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honour; while they are deciding (since we have the strongest evidence against the man who unjustly pleads å of the fact) that there have been disa title to another's lands, the State may tinguished examples of piety, in it, embark in a war, whose real object and we have every reason to believe, (under the mask of precaution or that there still are such: but I must reparation) is aggrandisement, by the regard their approval of unlimited conquest of a neighbouring territory; military service as an erroneous view while they are guarding the property of Christian duty, since I cannot see of the subject from illegal, private, or how a Christian can justify himself in corporate claims, the State mayunder- actively aiding measures and entertake a contest, whose secret spring is, prises that are unchristian. But it the desire of certain individuals for cannot be doubted, that he is always increased patronage, and of certain liable to the necessity of doing so, as classes for military or fiscal appoint- a member of a body which is placed ments, at the cost of general and at the entire disposal of a state, and oppressive taxation. These unjust obliged to act mechanically at its impulses and acts of war have existed, command. To place himself under and may exist, more or less, even such an engagement is not consonant under the best actual Government, to the spirit of his religion, nor to the since, from a despotism to democracy, moral liberty of man, and the proper and through every mixed and inter- ends of government. It may, indeed, mediate form, it is certain that the be said in defence of unlimited sermajority of men, and perhaps the still vice, “He who bears arms for the greater majority of statesmen, have state, is, in this character or office, not yet been influenced by truly merely an instrument, and, as such, Christian principles; and it is, there- not accountable. The military officer, fore, morally certain, that the evil or soldier, though they may be liable passions of our nature must frequently, to aid or execute acts of injustice, are not to say generally, affect the public blameless, while acting under a lawmeasures. This fact deserves atten- ful authority. And, besides this, the tion, because it is a full answer to those common soldier is necessarily a mere who may say,

"Your reasoning is instrument, from his ignorance of the correct, for the Christians who live rules of political justice, and total inunder a despotic or democratic form capacity of deciding on the merits of of Government; but we, who live the service in which he is engaged, under a Constitution founded and so that he escapes moral responsibility administered in justice, need not hesi- in two ways; by a defect of knowtate to give our unlimited service to the ledge, as well as by devolving it, like State." I admit cordially the superior his superiors, on the government which excellence of our Constitution ; but it they serve. The criminality, if any, surely cannot need proof, that this rests wholly with that supreme authos State, like all others in the world, is, rity which devises and directs the and has been, ever liable to be plunged wrong. I answer-But every man into wars whichno consistent Christian who bears the name of a Christian, is can regard as just.

a subject of that revealed law of God “ On these grounds, I think it evi- which forbids all wrong. He cannot, dent that no such Christian, no one when invited or summoned to become who is fully enlightened in the spirit a soldier, without due limitation of of his religion, can become a military service, convert himself, before enterperson, at the full disposal of any ing on such an engagement, into an state. Very far, indeed, am I from irresponsible mechanical instrument, sopposing that there are no true like the bayonet which he is to wear, Christians in that profession; on the or the cannon which he is to point. contrary, it is impossible to doubt If he has seen or heard the precepts of

the Decalogue and of the New Testa- pard's principles become generally ment, he cannot annul the moral obli- prevalent. Peace would erect her gation to obey them, though he may be universal empire, and the sons of men insensible or regardless of it.would no longer seek each others de

Such sentiments as these, if uni- struction ; but, on the contrary, strive versally received, could not fail, I ap- to promote their mutual felicity. prehend, to annihilate the practice of Though I think, with the Friends of war; for those who would engage Peace, that Mr. S. has not taken the themselves only to fight, consistently high ground which the religion of Jesus with the sacred obligations of Chris- Christ requires, yet I must regard him tianity, would be very unfit agents for as a valuable auxiliary in the arduous carrying into effect the purposes and but glorious work of promoting peace practices of human destruction. Happy on the earth.

J. will it be forthe world if even Mr.Shep

BATH AUXILIARY PEACE SOCIETY.

An interesting account of the formation of this Society was inserted in our last Volume, page 121; and we also gave (p. 154) a brief but excellent Address which emanated from it. With great pleasure do we avail ourselves of the present opportunity for again introducing it to the notice of our readers, by copying the following statement of the proceedings at its first Anniversary. Proceedings of the First Anniversary measure of success which has been

Meeting of the Bath Auxiliary already vouchsafed to the Society, Peace Society, holden on Friday will operate as an incitement to inFeb. 23, 1821 ;

creased exertion.

Moved by T. Isaac, Esq. seconded HENRY WANSEY, Esq. in the Chair.

by Mr. H. Howse 3. That the The Report of the Committee was presented by William Davis, Esq. William Davis, Esq. the Treasurer,

thanks of this Meeting be given to to the Chairman; who requested the and to Mr. George Wood, the SecreSecretary, Mr. George Wood, to read

tary, for their acceptable services; the same.

and that they be requested to continue The following Resolutions were the same. then unanimously adopted :

Moved by Mr. H. Crook, seconded Moved by Rev. J. P. Porter, seconded by Rev. T. Mallalieu-1. That thanks of this Meeting be given to the

by Mr. R Godwin — 4. That the an account of the Proceedings of the Members of the Committee, for their Meeting at which this Society was

exertions in promoting the important established, with the Report of the objects of the Society, and for their Committee now read, and the audited Report now read; and that the folaccount, be printed and distributed, lowing gentlemen be the Committee under the direction of the Committee. for the ensuing year, with power to 1 Moved by Rev. M. Maurice, se

add to their number, viz. conded by W. Davis, Esq.—2. That this Meeting congratulate the Parent Henry Wansey, Esq.

Mr. John Gray

Rev. John Paul Porter Mr. Joseph Harris Society on the extended influence of Rev. Thos. Mallalieu Mr. John Martin those pure and pacific principles for Thos. Isaac, Esq. Mr. Jas. Goodden the diffusion of which it was expressly Mr. Thos. Langdon Mr. Rich. Godwin, instituted; and they trust that the Mr. Michael Shum

Mr. Henry Howse.

Moved by Mr. J. Martin, seconded The means, which have been emby Mr. J. Harris-5. That the cor- ployed in promoting the objects for dial thanks of this Meeting be given which the Society was instituted, have to Mr. Robert Carpenter, for the been as ample as the novelty of the continged gratuitous use of a room principle inculcated, and the invein his house for the Meetings of the terate prejudices of early education Committee.

and confirmed habits, warranted them Moved by Rev. J. Hunter, seconded in expecting. The Subscriptions and by T. Isaac, Esq. — 6. That the Donations received within the year thanks of this Meeting be given to the amount to 391. 58.; and the numRev. Michael Maurice, of the Bristol ber of Tracts furnished to SubscribAuxiliary Peace Society, for his in- ers for circulation is, 1,218. In adteresting communications now made; dition to this primary method of difand to other friends from different fusing information, your Committee parts, who have favoured the Meet. have printed 500 copies of an Ading with their acceptable company on dress, illustrative of the general printhis occasion

ciples of Peace Societies; and at the The Chairman having left the same time announcing the formation Chair, it was unanimously resolved, of the Bath Auxiliary, and inviting That the cordial thanks of this Meet- the co-operation of Christians of every ing be given to Henry Wansey, Esq. denomination. Of these a consider. for his kindness in taking the chair, able number have been distributed. and for his able and gentlemanly con- Your Committee have likewise emduct therein.

ployed the press in minor objects

subservient to their design. They First Annual Report of the Bath have also placed half-bound sets of

Auxiliary Peace Society. the Society's Tracts on the tables of Your Committee feel peculiar satis- the principal Public Libraries, and faction in being enabled to commence

of the Upper and (late) Kingston their Report of the first year's pro- Rooms, in this city. In a word, your ceedings of the Society, with laying Committee trust they have fulfilled before the Members the following Mie their delegated duties to the extent nute of the Committee of the Parent of their means and opportunities. Society, adopted with reference to the Your Committee gladly avail themformation of this Auxiliary Society:

selves of this occasion to express their “ COMMITTEE. - The proceedings of sense of obligation to Mr. Carpenter, the Meeting held at Bath on the 25th of for the kind permission which he has February were read; and Mr. Rees is re- given them of gratuitously holding quested to inform the Secretary, that the their meetings at his Office in TrimBath Auxiliary Society is acknowledged as street; a feeling in which, they doubt a Branch of this Society.-The Secretary not, every member of the Society will is requested at the same time to commu- heartily participate. nicate the very great gratification which the Committee have received in perust of the past year is, however, not un

A retrospect of the circumstances ing the statement of the proceedings at Bath; and that they have been particu- mingled with mournful recollections. larly encouraged by the manly and deci- In the month of August the cause of sive tone of the Resolutions which have Peace was deprived of a zealous adbeen adopted.

vocate, and the Committee of an effiEarl Street, March 10, 1820.”

cient member, by the sudden and Your Committee would now state, distressing death of the Rev. John with as much brevity as is consistent Chamberlain: an event which, from with perspicuousness, such particu- its unlooked-for occurrence, seems lars as they consider it their duty to aloud to proclaim to those whose exsubmit to the Members.

istence in this world is held by an

T

VOL. III,

"*

equally uncertain tenure--"What-truth-they are content perseveringly soever thy hand findeth to do, do it to proceed in the path of Christian with thy might; for there is no work, duty, and to leave the result of their nor device, nor knowledge, nor wis- humble efforts in this infant cause to dom, in the grave.'

Him whose sole prerogative it is to With regard to the degree of suc- bless with success any

66 work of cess which has attended the circula- faith” or “ labour of love.” Under tion of Tracts, &c. your Committee this impression, they commend the can, on this head, only point with pre- interests of the Society to the uncision to the number of Subscribers, wearied prayers of every friend of all of whom, it may be fairly pre- Peace; and at the same time, as a sumed, are convinced of the rectitude powerful stimulus to increased perof the distinguishing principle of the sonal exertion, they cite the following Society. In how many other in- encouraging statement from the last stances those silent reasoners may Report of the Tavistock Auxiliary have been rendered successful in ex- Peace Society : tirpating deep-rooted errors, become

“ On the supposition that there was yenerable by time, and sanctioned by no other institution of this nature but example, your Committee have not

our own, and that, from this period, the means of declaring. Nor on this every member were to be the means of head would they indulge any immo- making one active convert annually, derate anxiety. Satisfied that the and should do the like for 30 successive cause they advocate is the cause of years, the object would be inore than God and of man—that the principles necessary to bring over to this truly

accomplished, even supposing it were they profess are derived, pure and benevolent cause every man, woman, unadulterated, from the Scriptures of and child on the face of the Globe! This

* The circumstances of Mr. Chamber. consideration ought 1o encourage us; lain's death are as follows:--About

and it is hoped that in the ensuing year o'clock on Friday evening the 4th of Au

no subscriber will let his Tracts lie uncirgust, Mr. C. left his house to take his

culated." accustomed walk; and, in passing through a field in the neighbourhood of Moor-lane,

The members of the Tavistock SoHolloway, he must have been seized with ciety, to whom these remarks were an apoplectic fit. Between 3 and 4 o'clock applied, amounted to only 46; on Saturday morning he was discovered ber not much greater than that of our by a milkman lying on the ground in an insensible state ; who procured assist

own Society. ance, and (being ignorant of Mr. C.'s

per

Finally, your Committee believe son) conveyed him to a house in Wid- they cannot conclude this Address in combe parish, where medical aid was a more efficient or more acceptable procured: but it proved unavailing; and, manner than by attaching to it the still insensible, he expired about 3 o'clock in the afternoon.-The verdict at the

last Report (the fourth of the Comcoroner's inquest was, Died by the visita

mittee of the Parent Society, which tion of God.

has been but very recently published.

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EXTRACTS.

From No Cross, No Crown,by instances to prove the mischief of this Wm. Penn.

lust of pride. I will mention a few of them, for their sakes, who have

either not read or considered them. § 5. If we look into the histories Solon made Athens free by his exof the world, we shall find many cellent constitution and laws; but the

CHAP. VIII.

ambition of Pisistratus began the can any league be só sacred of in. ruin of it before his eyes. Alexander violable, that arts shall not be used not contented with his own kingdom, to evade and dissolve it, to increase invades others, and filled with spoil dominion. No matter who, nor how and slaughter those countries he sub- many, are slain, made widows and dued : and it was not ill said by him, orphans, or lose their estates and livewho, when Alexander accused him lihoods : what countries are ruined ; of piracy, told him to his face, that what towns and cities spoiled ; if by Alexander was the greatest pirate in all these things the ambitious can but the world. It was the same ambition arrive at their ends. To go no farther that made Cæsar turn traitor to his back than sixty years, that little period masters, and with their own army, of time will furnish us with many wars put into his hand for their service, begun upon ill grounds, and ended in subdue them to his yoke, and usurp great desolation. Nay, the last twelve the government; which ended in the years of our time make as pregnant expulsion of freedom and virtue to- à demonstration, as we can furnish gether in that commonwealth : for ourselves with from the records of any goodness quickly grew to be faction age. It is too tedious, nor is it my in Rome; and that sobriety and business to be particular: It has been wisdom, which ever rendered her often well observed by others, and is senators venerable, became dangerous almost known to ali : I mean the to their safety: insomuch that his French, Spanish, German, English, successors hardly left one they did and Dutch wars. not kill or banish; unless such as turned to be flatterers of their unjust

Heraclitus. acquisition, and the imitators of their debauched manners.

VIRTUE would strike me blind, $ 6. The Turks are a great proof if I should laugh at your wars. By to the point in hand; who, to extend music, pipes, and stripes you are their dominion, have been the cause excited to things contrary to all harof shedding much blood, and laying mony. Iron, a metal more proper many stately countries waste. And for ploughs and tillages, is fitted for yet they are to be outdone by apostate slaughter and death men, raising Christians; whose practice is there armies of men, covet to kill one anfore more condemnable because they other; and to punish men that quit have been better taught: they have had the field for not staying to murder a master of another doctrine and ex- men. They honour as valiants, such ample. It is true, they call him Lord as are drunk with blood; but lions, still, but let their ambition reign : horses, eagles, and other creatures, they love power more than one an- use not swords, bucklers, and instruother ; and to get it, kill one another; ments of war: their limbs are their though charged by him, not to strive, weapons, some their horns, some their but to love and serve one another. bills, some their wings; to one is And, which adds to the tragedy, all given swiftness ; to another bigness , natural affection is sacrificed to the to a third swimming. No irrational fury of this lust, and therefore are creature useth a sword, but keeps stories so often stained with the itself within the laws of its creation ; murder of parents, children, uncles, except Man, that doth not so ; which nephews, masters, &c.

brings the heavier blame, because he $ 7. If we look abroad into remote hath the greatest understanding. You parts of the world, we shall rarely must leave

your

wickhear of wars; but in Christendom, edness, which you ratify by a law, of

peace. A very trifle is too often if you would have me leave my se' made a ground of quarrel here: non verity. I have overcome pleasure,

your wars, and

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