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acknowledgment, that he has deviated many other evils. If we are to portray from the track of some of his prede- a nation of Quakers, we must supcessors, and has not copied the calum- pose it composed of true Quakers ; nies respecting us, which abound in for so far as in any respect the people books intended for general information. degenerate into vice and immorality, But the Society is indebted to him for so far they recede from true Quamore than negative justice : he has kerism ; and then their sins, sooner represented it to his readers as a be- or later, contribute to their overthrow. nevolent Christian people. These are But this is not imputable to their piety, his words:

harmlessness, and charity. A philosopher may well envy the I shall require [the objector] to mild creed and universal charity, or people our ideal land with men stedfraternal love, of the Quakers; whilst fastly fearing and loving God, and he must allow, with a sigh, that a believing in Christ and the Christian nation of Quakers could not exist, dispensation, as revealed in the New unless all nations were of the same Testament; and studious to approve persuasion.'

themselves to their Master, by conThe regret expressed in the latter formity to His laws. Of the more part of this account has touched me distinguishing tenet of our Society, not a little. It seems sorrowful that the immediate teachings of His Light it should be an established fact, that in the conscience, I need not here charity and fraternal love, and such enlarge. It is enough for my arguas practise them, cannot subsist in ment that they are, generally speakthe world. Alas, for the world, in that ing, seeking to know, and diligent to case! His eulogium on the Friends do, the will of Christ. is a severe satire on its nations.

Before I proceed, I must assume I afraid we

little need the reason for supposing that a nato concern ourselves about the safety tion like that I have described, must of a nation of Quakers. Their coun- be a prey to its neighbours. Pintrymen are too little disposed to submit kerton has not himself announced it; to the restraints of conduct necessary but I think it can be no other than to be admitted of their number; and the disuse of arms. It is no less many who enjoy, what I call, that lamentable than true, that among privilege, by birthright, seem too much mankind in general, at least among disposed to shake off those restraints, those who conduct governments, there and to mingle gradually with the is a propensity to war. They seem crowd of such as forget tħe interests to think their character scarcely comof a future life, in the cares or plea- plete, unless it have a portion of the sures of the present.

military one, and glory in opportuBut it is necessary for our argument nities of displaying it in the field. to suppose the improbable supposition I am apt to think, that in the attempts of a nation of Quakers realized. Such to settle and adjust the differences a nation would, indeed, form a new which naturally arise about worldly and singular phænomenon; but I am interests, this national spirit, as it is far from sure that it would naturally called, has prevented a friendly issue contain the seeds of its own destruc- to numerous negociations; and has tion; and so long as it should last, it thus really occasioned many of the would be a standing refutation of the wars, which render the history of conclusion of our geographer. When, mankind a history of human folly however, I speak of a nation of and distress. Now this lofty sense of Quakers, I do not simply mean a honour (as it is usually termed) has nation which has laid aside the use no place in a true Christian people

. of arms, and at the same time is in- They reject, as Christ has taught dulging itself in luxury, avarice, and them, the practice of receiving honour


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Classification of the Wars of Civilized Nations. 231 from men; because they find, accord Thus far I have endeavoured to ing to His doctrine, that it stands in show only from the natural deduction

of their belief in Him. For of effects from causes, that a nation of this spirit of contention, they have genuine upright Quakers might subadopted His meek and quiet spirit, sist in safety ; but as I am not bound by which means half the occasions to rest my opinion wholly on such of war are cut away at once. And arguments, I will proceed to another, even supposing that there was not, which cannot be rejected, when we (which however will not, I think, be are speaking of religious matters. If asserted) that fondness for contest we grant, as we must, that our ideal which so many nations have shown, people have for the spring of their still, even upon

the notion of what action, a true living faith that it is their Gi

is sometimes called necessary war, duty to the Almighty so to act, they e there must be an aggressing and an will consequently have an unshaken

aggrieved party. In the former of faith in his protection. This is no *** these characters, our lamb-like nation more than his commands enjoin, and erit

could never appear. It only there- the example of his people in former Ho

fore remains for us to inquire how it ages warrants. So that I should not

would act, so as to be preserved from strain an expression, if I were to say, of the the danger of an unjust and oppres- that such a nation would be sure of

the protection of Providence, and It is observable in the province of satisfied with the manner and the

nature, that such animals as are des- proportion in which it should be od li titute of weapons of offence, are extended.”

generally furnished with some ap

propriate means of security. Thus Third Report of the Committee of tu I apprehend it would be with our innocent citizens. Knowing the dif

Inquiry of the Massachussetts

Peace Society. ficulty they would find in quarrels, Mile they would take more care than is

[From the Friend of Peace Oct. 1820.] volen commonly taken to keep out of them. Ar the meeting of the Massachu

In their dealings with other nations, setts Peace Society in June, the that á they would act less by the narrow Committee of Inquiry exhibited an jenti scale of enriching and aggrandizing able Report on a subject of great nument their own, than nations commonly do. importance. We regret that the funds The They would transfuse, even into their of the Society have not permitted its

commerce, a portion of the spirit of publication as a separate Tract for Christianity; and think that the way this year, as the Report is too long to let their light shine before men, for insertion in the Friend of Peace.

would be full as much by doing works in the hope that it will hereafter be the one of justice, as by talking about doc- published in a more ample form, as

trine. And I think it is not over à Tract for distribution, we shall
rating the value of such a conduct to merely state the subject, the plan,
suppose that if they could by such and the principal facts and results.
means (and as they are the means of
Christ's appointment, they must be

Question. “What have been the
efficacious) induce their neighbours causes of wars; the degree in which
to glorify their Father who is in hea- their objects have been secured, and
ven, they would be so far from danger the state in which belligerents have
of harm, that they would become the been left at their termination ?"
delight of mankind, and probably set In the Report, the inquiry is " con-
the anvils of other countries to work fined to wars in which civilized nations
in the blessed transmutation of spears have been engaged since they be-
to pruning-hooks.

came christian,” or “ since Constan

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232 Classification of the Wars of Civilized Nations. (AUGUST tine assumed the reins of the Roman claims to some territory. Six only are empire," omitting “a great number enumerated.

“ Of these the party of petty wars in small nations of occupying the territory in question antiquity - temporary insurrections, preserved it, in two instances--in the or trivial hostilities and a multitude other four, partition arrangements of wars which have been carried on were made.” betweeen christian and savage nations,

6th. Wars arising from disputed such as the aborigines of Asia and titles to crowns.

We have enumeAmerica.” The Report relates to rated forty-one wars of this class ; in “ two hundred and eighty-six wars eighteen instances the party claiming of magnitude, in which christian na- the throne recovered it from the party tions have been engaged." These in possession—in eighteen instances are divided into the eleven following the possessor of the throne maintained classes.

it, and in two of these the assailants 1st.“ Wars of ambition--to obtain lost their own crowns in aiming at extent of territory by conquest. We others; and in five other instances the have enumerated forty-four wars of results were undecisive, and the parties magnitnde of this class-twelve in pacified by compromise or partition.” which the assailants have been Hea 7th. " War commenced under the then or Mahometan, and Christian pretence of assisting some ally, or some nations defendants ; and all the others, friend or person fying from alleged we regret to say, have been attacks oppression. We have found thirty of made by nations professing Chris- these wars; in eighteen of which the tianity on others, without any decent assailing or protecting party have been pretence or colour of right.

victorious—in six the defendants have venteen instances the assailing nation maintained their ground or defeated has been completely victorious—in the assailants; and six have terminineteen instances the assailing nation nated undecisively in what is called has been repulsed-and in eight the the statu quo—or in compromise at assailants have obtained partial aug a general peace.” mentations of territory secured by 8th. “ Wars which have arisen from peace."

the distrust of nations towards each 2d. Predatory wars" for plun-other-jealousy of rival greatness, or der, or tribute, or to obtain a settle- fear of increasing armaments or exment for subsistence.”—“ We have tended conquests. Twenty-three wars enumerated twenty-two in all.” “The of this description have been observed invasions have commonly ended in within our limits.-In eleven of them repulse ; but seldom without effecting the allies or assailants have been sucsome mischief.”

cessful - seven of them have been 3d. Wars of revenge or retaliation. ended by compromise or treaty, gene“We enumerate twenty-four of them ; rally placing the parties where they of which five have been successful were when they began; and five have four partially successful—thirteen un- resulted in the defeat of the coalition, successful, the assailants having been and the further aggrandizement of the repelled—and two left undetermined obnoxious power." by circumstances, and gave rise to 9th. “ Wars which have grown out new wars."

of commerce designed for its pro4th. Wars to settle some question tection against foreign depredations. of honour or prerogative. Of this class We have found but five wars of this * We record eight wars ; in four of class.--Neither of them have resulted which the point of honour was gain- in greater security to the commerce ed-three were settled by compro- molested'; two have given victory to mise-one submitted to a council." the encroaching power; and three

5th. Wars arising from disputed have been extinguished by a general

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peace, leaving the commercial injuries very great satisfaction, and hasten to unatoned for.

recommend, by favour of your as10th. “ Civil wars, carried on by sistance, to the particular regard of different parties in the same nation. the friends of Peace. I allude to We record fifty-five of this class-in the last Report of the Society for twenty-one the rebelling party have the Improvement of Prison Piscioverthrown those who were at the pline, and for the reformation of commencementin possession of power, Juvenile Offenders. It does the heart or established a separate indepen- good to observe the progress of that dence; twenty-eight have resulted in beneficent spirit, which, like a little the suppression of rebellion, and the leaven, we trust, is going on to leaven confirmation of power to the party the whole lump. I shall not pretend possessing it; five have been termi here to enter at all into the subject of nated by compromise—allowing new the Society's zealous and extensive privileges to the claimants-and one, labours; these can alone be duly between Spain and the revolted pro- appreciated by a regular perusal of vinces in South America, yet unde- the whole book : but there is one little termined.”

passage which I venture to offer to 11th. Wars on account of religion. your notice; and if the sentiment con“ We have noticed twenty-eight wars

tained in it be correct, we may conof this class—seven called Crusades, gratulate ourselves in no common by Christian powers to expel Maho- manner on the rapidly increasing inmetans from countries esteemed holy fluence of this powerful ally, on the -five by Mahometans on Christian gradual development, through differnations—two by Christian nations to ent nations, of those principles which compel their neighbours to become form the most efficient bond of peaceChristians-eleven by Popes or bi- ful union amongst men. I am, Sir, gotted monarchs to reduce those they with great regard, yours, &c. deemed heretics—and three to recover

MODERATOR. territory from the hands of infidels-

Houndsditch, Dec, 18, 1820. In fourteen instances the oppressing or assailing parties have been victo- Extract of a Letter from Walter rious—in nine the defendants main

Venning, Esq. to Samuel Hoare, tained their religion and their terri

jun. Esq. tories—and in five, no decisive result,

St. Petersburg, Jan. 31, 0. S. 1820. but a compromise or temporary peace terminated the conflicts."

“ I suppose you have seen the

truly Christian letter of Prince Ga, To collect and arrange the materials litzin, in reply to the Duke of Gloufor such a Report must have required cester's. It is exceedingly interestmuch labour. The facts and results ing, for it breathes the warm and are accompanied with many just and native spirit of Christian philanthropy. important remarks, which we hope has so happily commenced between

The amicable correspondence which hereafter to exhibit in this work, should the Report fail of being published as connexion which has consequently

these exalted characters, and the close a distinct Tract. We are happy in

taken place between the two societies, having the consent of the Committee

is the consummation of one of my for giving the preceding extracts.

earliest and warmest wishes, and

from such an auspicious alliance we To the Editor of the Herald of Peace. may, I think, humbly hope that the

most important and the most extenSIR, There is a little volume lately sive blessings will flow. published, which I have read with “ It is, I apprehend, from the in


2 H

crease, and no less from the union of been brought against him, and dwelt such beneficent societies, that we are upon the unassuming and peaceful encouraged to hope for the universal character of the principles which he diffusion of benevolence, and conse advocated. — Upon this part of the quently the final termination of cru- history, Mr. Clarkson observes :elty and bloodshed. The stimulus " The Quakers at that time lawhich is created by the reaction of boured under the suspicion, in comthese societies, will be incessantly mon with other Dissenters, that they urging each other forward to the ac were hostile to the Government, and complishment of every object that is that they might therefore watch for calculated to reduce the sum of human an opportunity of destroying it. Wilmisery."

liam Penn, to do away this suspicion, laid before them the creed of the

Quakers on this subject. They, when To the Editor of the Herald of Peace. called upon by magistrates to do

SIR, -One of the most useful, and what their consciences disapproved, in many parts most affecting biogra- refused obedience to their orders. No phical narratives I have ever read, is threats could intimidate them. Satisthe “ Life of William Penn,” by Mr. fied with such refusal, they bore with Thos. Clarkson. As I presume it is your fortitude the sufferings which followed, object, and that of your Correspon- and left to their oppressors the feeldents, to render the Herald of Peace ings only of remorse for their conduct. a compendium of whatever is valu- By such means they performed their able of a pacific nature, I purpose duty to God in a quiet and peaceable selecting from the above work all manner, that is, they made no sacrithose passages which have that ten- fice of their just convictions; and dency, or which are calculated to yet they did not disturb the harmony demonstrate the excellence of Peace, of society, or interrupt the progress accompanied with occasional observa- of civil government, by rebellion. At tions.

this time, then, when the nation had The greater part of your readers been convulsed by civil wars and are perhaps aware that William commotions, when the Government Penn, the son of Admiral Sir William had been frightened by reported plots Penn, flourished in the reign of Chas. II. and conspiracies, and when Dissenters and several of his successors.

of all descriptions were considered Having been appointed by two of only as peaceable, because the chains the members of his Society to act as in which they were held prevented arbitrator relative to some lands in them from being otherwise, it partiAmerica, it led him eventually into cularly became the Committee to the important situations of proprietor know, that they, whose petition was and legislator of the state in that then before them, were persons who country which bears his name. Penn- espoused the opinion in question. sylvania was granted to him by letters And here a wide field for observation patent from Charles, in lieu of 160001. would present itself, if I had room for which had been lent to the govern- stating those thoughts which occur on ment by his father.

this subject, involving no less than Previous to this, however, and in the question, How far mankind, when consequence of the sufferings to which persecuted by their respective governthe Society of Friends was exposed, ments for matters relating to the conWilliam Penn obtained leave to be science, have gained more advantages heard in their behalf, before a Com- to themselves in this respect, by open mittee of the House of Commons. resistance, than by the Quaker's prinOn this occasion he justified himself ciple of a quiet and peaceable subfrom personal charges which had mission to the penalties which the

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