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mutual accusations well founded? If have employed vast multitudes of so, what are the perpetrators but subjects and trained them up to mis

sea robbers ?”-When a merchant chief. Then, at the close of a war, has his property taken by a privateer, thousands of these ruined men or a public ship of war, is not the dismissed and let loose

upon

the world injustice or injury the same to him, to provide by rapine for their own as if it had been taken by unlicensed subsistence. Hence the swarms of pirates? Does he not justly fix the thieves, robbers and pirates in time charge of “ robbery” on the merciless of peace. These, being adepts in the crew who despoiled him of his goods ? arts of mischief and murder, lead and also on the government that others into the snare, and increase licensed the depredation? We be- the number of candidates for state lieve that these questions cannot be prisons and the gallows. answered in the negative by any We may mention another prolific candid mind.

source of the evil so much to be deLet us again look back to former precated. Governments have been ages. Many of the successful Chiefs long addicted to war; and this savage among pirates and robbers became business has been so expensive, that Kings, and thus many petty sove their revenues have been exhausted reignties were formed. These Kings in works of violence, and in preparamade war on each other ; the weaker tions for war, instead of being emwere subdued, and the stronger ex- ployed for rendering their subjects tended their dominions. Thus large wise, virtuous, peaceable and happy. empires originated. Powerful govern. Many of the lower classes of people ments having been thus established have been educated for the business by rapine and violence, laws were of violence and depredation; and enacted by which these governments others have been suffered to grow appropriated to themselves the ex up in ignorance, idleness and vice. clusive privilege of depredation. No Had rulers been uniformly wise and one was now allowed to practise rob- benevolent—had they devoted their bery without an order or license from revenues to humane and virtuous purthose in power. The very practice poses, instead of ambition, avarice by which these Kings, or their pre- and revenge-they might long ago decessors, obtained their dominions, bave banished piracy, in all its forms, was declared to be deserving of death, from the civilized world. Civilized except when authorized by them world. Alas! can any world, or any selves. Had they renounced the part of a world, be called civilized, practice on the part of governments, while licensed robbery and murder and given an example of reformation, are celebrated as deeds of glory! their laws against piracy might have If the preceding observations on been both commendable and useful. the nature, causes and extent of piracy But what shall be thought of men are well founded, the principal means who, by severe laws, appropriate to for its abolition are very obvious. themselves the exclusive privilege of First. Let governments openly rerapine and manslaughter!

nounce those forms of robbery, which Since Kings thus appropriated the have been licensed, authorized and right of depredation, other govern- practised by themselves. Three forms ments have followed the example. of sea-robbery have been practised The several Christian governments, by governments in time of war : like piratical Chiefs, have made wars Licensed privateering-depredations on each other, and practised depre- by public ships of war on vessels dation on a much larger scale than belonging to an enemy's countryit has ever been done by unlicensed and depredations on neutral compirates. Tu these horrid wars, they merce. The two first are uniformly

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practised in every war between mari, robbery, whose education and habits time nations—the third was exten- have prepared them for such ruinous sively practised both by France and enterprises. These should be snatched Great Britain, on the commerce of as brands from the burning'--placed our country, [America] during the in situations to obtain virtuous inlate war between those powers. struction, and to acquire a comfortable

Each of these forms of depredation subsistence by honest means. This is as perfectly unjust as the repro- step would probably prevent accesbated conduct of unlicensed pirates, sions to the number of pirates, and and more extensive in its mischiefs.

many souls from perdition. Such If, then, governments will abolish a method for preventing crime would state piracy, and adopt for themselves probably do more good than all the the principles of justice and mercy, terrors of the most sanguinary laws. they will at once put an end to much Many of those who have already the greater part of the robberies which commenced the practice of piracy, have afflicted the world. Not only might doubtless be recovered by the 80, they will abolish the principal power of kindness and persuasion. source of unlicensed piracy, by abo- They are perhaps not more deluded, lishing the public schools in which nor more depraved, than the greater pirates have had their education. But part of those who have for many should governments still persist in years been employed in similar acts their own forms of depredation, and of violence and depredation, under continue their schools of depravity, - license or by order of governments. in vain will it be for them to think Some of the pirates may have adof abolishing unlicensed piracy—and vanced beyond the reach of human cruel it will be to fit men for destruc means for their recovery. The numtion, and then destroy them without ber of these will be annually demercy ! How many men have already creasing by death ; but all that can perished by the halter, who might be done should be done to recover have lived and died as virtuous, re- the wicked from the error of their spectable and useful members of ways. By due exertions to reclaim, society, had they not been ruined in' and proper efforts to prevent recruits, government-schools

of vice! - At the piratical bands may soon be so whose hands will their blood be diminished, that the remainder would required!

be easily dispersed or subdued. The Second. Instead of employing their actual injuries which these depraved revenues to render war popular, and men have sustained by the ruinous to train up men in the arts of robbery policy and neglects of governments, and manslaughter, let governments should not be forgotten in the attempts direct their attention and employ their to recover or subdue them. If their resources for blessing their subjects piratical wars were directed only with virtuous education and useful against the persons who have injured employment. This course would soon them, they would have better ground diminish the evils of piracy, as it to call them defensive wars than gowould prevent the rising generation vernments have generally had in their from forming those dispositions and wars with each other. But if those in habits which lead to crime and igno- power would give these ruined men minious death.

à fair example of genuine repentance Third. Compassion is due to men and reformation, by openly renouncwho have been exposed to vice and ing their own forms of depredation, misery by the baneful policy and it might have a more salutary inneglects of governments. Perhaps fluence than any step which has yet there are many who have not yet been taken for the suppression of resorted to a course of unlicensed piracy. When rulers are prepared

to give such an example, we have Christian community. We may, howno doubt that they will effect a ever, observe, that the following speedy and extensive diminution of question will one day have an imthe " practice of robbing on the sea." partial hearing :-Which deserves the

It can hardly be too often repeated, greater reproach and the heavier that rulers should be as fathers, and doom, the parent who causes his govern with the kindness and soli- children to form habits of depredation citude of wise and benevolent parents. and violence; or the children, thus We then ask, Does it become a fa- ruined, who, when turned out to act ther-a Christian father, to educate for themselves, follow their trade to his children in the practice of rapine provide the means of subsistence ? and violence ? And must it not be an How forcible and pertinent was extreme case which will justify him the language of Wellington's soldier, in taking the lives of his children for when about to be hanged for shooting imitating his own example—and espe- and robbing the French peasant :cially, to do this prior to exhibiting Bad luck to the Duke of Wellington! any evidence of reformation in him- He is no Irishman's friend any way. self?

I have killed many a score of FrenchSince the commencement of 1819, men by his orders, and when I just no less than seven pirates have been took it in my head to kill one on my hanged in Boston; and, from the own account, by the powers, he has narratives given of them, it appears tucked me up for it! _So many of that all these deluded and hardened the pirates may perhaps justly saymen had been previously employed We have robbed many vessels by in some form of government-depre- order of government, and were apdation! We forbear a full expression plauded for our deeds ; but when we of what we think and feel in view of Tu took it in our heads” to rob on our these deplorable facts, and leave the own account,we were doomed to subject to the serious reflection of a the gallows !

To Correspondents. The Contributors of the Paper entitled “Christianity versus War" have a claim to oar best thanks for their Communication, which, from a persuasion of its general correctness, is given unaltered, and entire, that it might not suffer deterioration of effect either by compression or division :We doubt not but our Readers will agree with us in thinking the subject not alone ingeniously, but very ably and happily handled.... “Durham”_" B. W.”—and numerous other Correspondents, shall have our earliest attention.

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TO THE FRIENDS OF PEACE. BY

Y the merciful and wise regula- of knowledge and virtue cannot be

tions of Divine Providence, true interrupted. The glorious Sun of felicity can be enjoyed only in the Eternal Truth has arisen upon the paths of virtuous activity. A com- World, and will shine brighter and pliance with the claims which tender brighter unto the perfect day. relatives, affectionate friends, and Who is there, bearing the name mankind at large, possess upon our of Christian, that does not rejoice at time and regard, will best prove the his lot being cast in an age so insincerity and force of our love for teresting and important ?— Who is that Being, whose we are, and whom there that, while he muses upon we ought to serve. And all the joys these things, can avoid feeling the of self-indulgence, were they per- fire of zeal burn in his bosom,—and petual instead of transitory, shrink is not impelled eagerly to inquire into perfect insignificance before the how his time,-his talents,--his proexalted and ever-enduring bliss of perty, can be rendered actively subthe disinterested and philanthropic servient to the great work of reChristian.

generating the world? During many periods in the his

The principles from which these tory of the Christian Church, oppor- emotions emanate are truly God-like ! tunities for advancing the intellectual Though infinitely inferior in degree, improvement and the permanent fe- yet they resemble in their nature the licity of the human mind, were few benignant regards of our Heavenly in number, contracted in their nature, Father, whose tender mercies are and opposed by insurmountable ob- over all his works. How delightstacles. But in the present day, ful is it to recollect, that there are a wide and an effectual door has

so many
excellent
persons

in differbeen graciously opened for the eman ent religious Societies, who are anicipation of Man from ignorance, mated by views and desires thus superstition, and vice, with all their noble, and who, being purified from attendant sorrows; and no one will the dross of party and prejudice, be able to shut it. The progress have directed all their thoughts and VOL. III.

2C

6. Nei

affections to the welfare and happi- their recollection, or not produce sufness of their fellow men.

ficient effect upon their minds, he Among the various subjects which immediately afterwards repeats the occupy the attention of the warm- admonition, “ These things I comhearted Christian, there are not many

mand
you,
That

ye

love one another." of greater consequence, and not one A short time before the arrival of of a more amiable character, than Judas, how earnestly does he pray that for which the Peace Society has for their future union; “ And now I been instituted ; and to the promotion -am no more in this world, but these of which our pages have ever been are in the world, and I come to thee. devoted.

Holy Father, keep through thine own Stimulated by no party feeling, and, name those whom thou hast given me, desiring to breathe only the benign that they may be one as we are.” spirit of the Saviour, the friends of Nor is this sublime and affecting Peace do not entertain any doubt prayer confined to his apostles and as to the ultimate success of the to the first disciples, but it embraces cause in which they are embarked, Christians of all future ages. But in the strong conviction of its ther pray I for these alone, but for loveliness, authority, and value, they them also which shall believe on me cannot but feel a generous impatience through their word, that they all may for its more extensive diffusion.- be one, that the world

may

believe They cannot but wonder that all the that thou hast sent me.” This spirit disciples of Christ are not anxious to of union and affection, he affirms press forward, and to enrol them- elsewhere, will constitute the proselves among the advocates for per- minent characteristic of their discimanent and universal Peace!

pleship * By this shall all men As it is possible these lines may know that ye are my disciples, if ye meet the eye of some one among have love one towards another.” many pious and devoted Christians, If then it be the imperious duty of who have not yet given to this sub- all the followers of Jesus Christ to be ject the attention which it deserves, one with each other, even as their we feel desirous at the present time great Master was one with his Father; of bringing to his recollection the great if this perfect spirit of love and union importance given in the Scriptures to be essential to their discipleship, how the spirit of Union, which ought to pre- is it possible that nations, calling themvail in the professed disciples of Jesus. selves Christians, can ever engage

In that affectionate and last address, in mortal strife with each other? and, which the blessed Redeemer delivered as the love which animates them is to to his disciples previous to his ap- be the witness of their belonging to prehension, one of the most striking him, so the converse of the

proposipoints is the earnest desire he felt tion is awfully true, “ By this shall for their perfect union. “ This is all men know that ye are not my dismy commandment,” said he, as if he ciples, if ye have not love towards one would give it all possible force, “ that another!" It cannot be necessary to ye love one another, as I have loved prove that the nations of Christenyou.And lest it should escape dom have not been under the influence

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