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positive terms, forbids murder : Ho- to see that every thing was carried on nour rises up in bare-faced opposition in a fair and honourable manner. to justify it. Religion prohibits our In a duel in the reign of Henry iv. shedding blood upon any account of France, it was an express arwhatsoever : punctilious Honour com- ticle of agreement between the parmands and urges us on to fight for ties that the seconds should not fight: trifles. Christianity is founded upon it was also agreed that they should humility: Honour is erected upon not separate the combatants, because pride.- 1 must leave it to wiser heads it was determined that one of them ihan mine, to bring about a recon must die. ciliation between them.

In the minority of Louis xiv. tlie Henry II. of France, was the first principals and the seconds fought monarch who declared against the five against five. Three of the parpractice of duelling in that kingdom; ties were killed. and, on account of the death of his Thus sometimes, not only one, two, favourite, he published an edict to or three, but numerous seconds on that purpose : it was found, however, both sides were summoned, not merely that from the prohibition, duels be as spectators, but to be acting parties”; came more frequent.

and it has frequently happened that When Henry iv. of France was when, on either side, by any unforseen firinly seated on the throne, he pub- accident, one of the stipulated numlished a second prohibitory edict ber was wanted, a courier has been against duelling; yet some time after- dispatched in quest of the first genwards indulged the brave Cregiu tle nan that could be got, to hasten with a secret permission to fight Don and be a partaker in a combat of Philip, the Bastard of Savoy. houour, which no person of that rank

Louis xiii. issued a third mandate could refuse; so that those who rose to the same effect. The rage for up peaceably in the morning, without duelling had been carried to such being embroiled in any dispute whata height in this reign, that when ever, could not answer for their not acquaintances met, ihe usual en- being participants of some troublequiry was not “What is the news some affair before night. The last of the day ?” but “Who fought yes- remarkable instance of this kind in terday?"

that kingdom was in the servant of Louis xiv. caused sereral edicts to a duellist (a man of family) who be promulgated against duelling. It wanted one or his number, galloping is in this way he speaks these regu- through the streets of Paris, and cryo lations, in his celebrated address to ing aloud for the first French gentlehis son: “ I added some fresh penal- man he chanced to meet instantly to ties to those which had been imposed mount the horse he was on, and ride against duels, and let my subjects away to the field of battle, to which know, that neither birth nor rank he should direct him. The first

genwould exempt any one from them. tleman he met acted accordingly, this I banished froin my court the count being a duty which all persons of that Soissons, who had called out the rank held indispensable, as in like Duke of Navailles, and I imprisoned difficulty they were to hope for similar in the Bastille the person who carried assistance. the challenge, though the affair was It was also at one tirne a custom not brought to effect."

in that country, that the officers of In a duel in the reign of Henry II. certain regiments, from some antiof France, the seconds (two on each quated dispute, perhaps of a century side) also fought. This is the first past, were to fight wherever they instance of the seconds fighting. Be- met, upon the slightest look or expresfore they attended only as witnesses, sion, whether really intended as an

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affront or only imagined to be such, .“ in honour of the superior charms of though the gentlemen, before they the ladies whom they admired," with had assumed their respective uni- the same want of success.

Having forms, were intimate acquaintances broken their lances by their impeand friends. Officers of horse in tuosity, they continued the fight with such circumstances, when travelling battle-axes. Three Portuguese knights on the same road in different direc- errants also, in the same reign, came tions, as soon as they met, and were to Paris, and published a challenge within shot, saluted, fired a pistol, of combat to all who would not acand if no hurt was done on either side, knowledge that the ladies whom they passed by each other with great po admired were the most beautiful woliteness, although perhaps they had men in the world. They were ennever seen or heard of each other; gaged and defeated by three French but their respective uniforins were a gentlemen. sufficient intimation of the honour Duelling was first introduced into able manner in which they were England at the Norman conquest. bound to acquit themselves in behalf In the reign of James the First

, it of their rival regiments. Whenever became an object of attention to such antipathies were made known to

government.

There was in partithe court of Versailles, it was the cular a prosecution instituted against business of the minister at war to two persons ; against the one for take care that the hostile regiments sending a challenge, and the other should never meet on the road in for carrying it; in which prosecution marches from one city or province to the lord-chancellor, Bacon, then atanother, or be quartered in the same torney-general, made a long speech place, to prevent disputes, quarrels, on the subject of duels. One remedy and massacres, which would most proposed by him was banishment probably ensue; and when it so hap

from court. What good effect this pened, that a regiment in enmity with might have produced was probably another was ordered to succeed to its never tried. A remarkable instance duty, the latter, by orders from the occurs of its being neglected ; that war-office, evacuated the garrison two of Sir Edward Sackville, who afteror three days before, to prevent all wards succeeded to the earldom of possibility of the officers meeting. Dorset. * He had killed Lord Bruce,

In the reign of John 11. of France, (a Scotch nobleman, baron of Kina national duel was fought in that less), in a duel, attended with the kingdom between two parties of the strongest marks of premeditation; yet English and the French nobility, he was not only permitted to appear thirty on each side. The quarrel at court, but was successively prooriginated in the murder of an Eng- moted, in that reign and the followlish gentleman. The combatants ing, to a variety of honours and public fought on horseback, with lances, offices of importance. mallets, and bill-hooks. At the be England, with the other nations of ginning of the contest, the principal Europe, had the wisdom to imitate of the English assured his compa- the good example of France, in a nions that he had a prophecy of Mer- partial reformation, which however lin in his favour, which promised him was a considerable one. A proclavictory. Several were slain on each mation was issued by Charles 11. that side; but the result is said to have

no person should be pardoned who falsified the alleged prediction of the killed another in a duel. But till the British bard.

principles be irradicated which gave In the reign of Charles vi. also,

We purpose in our next to give an inseven English knights are said to

teresting letter written by Sir Edwd. Sackhave engaged seven French knights, ville, giving his own relation of this duel.

authority to the practice of duelling, “ If any officer shall upbraid anos we niust not hope for the intire abo- ther for refusing a challenge, he shalt bition of it ; nay, we have the greatest himself be punished as a challenger ; reason to be apprehensive of its gain and His Majesty acquits and dising ground. The science of quarrel charges all officers of any disgrace, ling was studied with great accuracy or opinion of disadvantage, which in the sixteenth century. Lord-chan- might arise from their having refused cellor Bacon takes notice of French to accept of challenges, as they will and Italian pamphlets upon the doc. only have acted in obedience to his trine of duels, which he gives us to orders, and done their duty as good understand contained such regulations soldiers who subject themselves to as it was necessary for those to ob discipline.” serve, who professed the honour then in fashion. It is said, that cases of honour were collected with great Cursory Thoughts on Isaiah, minuteness; that lies were distin

Chap. xxx. 15—21. guished into thirty-two different sorts ; and that the precise satisfaction suited tsrael, In returning and rest ye shall

• For thus saith the Holy One of to each was marked out. To prevent quarrels and sending shall be your strength: and ye would

be saved ; in quietness and confidence challenges in the army, it is ordered not. But ye said, No; for we will by the Articles of War, that"No officer shall use any rex flee : and, We will ride upon the

ffee upon horses; therefore shali ye proachful or provoking speeches or swift; therefore shalt they that pur, gestures to another, upon pain of being put in arrest, and of asking shall flee at the rebuke of one ; at

sue you be swift.

One thousand pardon of the party offended, in the the rebuke of five shall ye flee: till ye presence of his commanding officer. “ No officer shall presume to give

be left as a beacon upon the top of or send a challenge to any other hill. And therefore will the Lord' wait,

a mountain, and as an ensign on an officer to fight a duel, upon pain of that he may be gracious unto you, being cashired.

and therefore will he be exalted, that “ If any officer commanding a guard, shall knowingly and wilfully the Lord is a God of judgment:

he may have mercy upon you': - for suffer any person whatsoever to go forth to fight a duel, he shall be pu- him. For the people shall dwell in

blessed

are all they that wait for nished as a challenger: and likewise

Zion at Jerusalem : thou shalt weep all seconds, promoters, and carriers

ño more : he will be very gracious of challenges, in order to duels, shall

unto thee at the voice of thy cry: be deemed as principals, and be when he shall hear it, he will answer punished accordingly.

thée. And though the Lord give you « All officers, of what condition the bread of adversity, and the water soever, have power to quell all of affliction, yet shall not thy teachers quarrels, frays, and disorders, though be removed into a corner any more, the persons concerned should belong but thine eyes shall see thy'teachers to another regiment, and to order and thine ears shall hear a'word be officers into arrest, until their proper hind thee, saying, This is the way, superior officers shall be acquainted walk ye in it, when ye turn to the therewith ; and whosoever shall rea fuse to obey such officer (though of right hand, and when ye turn to the

left. an inferior rank,) or shall draw his sword upon him, shah be punished This subject seems to reprove the at the discretion of a general courte hasty resolves of man's wisdom--the martial.

disappointments which often follow

VOL. III.

and the wonderful long-suffering, is evident the Lord permitted the patience, and merciful dealing of unhallowed desires of the rebellious God-in these thoughts particularly camp to be complied with, but in applied to Wars.

1: anger, as a lesson to succeeding geneHow often do we see men, , who rátions, to warn them of the danger are madly set on an object, the real of tempting him by unqualified, veherectitude or propriety of which has ment longings, unchastised to the wise never engaged their previous atten- and perfect will of him who has taught tion, or been made the matter of us to bound all our desires by that prayer before God, permitted the sacred fence: Thy will be done.' attainment of it, but with the evident ; Another instance of this kind occurs displeasure of the Almighty, who often in the case of good king Jehoshaphat, speaks in judgment, disappointment, who, with an unjustifiable compliance, and disgrace.

had been tempted into bad company The Scriptures afford us many ex with that wicked monarch, Ahab. See amples of this kind. We have a

the history at large, 1 Kings xxii. and striking instance in Numb. xi. when the 2 Chron. xvii. people manifested their discontent and Abab, proposing to attempt the murmuring against the miraculous recovery of Ramoth Gilead, had the supply of manna, and lusted after sanction of four hundred and fifty false flesh; the Lord gave them their de- prophets; but these could not satisfy şire, but how? (see ver. 33.) 'while the Jehoshaphat, and therefore Ahab reflesh was yet between their teeth, the luctantly submits to enquiry, by Miwrath of the Lord was kindled against caiah, a true prophet of Jehovah. the people, and the Lord smote the His reply plainly intimates the duty people with a very great plague.' of Jehoshaphat, and fall of Ahab; yet This historic passage is finely para. Jehoshaphat ventures to keep up affiphrased in Psalm lxxviii

. verses be- nity with Ahab, until his own life is tween 18 and 31, and the quotation imminently in danger, and is preserved needs no apology. They tempted only by what the world accounts the God in their heart by asking meat act of a coward ; while Ahab falls a for their lust. Yea, they spake against prey to his long continued disobedient God; they said, Can God furnish a

and guilty life, accelerated by his table in the wilderness? Behold, he credulity in bis lying prophets. smote the rock, that the waters gushed Another illustration of this subject out, and the streams overflowed ; can is connected with the circumstances he give bread also ? can he provide attending the death of good Josiah, flesh for his people? Therefore the who fell a victim to this temper of Lord heard this, and was wroth, mind (see 2 Chron. xxxv. 20.-24.) He rained flesh also upon them as The Lord, in the wise dispensation dust, and feathered fowls like as the of his will, intended to punish Carsand of the sea : and he let it fall in chentish by the hands of Necho king the midst of their camp, round about of Egypt. Without any call or evitheir habitations. So they did eat and dent reason, Josiah (like 'too many were well filled : for he gave them other monarchs) chose to interfere in their own desire ; they were not es this foreign quarrel. Necho," with stranged from their lust. But while much mildness, and a conduct retheir meat was yet in their mouths, markably considerate, sent ambasthe wrath of God came upon them, sadors to Josiah, to warn him of bis and slew the fattest of them, and danger, if he interfered, and to state smote down the chosen men of Israel.' his own commission: Josiah, however, So in Psalm cvi. 15. "He gave them " ünnirindful of the warning and set on their request ; but sent leadness into the work of resistance, without 'even their soul.' From these passages, it the pretence of defence; - armas for the

battlé, engages, and is defeated, dis- this, to earnal arguments and carnal graced and slain. By this act of weapons, has involved Christendom unsanctified temper, he risks his in all the protracted miseries of heakingdom, which passes into bad hands, then warfare or antichristian practice. and prematurely sacrifices his useful For it is of little consequence whether life to the mad passion of War. the dragon or the beast wield the Whereas, had he kept himself within sword of war, it being equally adhis own borders, cultivating the im verse to the mind of Christ in both. provement of his people-purifying Let us now apply the remaining senJerusalem from its idols, and pro- tence in the verse, by way of illusmoting the arts of peace; conse- tration, to the emperor Constantine quences might have been involved and his followers : And ye would that would have deferred, if not pre- rot.' Constantine, an heathen warvented, all the evils of the subsequent rior, embraced Christianity, sword captivity.

in hand, and unfortunately forgot, or It would not be difficult to multiply perhaps was so far a stranger to the facts in proof of the doctrine here real spirit of it that he did not know, intended to be established. But let us that the temper of Christ and the now pass on to consider the theme temper of the world were at variance, proposed at the head of this paper, equally opposed as the East to the as applied to the lawfulness of War West'; and therefore, while - a sucas practised in the professing Chris. cession of emperors nominally Christian world.

tian succeeded, the true nature of The chapter contains the threaten- that holy and peaceful religión beings of the Almighty, by his servant came less understood, its true spirit the prophet, against Israel, for their evaporated, and gave rise to antichrist vain confidence in an arm of flesh; in all its members, features and cruelparticularly in this passage in Egypt, ties ; until the true profession of that and for their contempt of the word peaceful religion became to be acof God, and turning a deaf and re- counted heresy, and the blood of bellious ear to his voice; and it also Christ's true disciples flowed in torfurther exhibits the amazing patience, rents, while their persecutors, Chrislong suffering of God, towards a peo- tians only in name, pretended, as was ple so heavy of ear and slow of heart, foretold by the Saviour himself, to concluding with promises to Israel, do God service. And surely it is no and threatenings of destruction to her difficult matter to see that all this evil enemies - in battles of shaking,' still arose from the obstinate resistance permitting the crime to inflict the of the spirit of the world against the punishment, a crime that, with its visi- temper recommended, of rest, quiettation as a national evil, plunges ness and faith ; for the want of a millions of immortal souls in endless quiet, believing temper of mind, leade woe, as the result of their unpre men to expedience, the great invader paredness and final impenitence. of political, moral and religious duty, But to return to the verses chosen and most frequently the enemy

of for our present contemplation, we first righteousness. But ye would not.' have the promise of the Lord God, No, we are in a dilemma, but we are the Holy One of Israel.

• Ip re

not so unwise as to sit still ; we hear turning and rest (from their vain con your words, Isaiah, but what do we fidence and carnal weapons, reproved see--an approaching enemy, - cur before) shall ye be saved, in quietness duty, common sense dictates it, is to and confidence shall be your strength. flee : ? We will flee upon horses, we This last sentence is the grand de will ride upon the swift;? away to şideratum for the Christian to under Egypt, the enemies' cavalry cannot stand and practise ; a departure from ontstrip us ; Yes, såys the Lord, I will

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