, so is war and bloodshed to cottages and rural mansions burnt to the meekness and gentleness of the the ground, villages and towns re- Christian religion. I had often thought duced to ashes, the cattle driven from of the prophecy, that in the gospel, their pasture, innocent women vio- our swords shall be turned into ploughlated, old men dragged into captivity, shares, and our spears into pruningchurches defaced and demolished, hooks. I knew that no tittle spoken every thing laid waste, a prey to by God's Spirit could return unperrobbery, plunder, and violence. formed and ineffectual; and I was

Not to mention the consequences certain, that such was the excellency which ensue to the people after a of Christ's doctrine, if men would war, even the most fortunate in its obey it, Christians should never war event, and the justest in its princi- one against another. ple; the poor, the unoffending com- Grotius, 1645.-If, by the Jewish mon people, robbed of their. little. law, an involuntary murderer was hard-earned property ; 'the great, la- obliged to flee to a place of refugeden with taxes; old people bereaved if God prohibited David from buildof their children-more cruelly killed ing a temple to him, because his hands by the murder of their offspring, than were defiled with blood, though his by the sword-- happier if the enemy wars might be called religious conhad deprived them of the sense of tests-if, among the ancient Greeks, their misfortune, and of life itself at persons who had defiled themselves the same moment; women far ad- with slaughter, without any fault of vanced in age, left destitute, and more theirs, required expiation-who does eruelly put to death, than if they had not see, especially a Christian man, died at once by the point of the how wretched and ill-fated a thing bayonet; widowed mothers, orphan war is, and how earnestly even a just children, houses of mourning, and war should be avoided. Among the families that once knew better days, Greeks professing Christianity, the reduced to extreme penury.

rule has been long observed, thạt : Why need I dwell on the evils those who had slain an enemy in

war, which morals sustain by war, when were for a time debarred from all every one knows, that from war pro- sacred rites. ceeds at once every kind of evil which Dr. Hammond, 1660. If it be disturbs and destroys the happiness true which Psellus saith, that the of human life?

devils feast on the

vapour [See much more on the same sub- haled from the blood of men, surely ject, in a work entitled, “ Anti-Pole- the Christian devils, and of late the mus,” translated by Dr. V. Knox, English, are the fattest of the whole and published about the year 1794.] herd, the richliest treated of any, since


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whole tables were furnished for them out of ambition, merely to enlarge of the blood and flesh of their wor- empire, or to show the world how tershippers.

rible they are; how many men they Mahomet, who professed to propa- are able to slay; how many slaves to gate his religion by the sword, has not make ; how many families to drive brought such store of bloody wea- from their peaceful habitations; and pons, so full stocked an artillery into in short, how much mischief and mithe world, has not kept them so con- sery they are able to bring upon manstantly employed, so sharp set, so kind; these are founded upon false riotous in their thirst of blood, as hath notions of glory, embellished indeed been observable in Christendom. by servile wits, and misplaced elo

Fenelon, 1715.—The calamities of quence; but condemned by all true war are more to be dreaded than you philosophy and religion. imagine. * War never fails to ex- Rollin, 1742.-Was ever ambition haust the state, and endanger its de- more extravagant, or rather more fustruction, with whatever success it is rious, than that of Alexander ? Come carried on. Though it may

be com

from a little spot of ground, and formenced with advantage, it can never getting the narrow limits of his paterhe finished without danger of the most nal domains, after he has far extended fatal reverse of fortune. With what- his conquests ; has subdued not only ever superiority of strength an en- the Persians, but also the Bactrians gagement is begun, the least mistake, and Indians; has added kingdom to the slightest accident, may turn the kingdom; after all this he still finds himscale, and give victory to the enemy. self pent up; and determined to force, Nor can a nation, that should be al- if possible, the barriers of nature, he ways victorious, prosper; it would endeavours to discover a new world, destroy itself by destroying others : and does not scruple to sacrifice milthe country would be depopulated, lions of men to his ambition and cuthe soil untilled, and trade interrupt- riosity. ed; and what is still worse, the best

It is related that Alexander, upon laws would lose their force, and a cor

Anaxarchus the philosopher telling ruption of manners insensibly take him that there was an infinite number place. Literature will be neglected of worlds, wept to think that it would among the youth ; the troops, eon- be impossible for him to conquer scious of their own importance, will them all, since he had not yet conindulge themselves in the most perni- quered one. Is it wrong in Seneca, cious licentiousness with impunity, to compare these pretended heroes, and the disorder will necessarily who have gained renown no otherwise spread through all the branches of than by the ruin of nations, to a congovernment. A prince, who, in the flagration and a flood, which lay acquisition of glory, would sacrifice waste and destroy all things; or to the lives of half his subjects, and the wild beasts who live merely by blood happiness of the rest, is unworthy of and slaughter? the glory he would acquire; and de- Nor do the soldiers of Alexander serves to lose what he rightly pos- appear in a more advantageous light; sesses, for endeavouring unjustly to for these, after having plundered the usurp the possessions of another. wealth of the East, and after the

Wollaston, A. D. 1724.-As to those prince had given them the highest wars which are undertaken by men

marks of his beneficence, grew so, school! How pernicious the fruit of poor natives in many countries been their victories!

licentious, so debauched, and aban, * What follows is a detail of the mis

doned to vices of every kind, that he chiefs and misery which the French na

was forced to pay their debts, amounttion suffered by the almost continual wars ing to 1500,0001.—What strange men in which Lewis XIV. was engaged. were these! How depraved their

driven out of their possessions, and Thos. Hartley, m. A. 1756.-How hunted down like wild beasts! What long, ye potentates, will ye continue millions * were slaughtered by the to lay heavy burdens on your people, Spaniards in their first American exand to add poverty to war? How peditions! And what millions have long will ye give cause to Turks and been slaughtered since, by other EuIndians to


upon these Chris- ropean nations in the East and West tians ! how do they delight in blood! Indies, and other parts of the globe! Say, is a punctilio of honour, some It is shocking to an honest heart, to rivalship in false glory, worth the think what little claim certain Powpeace and treasure of kingdoms, and ers have to their possessions in the the lives of many thousands of your distant countries before mentioned, subjects ? Do you know the end and unless violence and murder, frauduissue of war, or do you understand lent dealings, or the setting up of a how the course of nature is set on fire flag-staff with the invader's name upon by the wrath and fury of enraged it, can give them a sufficient title, a men, so as to produce the most dread- title which they would be ashamed to ful effects ?--And what is all this con- allow of in any of their subjects at tention for? Is it for a little more home; and yet we cannot be unacearth in some distant part of the world, quainted with the names of certain which perhaps you can neither peo- potentates now living, who would ple nor cultivate, and which was at hang a poor man for stealing a cow, at first torn from its proper posses- whilst they themselves share a kingsors? Why, have you not land enough dom amongst them, acquired by rank already! Or, is it for more trade? usurpation. O for a Nathan this What a stir and bustle is kept up day in every court of Christendom, among you for more trade, as if life to take up his parable, and, as the and salvation depended on it! Is not application should require it, to say, the sea wide enough, and the land even to the most puissant monarch, large enough for you all, but you • Thou art the man!” must go on fighting to engross the whole trade of it to yourselves? God gave Israel his people a small tract

Under this head we adopt (and shall conof country for their portion; small tinue in succeeding Numbers) an extract indeed, if compared with what you from the works of the Rev. John Norris, already possess; but a new discover- which we think may be read with advan

tage by the learned and unlearned, by the ed world added to the old, cannot

man of science and the sciolist, by tutor and afford room enough for Christians: scholar, parent and child. Considered as a But, О how little with godliness and lesson of monition to adolescence, or as a contentment is sufficient for a people spicuous and unanswerable. The learned that fear the Lord !

Author flourished about the time of the The unlimited ambition of princes Revolution; the Essay separately has been is an abuse of government, leading long

out of print. to the most pernicious effects. This Reflections upon the Conduct of ardour of extending their dominion",

Human Life; with reference to contrary to all reason and justice, has

Learning and Knowledge. disturbed the peace of mankind,

and filled the earth with violence, in al- SINGE the great happiness or misery most every age; insomuch that uni- of human life depends wholly upon versal history is little more than a the right or wrong conduct of it, he history of wrongs and robberies, com

* The lowest computation makes them mitted by these

great violators of the twenty millions; and Purchas, if I rememrights of mankind. How have the ber right, makes it fifty millions.



that shall point out any of its irregu- rit, I shall not much regard the ma-
larities or mistakes, is a universal gisterial censures of those, whose
friend, a promoter of the public hap- great and long 'study has had no bet-
piness. And the more severe his ter effect upon them, than to make
censure is, provided it be just, the them too wise for convietion.
more serviceable it


Reflection I. Especially, if the irregularities he Wherein the general conduct of hupoints out are not only important, man life is taxed, for placing learnfrequent and inveterate, but such as ing in such things as are little or lie secret and unobserved, and have nothing perfective of the underall along passed under the notion of

standing. excellencies. He that reflects upon 1. As there are two faculties in man, such misconducts as these, obliges by understanding and will; so there is his discovery as well as reproof. a double conduct of human life, intel

This consideration has occasioned lectual and moral. The moral conthe following Reflections upon the duct of men has been continually Study of Learning and Knowledge; exposed, ever since preaching and the greatest faults of which, by a kind writing have been in the world. But of unaccountable superstition, are ca

it has fared otherwise with the intelnonized for virtues.

lectual, which stands not so fair a The truth is, the light that divulges mark, nor has been so often hit. Not other miscarriages will be sure to that it is really less faulty, bat behide these. For beside that they cause its faultiness is less notorious, are visible only to a few (since none lies further in, and must be drawn can judge of the faults of the learned forth into view by a chain of conwithout learning) those few that do sequences, which few have either disdiscern them, have seldom ingenuity cernment enough to make, or patience enough to acknowledge them. For enough to attend to. either they are so proud as not to be 2. The chief irregularities of it are willing to own themselves to have three, respecting the end, the means, been so long under a mistake; or so and the degree of affection. ill-natured that they don't care others First, The placing learning in such should be directed to a better way things as are little or nothing perfecthan they themselves have travel- tive of the understanding. led in.

Secondly, The undue and irregular In the following reflections I have method of prosecuting what is really endeavoured to mark out some of perfective of it; and these less observed misconducts, Thirdly, The too importunate purwherewith I myself have been too suit of knowledge in general. long imposed on, and which after all

3. First, Men generally place learnmy conviction (so deep are the im- ing in such things as are little or pressions of early prejudice) I can nothing perfective of the understandhardly yet find power to correct. For ing. This, I confess, is a severe Education is the great bias of human charge, as it fastens an imputation of life, and there is this double witch- folly upon the learned order: and craft in it, that 'tis a long time before not only so, but in that very thing a man can see any thing amiss in a wherein they think their wisdom conway

he is used to, and when he does, sists. Learned men do indeed often, 'tis not very easy to change it. not only own but affect ignorance in

I can easily divine how these re- things beside their profession. But flections will be received by some of to censure them as defective in that the rigid votaries of old learning. But one thing they pretend to, to make if they are of service here and there that their blind side where they think to an ingenuous and unenslaved spi- they see clearest, to maintain, that

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