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of the religion of the Cross flow through Its interference would not be ema thousand peaceful streams, through ployed in rain. Muscovy and Siberia, to the distant

If, notwithstanding, after every shores of Kamtschatka, and then descend, from the regions of the North, sinew has been strained, and every upon the weak, ignorant, and vicious energy called into exercise, the arnations of China, Thibet, Tartary, dent wishes of Christian love and Persia, Arabia, and Turkey. Behold peace are not gratified, let us console here a career of glory worthy the ourselves with the assurances that greatest potentate of the earth! Thus, we have performed a most grateful in the estimation of the wise and good, duty; that we have proved ourselves will your brows be encircled with a wreath of immortal honour, compared to be active and consistent friends with which

of Peace at the moment of necessity;

and that such a display of the lovely To the Emperor of Austria, lan- spirit of Christianity will not be with guage somewhat like the following

out its influence upon the nations of might be employed:

Europe. “Remember, Sire, that those who are threatened with the sabres of

To the Editor of the Herald of Peace. your armies, profess the same religion as your own. Without considering,

It was one of the peculiarities of politically, the ground upon which the Christian code of laws, that it the invasion of Naples is contem- subjected not only actions, but the plated, we implore you to pause, and motives of actions, to its controul: it to inquire if Christianity will justify extended the charge of guilt from the the measure. Be assured, Sire, that commission to the intention, preventthe principles and spirit of our Holy ing the effect by prohibiting the cause. Religion require us to love our neigh Preceding laws opposed barriers to bour as ourselves--it enjoins us to the overflowing of the human passions do good (and not evil) unto all men; only, these set their seal on their very and it will be an awful law of futuré spring: the former had in view the condemnation against all who call social order of the community alone, themselves by the holyname of Christ, the latter primarily individual happiand yet act in direct opposition to his

The great Legislator, well precepts and example.

knowing that the human bosom was We respectfully, but solemnly, as much polluted by the cherished

inclination to crime, as by the perwarn you, Sire! not to unsheath the sword of War and devastation against petration of it, pronounced both criyour fellow-men. Order back your

minal. He deemed those passions menacing legions. Banish all thoughts thieves in the temple of the human of Warfare. Let your words be the heart, which, although they committed words of Peace. Then shall the fair no depredations abroad, had stolen regions of Italy bless you. Then will their abode and sub istence within its your people love and revere you,

and your grey and venerable locks will Christ can scarcely be said in exdescend to the grave in tranquillity press

terms to have forbidden War; and joy."

but he has forbidden all that occaBut we ought not to omit an ap prevents it. No laws, if framed for

sions it; he has commanded all that plication to the Government of Great actions only, would be found sufficiBritain, whose influence on the Con

ciently minute to guide us in every tinent is so extensive and powerful. circumstance of life: but those of




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Christianity, by rendering motives such an hour as this. Its volume was subject to them, supply rules of ac- written, its laws were framed, in a tion in every variety of situation. The land of tyranny, under a government government introduced at the Chris- so darkly despotic, that a comparison tian era affected states and kingdoms of such with our own would surely only through its general adoption by convert the murmurs of discontent the individuals which composed them; into the accents of exultation and grafor to the regulation of the human bo- titude: yet “ perfect liberty som only was it expressly directed. even then found in Christianity. At There was enjoined the forgiveness of first, it is true, it conferred peace on injuries, the patient endurance of the little world of the human heart wrong, the doing good for evil: there, alone, but it promised that, once gein fact, was commanded peace. Would nerally established there, nation not, then, the followers of Christ, who shall not lift up sword against nation, seek to promote peace on earth, find neither shall they learn war any one effectual means of doing so, by more.”

TRANQUILLA. labouring to secure, in those whom they influence, that bosom peace which effectually ensures it abroad?

Effects of War upon Science. Let them, whilst they forbid the in- (Letters from Palestine and Egypt, by struments of war, enjoin restraint on

T. R. J. 1820.) the impulse which nerves the hand to The celebrated (Alexandrian) liuse them.

brary, of which not a vestige now reOften, in political events, and cer- mains, was a part of the imperial tainly in recent ones, there have palace ;-a building so spacious as to been circumstances which call to life occupy, with its various dependencies, and action the spirit of war. It guides nearly one third of the city. A conthe pen, is heard in the voice, and is siderable portion of this sumptuous visible on the features. Even many edifice was consecrated to Science who confess the absurdity of War, do and the Muses, and distinguished by not, at such a period as the present, the name of Museum. To this esexclude from their bosoms all its ele- tablishment, which partook of the ments. The passions may only shew nature of a university, men the most their activity on paper, or in words; renowned for learning were invited but Christianity has forbidden that from all quarters ; here they found a activity, while she has not condemned splendid asylum, were received with any particular weapons.

marked attention, and maintained at În modern political cases it will be the public cost. The institution is said, “It is a love of justice, a gene ascribed to Ptolemy Philadelphus; rous attachment to liberty, and a pure but the idea appears

to have originadesire to render restitution to the in- ted with his father, Ptolemy Soter, jured,” that are so busy and so cla- who evinced on all occasions a dis

But does the love of jus- position to patronize genius, and entice, does gentle compassion, does courage the liberal arts. With this genuine patriotism, produce tumultu- view he began a collection of books, ous discord! Do they fire the eye which was afterwards so enlarged as with resentment, or infuse bitterness to be universally considered the finest into the words? These are the com- in the world. Ptolemy Philadelphus mon expressions of indignation and left a hundred thousand volumes ; wrath ; let them not be supposed to succeeding princes contimed to add indicate those dispositions of good- to the number, till at last the amount will to mankind which flow but in reached seven hundred thousand. channels of love. The New Testa- The zeal of Ptolemy Evergetes apment is replete with instruction for pears, in some instances, to have


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overstepped the strict boundaries of inculcate aught beside, they are justice: this monarch had a very dangerous." strong predilection for original works, Amrou implicitly obeyed the manwhich under the pretext of borrowing date of his sovereign, and in a short for the sake of making duplicates, time demolished the collective wisdom he sometimes forgot to return. This of ages. The lamp of Science being happened with regard to the writings thus extinguished, and the reservoir of Sophocles, Euripides, and Æs- which supplied it destroyed, a night chylus : he retained the originals, but of ignorance and darkness has ever sent back to the Athenians the most since overspread that land, which beautiful transcript that his professors was once the light and fountain of could furnish, and accompanied it learning. with a present of fifteen talents, a sum equivalent to three thousand pounds of our money.

From Mr. Clarkson's Portraiture of The first library was in that quar

Quakerism. ter of the city called Bruchion, ad

(Continued from p. 22.) joining the palace; when the collection increased to the number of four hundred thousand volumes, it Ir is now an old maxim, and time, became necessary to construct ano- with all its improvements, has not ther receptacle; and a new building, worn it away, that wars are necessary annexed to the Serapeum, was in the present constitution of the erected expressly for such purpose. world. It has not even been obliteHere three hundred thousand books rated, that they are necessary in order were deposited, making the total to sweep off mankind, on account of amount seven hundred thousand. the narrow boundaries of the earth. During the period of Cæsar's in- But they who make use of this arguvasion, the library in Bruchion was ment must be aware that, in espousunfortunately burned, and the whole ing it, they declare no less than that of that magnificent collection reduced God, in the formation of his system, to ashes: the Serapeum, however, had only half calculated or half proescaped without injury, and was vided for its continuance, and that afterwards very considerably aug- they charge him with a worse cruelty mented by Cleopatra, who chose it than is recorded of the worst of men ; as a depositary for the two hundred because, if he told men to increase thousand volumes presented to her by and multiply, and gave them passions Anthony. These were so enlarged accordingly, it would appear as if he by subsequent additions, that it event- had created them only to enjoy an ually surpassed the former aggregate, eternal feast in sight of their deand continued unimpaired amid the struction: nor do they make him a fluctuating fortunes of Rome, till in moral governor of the world, if he althe seventh century of our æra it was

lows men to butcher one another designedly burned by the Saracens,* without an individual provocation or when they gained possession of the offence. town. Amrou, general of Omar, Neither do persons arguing for the wrote to his master for instructions necessity of wars do less than set themrespecting the disposal of this in- selves above the prophecies or oracles valuable treasure : “ Commit the of God, which declare that such warvolumes to the flames,” was the reply fare shall some time or other cease. of that orthodox Caliph-" If they Neither do they, when they consicontain only the sublime truths of the der wars as necessary, and as never Koran, they are useless ; if they to be done away, on account of the Anno Domine 642.

wicked passions of men, do less than

speak blasphemy against the Gospel this sort, a nation, even during the of Jesus Christ; because they pro- discussion, should arm itself, in order claim it to be inadequate to the end that it may shew itself prepared! But proposed.

if any one nation arms during the disFor the proper subjugation of these, cussion, if it fits out armies or fleets among other purposes, it was, that of observation, with a view of deterthe Gospel was promulgated. If it be ring or of being ready, in case of nethought a miracle that the passions of cessity, of striking, as it is called, the men should be subdued, it is still a first blow, what is more probable than miracle which Christianity professes that the other will arm also, and that to work-which it has worked since it will fit out its own armies and fleets the hour of its institution—which it likewise ? But when both are thus has worked in men who have placed armed, pride and spirit will scarcely their highest reputation in martial suffer them to relax: and what is then glory--and which it continues to work more probable than that they will beat the present day.

gin to fight! Those, therefore, who promote wars, And, thirdly, is it not a maxim, also, and excite the passions of men for that even during the attempt to termithis purpose, attempt to undo what is nate the dispute, the public mind the object of Christianity to do, and should be prepared? Are not the to stop the benign influence of the public papers let loose, to-excite and Gospel in the hearts of men. propagate a flame! Are not the deeds

That wars are necessary, or rather of our ancestors ushered into our ears, that they will be begun and continued, to produce a martial spirit? But if I do not mean to deny, while states- the national temper be roused on both men pursue the wisdom or policy of sides, and if preparations are carrythe world.

ing on at the same time with the utWhat this wisdom or policy is, it most vigour, where, again, is the hope will not be difficult to trace. And, of the prevention of war between first, when any matter is in dispute them? among

the rulers of nations, is it not And, fourthly, after hostilities have a maxim that a high tone is desirable commenced, is it not a maxim also to in the settlement of it, in order that perpetuate the enmity which has been the parties may seem to betray nei- thus begun, to give it a deeper root, ther fear nor weakness, and that they and even to make it perpetual by may not be thought to lose any of their connecting it with religion? Thus dignity or spirit? Now, as the human flag-staves are exhibited upon steeples, passions are constituted, except they bells are rung to announce victories, have been previously brought under and sermons are preached as occadue regulation by Christianity, what sions arise; as if the places allotted is more likely than that a high tone of for Christian worship were the most language on one side should beget a proper from whence to issue the news similar tone on the other; or that of human suffering, or to excite the spirit once manifested should produce passions of men for the destruction of spirit in return; and that each should

one another. Nor is this all. The fly off as it were at a greater distance very colours of the armies are consefrom accommodation than before, and crated. I do not mean to say that, that when once exasperation has be- like the banners in the prætorian gun, it should increase! Now what tents, they are actually worshipped, is the chance, if such policy be re- but that an attempt is made to render sorted to on such occasions, of the them holy in the eyes of those who preservation of peace between them! are present-an attempt is made, won

And, secondly, is it not also a re- derful to relate, to incorporate war ceived maxim, that in controversies of into the religion of Jesus Christ, and

to perpetuate enmity on the founda- enemy hunger, feed him; for in so tion of his Gospel.

doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on Now this is the policy of the world; his head ;" that is, thou shalt cause and can it be seriously imagined that him, by thy amiable conduct, to expesuch a system as this can ever lead rience burning feelings within himself, to peace ? For while discussions rela- which, while they torment him with tive to matters of national dispute are the wickedness of his own conduct, carried on in a high tone, because a shall make him esteem thee, and bring more humble tone would betray weak- him to thy side: thus thou shalt overness or fear; while, again, during the come his evil by thy good; or, in other discussion, preparations for war are words, as fire melts the hardest metals, going on, because the appearance of so thy kindness shall melt his anger. being prepared would give the idea of Thus Parnell : determined resolution, and of more

“ So artists melt the sullen ore of lead, than ordinary strength ; while, again, By heaping coals of fire upon its head: during the same discussion, the na- Touch'd by the warmth, the metal learns to glow, tional spirit is awakened and in- And, pure from dross, the silver runs below.flamed; and while, again, when hosti- This policy, again, would consist of lities have commenced, measures are the practical duty of attempting to resorted to to perpetuate a national tranquillize the minds of the people enmity, so that the parties consider while the discussion was going on; of themselves as natural enemies even exhorting them to wait the event with in the succeeding peace—what hope composure; of declaring against the is there of the extermination of war folly and wickedness of wars, as if on earth?

peace only could be the result; of But now let us look at the opposite abstaining from all hostile preparapolicy, which is that of the Gospel. tions, and indeed from all appearance Now this policy would consist in the of violence. Now what influence practice of meekness, moderation, would such a conduct have, again, love, patience, and forbearance, with but particularly when known to the a strict regard to justice, so that no opposite party? If the opposite party advantages might be taken on either vere to see those alluded to keeping side. But if these principles, all of down the passions of their people, which are preventive of irritation, were would they inflame the passions of to be displayed in our negociations their own? If they were to be con

abroad, in case of any matter in dis- vinced that these were making no pre. te pute, would they not annihilate the parations for war, would they put

necessity of wars ? For what is the themselves to the expense of arming? natural tendency of such principles? Can we see any other termination of What is their tendency, for instance, such a contest, than the continuance in private life? And who are the ne- of peace ? gotiators on these occasions, but men ? That the policy of the Gospel, if Which kind of conduct is most likely acted upon by statesmen, would rento disarm an opponent, that of him der wars unnecessary, we may infer who holds up his arm to strike if his from supposed cases. And, first

, I opponent should not comply with his would ask this simple question, Whe terms, or of him who argues justly, ther, if all the world were Quakers, who manifests a temper of love and for- there would be any more wars? I am bearance, and who professes that he sure the reply would be, No. But why will rather suffer than resist, and that not! Because, nations consisting of he will do every thing sooner than that such individuals, it would be replied, the affair shall not be amicably set- would discuss matters in dispute betled? The Apostle Paul, who knew tween them with moderation, with well the human heart, says, “ If thine temper, and with forbearance. They

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