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transactions relating to that event, been, by education, applause, and an example was given of the value the patronage of governments. of pacific dispositions in adjusting Privateering-"a relic of the anclaims of high importance. To the cient piracy,” and a branch of modern extent that such dispositions predo- warfare, is losing its reputation minate, war will of course be avoided; among reflecting men. During the for men never fight from love one to last session of Congress, the Comanother.

mittee on Foreign Relations made Duelling, like public war, has long a Report, which was accepted by been practised as an honourable and the House of Representatives, and necessary mode of deciding contro well adapted to hasten the abolition versies or redressing wrongs; and not only of Privateering, but the it is indeed far the less unjust and whole system of maritime depredahorrible of the two. But this Gothic tion. It may also be observed, that practice is sinking in public estima- a luminous article on the subject has tion. In this vicinity it has been been circulated through the country, proved that a man may decline a in the North American Review; and challenge with the applause of his that one hundred copies of the arfellow citizene,--while the challenger ticle were printed in the form of a escapes the hand of justice by flight. Tract, and the greater part of them In Alabama a law has recently been were presented to the Committee for enacted, which exposes the duellist distribution, by the Author—that into be for ever excluded from any telligent and amiable member of our office of honour or profit in that Society, whose unexpected decease state. The fatal combat of two com has so recently filled our hearts with modores induced expressions of in- grief. dignation against the practice, in The numerous instances of piracy, perhaps every respectable newspaper the trials, condemnations, and exein the country

From these facts it cutions for that crime, which ocmay be inferred, that duelling will curred in the course of the year,

have soon cease to be regarded as an probably caused many to reflect on honourable mode of settling disputes, the palpable barbarism and injustice and of course be confined to men who of similar depredations, when prachave no reputation to lose.

tised under licenses from Christian Stabbing is another species of war governments ! little known in New England, but In proportion as inhuman customs more common in the southern and become the subjects of reflection, the western states. This practice has cal more their enormities are perceived led forth a law for its suppression in and abhorred. Fifty years ago the Indiana, and a remonstrance from a African Slave-trade was generally grand jury in Virginia. Enlightened regarded in our country as a just, men in those regions have discovered, necessary, and honourable species of that the practice of preparing for traffic. Men engaged in it with as this species of war, by“ wearing little suspicion of its immorality, as arms,” has been the occasion of they engaged in buying and selling

numerous instances of stabbing.' oxen and horses. But in 1820, by Those who are acquainted with a law of Congress, this inhuman analogical reasoning may now be traffic became piracy, and punishable able to account for the frequency of with death. What then can hinder national contests. They may also be a similar change in public sentiment, led to reflect the exterminating as to the necessity, the justice, and the havoc which would have resulted, glory of war! One discovery prehad duelling and stabbing been as pares the way for another. Those much encouraged as public war has who are aiready convinced that

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duelling, stabbing, privateering, and through the world, Glory to God the slave-trade, are needless and in the highest ; on earth peace, good savage practices, will naturally in- will among men. quire, whether there be not other

“ And though long distant be the hour, things still popular, which are equally

When that fair morn sball brightly rise ; abhorrent to reason, religion, and And many a fearful cloud may low'r philanthropy. Such inquiries will Ere its full radiance gild our skies, not be in vain ; and they may result

Is not e'en now its first faint gleam

Along the fair horizon spread ? in a full conviction, that the practice Is not e'en now its of making war on unoffending colonies Upon the distant mountains spread ? and innocent subjects, to revenge the

All hail to that propitious ray,

Swift may its dawning light increase, wrongs of their rulers, is as repug

Sweet prelude of the coming day, nant to the principles of benevolence

Bright herald of an age of peace.” and moral justice, as any of the crimes

From the Herald of Peace. for which felons are doomed to the gallows. The policy of our ancestors, in offering a premiuni of one

The Semblance and the Reality. hundred dollars for every Indian “ Yes,” said the Baron, the scalp, though popular in Massachu- profession of a soldier wears a very setts less than a hundred years ago, attractive aspect to those who only is now regarded with horror. But behold it in its holiday garb, in an enlightened posterity may be all its splendid panoply, divested unable to see in what respect this of its vicissitudes, its horrors, and conduct is more immoral or inhuman its sufferings. I remember, when a than other methods of exciting the boy, being present for the first time spirit of war, which are still prac- at a review, held by Henry III. at tised by Christians ; and they may Fontainbleau. My senses, my imagibe of the opinion, that offering such nation, were captivated, dazzled; mipremiums was less censurable than litary enthusiasm instantly plumed the common practice of employing her rapid wing, and wandered through one tribe of Indians to destroy another. such scenes of bright illusion, per

Thus, by the progress of light, formed such feats of supernatural civilization and philanthropy, bar- courage and godlike heroism, as barous principles and usages, one romance loves to design, and fancy after another, may be discovered and to colour with her brightest tints. exploded, till the enormous super- I burnt my Demosthenes, for being structure of public war shall be di- less eminent in the field than the minished, undermined, overthrown, rostrum ; and abandoned Horace as and consigned to infamy and ob- a coward, to be destroyed by moths livion. Through the influence of and musk; while thé Achilles of beneficent exertions, the principles of Homer, and the Eneas of Virgil, universal brotherhood are acquiring with a few preux Chevaliers of moan ascendency in the hearts of men. dern date, became my study and When such principles shall be im- morals. But alas! a few years mibibed by the rulers of nations, and litary experience faded the glowing cherished by them in their subjects, tints my imagination had shed over with the same ardour that the spirit the picture. I saw that the laurels of war has been encouraged, a new which fame hung over the path of state of society will be introduced ;— victory, did but conceal his footsteps

' war will lose its infatuating charms; bloody track; and that the heart the energies of men will be displayed of humanity, of reason, groaned in in saving rather than destroying in anguish over those deeds which gave doing good rather than mischief. immortality to the name of the hero. Then the song of angels will resound I saw the ambition of a few, the

scourge of millions; and I beheld yet they hold in siavery about half as the warrior, in his splendid career, many human beings as there were of overturning the rights, the liberties, white people in these States, when they and happiness of mankind; and ob were declared free and independent. taining a deathless name, for having So huge a mass of oppression, indesolated and laid waste the fairest justice and degradation–exposed as treasures in the moral and natural it is to the sunshine of liberty, canworld.” [Lady Morgan.]

not fail to ferment; and, unless a remedy shall be provided, the fermentation will probably increase till

it shall burst all the bands of reNational Dangers, and Means of straint, and overwhelm the country Escape.

with distress and horror. Tue extraordinary success which What could have been more shockattended the American exertions in ing to a reflecting mind than to see favour of liberty and independence, these States—unmindful of the conwith the unparalleled growth and dition of the Blacks, engage a second prosperity of the United States, have time in war, on account of some violeft perhaps scarcely a doubt on the lated rights ? or to see them sacrifice minds of our citizens, whether the twenty or thirty thousand of our Revolution will or will not be ulti- citizens, to revenge alleged wrongs mately beneficial to the country. In done to some of our seamen by imthe blessings which Providence has pressment into a foreign service,conferred on this land, all have rea while, as a nation, we held in absoson to rejoice. That they may be lutę slavery nearly a million and a continued and multiplied, is the half of our brethren! A righteous ardent desire of the writer of this God cannot but abhior such inconarticle. But he apprehends that sistency in a people who are so ready there are serious grounds to fear, to fight for liberty; nor will He be that our present privileges will be deaf to the cries of the oppressed. of shorter duration than is generally. How many thousands of the poor anticipated, unless the attention of slaves might have been redeemed, our countrymen can be excited to transplanted, and placed in comthe dangers which threaten them, fortable circumstances, by the hunand to “ the things which belong to dred and twenty millions of dollars their peace.” Some facts will there- expended in the late war! Would fore be stated, which he regards as not such an act of justice and mercy a ground of alarm, notwithstanding have contributed a thousand fold all the present prosperity of the na more to the safety and glory of the tion.- Liberty will be taken to ex nation, than all our boasted exploits press a dissent, on some points, from of revenge, depredation and havoc ? opinions which are perhaps popular In another view of the subject, in all countries ; but this, it is hoped, the direful mass of slavery exposes will be done in the spirit of candour, our country to ruin. The Missouri and not of reproach, and accom- questions have already agitated the panied with such reasonings as may States, throughout their whole exat least evince that the subject de- tent; and in some instances they serves a candid and thorough ex- have produced such menacing lanamination. The sources of danger guage as ought not to be countewill be comprised in the following nadced in a civilized country. The particulars :

progress of light respecting the rights First. In the Revolutionary war, of men, will naturally give rise to our countrymen avowedly contended other questions, which will demand for liberty and the rights of man; more of the spirit of conciliation and

forbearance than has yet appeared in trate this remark a plain case may America. It is infinitely important be stated :to the welfare of these States, that A long and bloody quarrel had the principles and spirit of Peace existed between the two powerful should be as thoroughly and exten- families of A and B-in which each sively cultivated, as the principles suffered great injuries from the other. and spirit of Liberty; for if the latter At length, however, they became shall continue to be cultivated, and weary of the contest-formed a treaty the former discarded or neglected, of peace--mutually engaged to rethe most horrible consequences will frain from further hostilities, and to naturally result.

treat each other as neighbours and A case may be stated, the occur friends. But strong prejudices had rence of which it is the ardent desire been induced by the contest, and of the writer to prevent. Suppose their mutual wounds were not soon then, that the Negroes should be forgotten. Since their solemn agreekept in ignorance of the Christian ment to “ bury the hatchet," and to principles of love, forbearance and live in peace, the members of each peace, till, by hearing of the glory family are often heard reproaching of fighting for the rights of man, those of the other for past injuries, they become intoxicated with the boasting of their own sanguinary expopular sentiment — Liberty or ploits, and of the advantages they Death,and resolve, unanimously, gained during the conflict. Narra

to be free, or perish in the at- tives of what they suffered and what tempt.” How shocking must be the they achieved, are on each side ronsequences to themselves and to accompanied with bitter sarcasms, myriads of others ! But what man adapted to prolong their mutual prewho is friendly to the principles of judices, and to transmit them to the American Revolution, could raise future generations. These things the arm of violence to repel the are done in private circles, at public Negro's claim to the rights of a free festivals, in theatrical exhibitions, citizen ?

annual orations, and extensively difHow

very desirable then it must fused hy newspapers and other periobe, that both slave-holders and slaves dical publications. In addition to should have their minds seasonably these glaring improprieties each faimbued with sentiments of benevo- mily has been openly, avowedly and lence and peace, that they may live unceasingly preparing for another together in harmony, till the way conflict. Such are their jealousies shall be prepared for the emanci- of each other, and such their mode pation of the slave, with safety to of preserving peace. himself, and to his master!

Now what shall be said of such Second, The host of prejudices a policy between two neighbouring excited by the wars with Britain families? Is it not manifestly imprugreatly endanger the future peace dent, antichristian, barbarous,-and and welfare of the United States. in the highest degree reprehensible To the prejudices which originated and dangerous ? Would it not be next in the Revolutionary contest, we to impossible for them, while purmay justly look for one of the prin- suing such a course, to make others cipal causes of the more recent war: believe that they really desire to By the late war, the prejudices were avoid future wars? Yet such is the increased; and these expose the

policy of Christian nations !--Such parties to future conflicts. This the policy of Great Britain, and of source of danger is augmented by the United States ! While in words the imprudent policy which is still they bless God for peace, and pray pursued in both nations. To illus- for its continuance, they pursue

direct course to defeat their own are employed to prevent war and preprayers and to blast their own en serve peace, may justly be regarded joyments.

as a source of danger and ground Third. The thirst for military and of alarm. War and peace are as pernaval fame, in a large portion of our fectly opposites in nature, as disease citizens, is another source of danger and health, or death and lite. What to our country. Under any form of then can be more unphilosophical government this disease is the bane than to suppose, that such opposite of liberty and public happiness. In effects are to be produced by the a republic, it is peculiarly dangerous. same causes or means ? Yet is it not Its direct tendency is, the subversion a fact, that the popular means for of Republican principles and the de- preserving peace, are the natural struction of freedom. The inore this means for producing war ? thirst for sanguinary fame is indulged, Suppose it to be the real desire of the greater is the probability that our two governments to be frequently at country will often engage in need war with each other ; what ineans less and ruinous wars,—and that will they adopt ? will they not emgradual encroachments will be made ploy the greater portion of their on the rights of our citizens, till they respective revenues in preparations shall rise against the government, or for war, and little or none in presink under the hideous weight of a parations for peace? Will they not in military despotism.

various forms exert their influence May it not also be truly affirmed, to excite and cherish the spirit of

that a thirst for martial renown is war, the love of martial glory, and E not merely dangerous to liberty and admiration of military and naval ex

peace, but in its very nature, offen- ploits ? Surely these are the natural sive to God-immoral, inhumane, means of war. They are also the and even murderous ? How is this very means which Christian nations military glory to be achieved but by have adopted as means of peace ! exciting wars and filling the earth As reason and nature teach that opwith violence and devastation ? Is he posite effects will result from opposite not then a murderer at heart, who de

means, if the popular sires an opportunity to acquire fame means for preserving or producing by shedding the blood of his bre- peace are adapted to their end, the thren ? What shall be said of the following prescription will exhibit monster in human form, who is will- the genuine means for producing ing that thousands of his brethren should perish, or millions be made A Recipa for producing a general

miserable, that he may be called a war in Christendom.-Let the several 1 Conqueror

or a great General? Is he governments display towards each not an enemy to God, to his country, other the spirit of benignity, conand to his species? Yet is not this fidence and friendship-lay aside their diabolical ambition the very thing expensive preparations for national which is extolled and adored by hostilities, and no more give the thousands in this country, as well as

world reason to suppose, that they in Europe ?-But what better does mutually regard each other as unany people deserve than the curses of principled, public cut-throats and war, the chains of despotism, and robbers : let much of the revenues the vengeance of Heaven, who wor of each government be employed in ship the idol military glory? And is diffusing in every direction the prinit possible to conceive of a viler pas- ciples of candour, forbearance and sion, either in man or devil, than the amity, -and for bringing into dis

repute the spirit, the maxims, the Fourth. The unnatural means which exploits, the apparatus and parade

causes

or

war:

love of war?

VOL. III.

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