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of war and conquest : let orators, society for a thousand years. How historians, poets, painters, and all many laws, usages and customs, writers and teachers, combine their which were thought just and necesinfluence to expose the injustice, the sary by our ancestors, have been barbarity and the miseries of war,- exploded by the progress of light! and to excite in all men the love of If the preceding remarks should peace: let conquerors, war-makers, fail of satisfying the reader, his atand desolaters of countries, be ex- tention is requested to a few plain hibited as the enemies of human questions.-Who would think of happiness, and the reproach of their preserving men from the small pox, species; and let rulers of a pacific by diffusing the contagion, and excharacter, who shall exert their powers posing our whole race to its deleand even hazard their reputation and terious influence? What wise parent "their lives to prevent war, be regarded would train up his children to the as the greatest benefactors of their re- love of ardent spirits and the art of -spective countries and of the world. gambling, to prevent their becoming

Now what will be said of such intoxicated and cheated in bad commeans for producing war? Why pany? or inspire their minds with have they never been adopted by exalted ideas of the glory of boxing war-makers ? Common sense requires and duelling, to prevent their peno answer to these questions. It is rishing in such shameful combats ? seen at once, that war would never But what better or more rational are be produced by such means. Yet the popular means for preventing war? may it not be boldly affirmed, that Was there ever a course adopted for these means are as naturally adapted a good end more repugnant to reto produce war, as the opposite means ligion, to reason, or to nature, than are to produce or prolong peace ? that of employing the genuine means

By this fatal misapplication of and spirit of war, as the best and means, hostilities have been so com- almost the only method of preserving mon, that some have imagined war to be essential to the nature of man. It will not, however, be denied But now it appears, that wars have that, in some instances, a display of been rendered necessary, by a mis- the spirit of war may have been the take as to the proper means for pre- means of preventing immediate hosventing them. Is it then impossible tilities. Still it may be affirmed that to correct this mistake? If not, to this spirit has produced every war abolish war is possible.

with which the human race has been It will be objected, that many wise afflicted; and that the more this and good men hare recommended spirit is cherished by any people, the the popular means, as the best means greater is their danger; and the for avoiding war. This is most cheer- greater the probability that they will fully admitted. The writer was him- make wanton wars till they shall self, for many years, an advocate for bring ruin on themselves. such means ; and being conscious of Fifth. The people of the United his own sincerity, while of that opi- States are in danger of being ruined nion, and having as full confidence by party dissensions. In connexion in the sincerity of many others, he with the other sources of danger, has now represented the opinion as this deserves the most serious ata mistake, and not a designed impo- tention. sition. But it should be remembered, While the Federal Union comprises that the opinions of the best of men upwards of twenty distinct governof former ages, have been urged ments, and a large extent of terriagainst almost every improvement tory, it also comprises a great variety which has been made in the state of of discordant opinions, habits and


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interests. In each of the indepen- sidered, the Christian and the Phia dent States, the principles and spirit lanthropist will anxiously ask, What of war are cultivated as the means course can be adopted to avert the of safety; the citizens are armed with impending evils ? To this question weapons of slaughter, and taught to a brief answer will be attempted. glory in martial exploits. Nor will In general it may be observed, that it be doubted that, in each 'section of a refuge may be found by resorting. the country, there are men of talents to the God of Peace, the principles and military ambition, prepared for of peace, and the spirit of peace. demagogues in a time of great pub- This general remark may comprise lic excitement. Besides, our history the following particulars : has shown that the people of these 1. Let the white people of the States are liable to party passions of United States display towards the the most bewildering character, slaves, that benignity and justice passions which call good evil and which become them as advocates for evil good, and which transform pro- liberty, and do all that wisdom and fessed friends to avowed enemies. benevolence can do to ameliorate the "Who does not recollect,” says the condition, improve the character, and Hon. Judge Story, “the violence effect the emancipation of this injured with which party spirit in times past and degraded race.

Let us as a raged in this State, breaking asunder nation no more indulge the thought the ties of friendship and consan

of another war, to revenge any guinity.' . . Notwithstanding the violation of our own rights, till we more recent calm, unless special care shall have exemplified a due regard shall prevent, the same spirit may to the rights of the Negroes. again rise with greater violence, and 2. Let us do all that can be done arm the different sections of the to repair the injuries which contempt country against each other.

and avarice have inflicted on the In... From these facts and circumstandian tribes. ces, it is obvious that the people of 9. Let us lay aside our prejudices, these States are very liable to the our revilings, and our boastings, in appalling tempests of civil war. In regard to the people of foreign counsuch an event, our boasted strength, tries, and cultivate towards all nations our martial spirit, our hostile pre- and tribes of men, the spirit of phiparations—the very means relied on lanthropy and friendship ; and, as a for safety, may all become the means substitute for the barbarous thirst of self-destruction, national ruin, for military fame, let us seek that and aggravated misery. Then the glory which results from doing good indescribable horrors of the French to all men, and evil to none. Revolution may be realized in these 4. Let party passions no more have now happy States; and, during the an ascendancy in the public councils tornado, some Cæsar or Napoleon of our nation, nor in the breasts of may rise to power, and transform our our citizens. Let the spirit of fornumerous Republican Institutions, bearance, harmony, and good will, moulding them into one terrific mili- be cultivated between the different tary despotism, and fill this favoured sections of our country-between land with oppression, conscription, rulers and subjects, and among all proscription, murder, and wretched classes of citizens in the several States. ness. But, alas ! shall our country. Let our motto continue to be—“Unimen never be convinced, but by fatal ted, we stand; divided, we fall." experience, that they who sow the 5. Should it be manifest, on exawind shall

the whirlwind ! reap

mination, that the proposed “recipe When these several sources of for producing a general war in Chrisdanger shall have been properly con- tendom," is not adapted to this end,


let due exertions be made to apply selves, and calculated, we think, to its principles for the production and produce very beneficial effects upon preservation of universal peace. Let the minds of those who may be us no longer rely on the haughty, willing to give to them a candid irritable, irritating, and revengeful attention. war spirit, as the best means of After having sent the letter to the preserving peace aud preventing war. Indians in America, with a copy of The precious figs of peace are not the which we closed our former extracts, natural fruit of this noxious thistle. William Penn prepared the next year If we would long enjoy the blessing to follow his secretary and the several of peace, we must sow its seeds and commissioners, who were the bearcherish its plants. Let our children,

ers of it.

“ The first thing he did,” then, be educated to the love of

says Mr. Clarkson, was to publish peace and an abhorrence of war. Let the Frame of Gorernment or Consuch men of talents be raised to stitution of Pennsylvania : to this he power as shall be distinguished for added a preface upon the origin, pacific dispositions and a due com- nature, object, and modes of governs

nand of their own passions—men ment;" which his biographer justly who will not sacrifice the peace of denominates as noble, beautiful, and their country to the idol of a party, full of wise and just sentiments. Here to the lust of power, of wealth, or we may take occasion to remark, in of fame, nor to the passion of revenge. opposition to the reasonings and ap

In a word, let the means which prehensions of a late writer * against are best adapted to preserve peace the peculiar principle of the Peace annong neighbouring families, be ex

Societies, that the proper execution tended for the prevention of war of judicial authority does not necesbetween neighbouring states and sarily lead to the establishment and nations. Then the several sources employment of a military force. No of danger will be continually dimi, one better understood the principles nishing; and in pursuing such a of Peace, nor was more habitually policy, the people of every land may under their influence, than William safely confide in the Almighty, as Penn; no one could be more dethe God of Peace, and the God of cidedly principled against all military their salvation.

operations ; few legislators, if any, It is not, however, supposed that better understood the foundation such changes and improvements, as upon which government ought to have now been proposed, can be rest, and the just and equitable mode otherwise than gradually introduced; in which it ought to operate. Yet, yet, by proper exertions, much may on the one hand, he feared not to be annually done to diminish the enter upon the important work of sources of national dangers, and to government, over a mixed people, and place these States on the ground of amidst bands of armed and warlike permanent peace.

Indians, without any, the least,

military array: Nor, on the other From Memoirs of the Life of Wm. Penz, danger the safety, or compromise

hand, did he feel that he should enby Mr. Clarkson,

the proper authority of his judicial (Continued from p. 237.)

and governing power, by a decided As we are desirous of keeping and uniform avowal of the peculiar closely to the avowed and limited principles of the Peace Societies. object of the Herald of Peace, we shall feel compelled to pass over many passages in these Memoirs

* See an Inquiry on the Duty of Chriswhich are highly interesting in them: tians with respect to War, &c. Let. I.

Admitting that restraint and cor- meeting which took place upon this rection form important parts of legis- occasion. lative duty, he affirms, " that govern- “ The time now arrived when he ment is as capable of kindness, good- was to confirm his great treaty with ness, and charity, as a more private the Indians. His religious principles, society." And it does not appear which led him to the practice of the that in the performance of his duty, most scrupulous morality, did not as the governor of Pennsylvania, he permit him to look upon the king's was deficient either in the energy patent, or legal possession according and rectitude proper to the magis- to the laws of England, as sufficient terial office, or in the peaceful and lo establish his right to the country, amiable dispositions which appertain without purchasing it by fair and to the Christian character.

open bargain of the natives, to whom In the different parts of the legis- only it properly belonged. He had lative code adopted for the govern- therefore instructed commissioners, ment of the province, the spirit of as I mentioned in the preceding Christianity was ever kept in view ; chapter, who had arrived in America and particularly in reference to pu- before him, to buy it of the latter, and nishments, “ William Penn," says to make with them at the same time his biographer," was of opinion, a treaty of eternal friendship. This that though the deterring of others the Coinmissioners had done; and from offences must continue to be this was the time when, by mutual the great, and indeed only end of agreement between him and the punishment, yet, in a community Indian chiefs, it was to be publicly professing itself Christian, the refor- ratified. He proceeded therefore, mation of the offender was to be in- accompanied by his friends, consistseparably connected with it. Hence ing of men, women,


young perhe made but two capital offences; sons of both sexes, to Coaquannoc, namely, murder, and treason against the Indian name for the place where the state : and hence also all prisons Philadelphia Liow stands. On his were to be considered as workshops, arrival there he found the Sachems where the offenders might be in- and their tribes assembling. They dustriously, soberly, and morally were seen in the woods as far as the employed.” Happy would it be, eye could carry, and looked frightful, we are persuaded, if all countries, both on account of their number and calling themselves Christian, were their arms. The Quakers are reported to act upon this striking and beau- to have been but a handful in comtiful characteristic of the religion of parison, and these without any weaJesus Christ. The consequences to pon; so that dismay and terror had the community at large, as well as come upon them, had they not conto the miserable offenders themselves, fided in the righteousness of their would be highly salutary and beneficial.

“ It is much to be regretted, when Some time after William Penn's we have accounts of the minor treaarrival in America, it was settled that ties between William Penn and the the treaty with the Indians, which Indians, that in no historian I can the commissioners who preceded him find an account of this, though so had entered into with them, should many mention it, and though all conbe publicly solemnized and ratified. cur in considering it as the most As this was a treaty of peace, which glorious of any in the annals of the was never violated, though the par- world. There are, however, relations ties on one side were warriors by in Indian speeches, and traditions in education and long habit, we cannot Quaker families descended from those withhold a particular detail of the who were present on the occasion,


from which we may learn something began. The Great Spirit, he said, concerning it. It appears that, who made him and them, who ruled though the parties were to assemble the Heaven and the Earth, and who at Coaquannoc, the treaty was made knew the innermost thoughts of man, a little higher up, at Shackamaxon. knew that he and his friends had a Upon this Kensington now stands, hearty desire to live in peace and the houses of which may be con- friendship with them, and to serve sidered as the suburbs of Philadelphia. them to the utmost of their power. There was at Shackamaxon an elm “It was not their custom to use hostile tree of a prodigious size: To this weapons against their fellow-creathe leaders on both sides repaired, tures, for which reason they had approaching each other under its come unarmed. Their object was not widely-spreading branches. William to do injury, and thus provoke the Penn appeared in his usual clothes. Great Spirit, but to do good. They He had no crown, sceptre, mace, were then inet on the broad pathsword, halberd, or any insignia of way of good faith and good will, so eminence. He was distinguished that no advantage was to be taken only by wearing a sky-blue sash on either side, but all was to be round his waist, which was made of openness, brotherhood, and love.' silk net-work, and which was of no After these and other words, he unlarger apparent dimensions than an rolled the parchment, and by means officer's military sash, and much like of the same interpreter conveyed to it, except in colour. On his right them, article by article, the condihand was Colonel Markham, his tions of the purchase, and the words relation and secretary, and on his of the compact then made for their left his friend Pearson, before men- eternal union. Among other things, tioned, after whom followed a train they were not to be molested in their of Quakers. Before him were carried lawful pursuits, even in the territory various articles of merchandize, which they had alienated, for it was to be when they came near the Sachems common to them and the English. were spread upon the ground. He They were to have the same liberty held a roll of parchment, containing to do all things therein relating to the confirmation of the treaty of peace the improvement of their grounds, and amity, in his hand. One of the and providing sustenance for their Sachems, who was the chief of them, families, which the English had. If then put upon his own head a kind any disputes should arise between of chaplet, in which appeared a small the two, they should be settled by þorn. * This, as among the primitive twelve persons, half of whom should eastern nations, and according to be English, and half Indians. He Scripture language, was an emblem then paid them for the land, and of kingly power; and whenever the made them many presents besides chief, who had a right to wear it, put from the merchandize which had it on, it was understood that the place been spread before them. Having was made sacred, and the persons of done this, he laid the roll of parchall present inviolable. Upon putting ment on the ground, observing again, on this horn the Indians threw down that the ground should be common their bows and arrows, and seated to both people. He then added, that themselves round their chiefs in the he would not do as the Marylanders form of a half-moon upon the ground. did, that is, call them children or The chief Sachem then announced brothers only; for often parents were to William Penn, by means of an apt to whip their children too seinterpreter, that the nations were verely, and brothers would sometimes ready to hear him.

differ : neither would he compare the Having been thus cailed upon, he friendship between him and them to

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