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and scattering terror, agony, destruction. But why should they dwell on the disgusting picture ?

It is for them to anticipate, it is for them to co-operate in introducing, that “day of promise" whose sun shall shine forth unclouded, and pursue through ages of peace and joy its bright and benignant course. They can have no doubt that such a day will burst upon the world; for such is the assurance of that sacred volume on which they build their fairest hopes, and whence they gather their strongest arguments and consolations. On that they rest, and rest unshaken. To it they appeal from the contempt of the scornful - from the hopelessness of the despairing - from the indifference of the idle--and from the passions of the proud.

N. B. It is necessary it should be fully understood that the Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace is in nowise to be considered responsible for the articles which may appear in this Work: They will use it as their official organ, and they recommend it to the patronage of the friends of that Society ; but they have no influence over the editorial department, and they wish to have none.

ON THE MILITARY PROFESSION. What is a Soldier! Rub off the the livery to adorn the body, heedless varnish which poets, orators, politi- of the servitude of which it is the cians, and historians, have so thickly badge, and of the debasing, the wicked spread over his profession, and what drudgery which it pledges the wearer is he!

to perform. Few servants are proud A man clad in garments of a pre- of liveries, though they wear them. scribed form and colour, who is paid They submit to the coat, because it so much per day, or month, to destroy belongs to the station in which they his fellow creatures according to the have to earn their bread; and would directions of his commander.

gladly rise above the one, and throw He is a servant; he does his work, off the other.

In the army, niany takes wages

aud wears a livery. have pressed into the servitude for Yes, a livery; for the military uni- the childish vanity of exhibiting themform is nothing more, make it as gay selves in its pretty livery: and gorgeous as you please. It is There are two particulars in which .true there is nothing disgraceful in soldiers are much worse off than other this circumstance, for many an ho- servants. nest man and good Christian wears a Their servitude, as to the great livery, and many more wish they did, majority at least, is not dissoluble at for the sake of their ill-covered backs. pleasure. It is not so properly ser

But they would not, at least so we vitude as, slavery. However much hope of many, wear the livery of they may have been disappointed in blood. Nor have they the foolish the place, it is not allowed them to vanity, common to the high-born fop; give their masters warning, and seek who-wishes to display his graceful a new one. They are sold for life, or person to advantage, and the ignorant at least for a term of years. For many rustic, fired with envy at the serjeant's of them no year of Jubilee will ever worsted sash, who greedily covets come. They have rashly adopted the

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worst side of the alternative offered kill, without hesitating, or asking why, to slaves in Judea, and renounced these are his duties. The love of their liberty for ever. Their ears plunder and of fame, ferocity and reare bored.

The awl has pierced venge, are the dispositions which such and fixed them to the door-post of acts imply, and which, if not preMoloch's temple. Without the mercy viously existing, are generated, and, of discharge, they have only the pros- if existing, cherished by them. Can pect of continuing in their dreadful there be a deeper contrast with the trade of shooting others; or deserting, deeds and dispositions which Christ and being shot themselves. The has pronounced“ blessed” in the poorest wretch that ever felt his blood opening of his Sermon on the Mount? quailing within him, as famine stared And shall man dare to impose, or him in the face, should pause, and obey, a code of duty hostile to that reflect, before he thus mortgages him- which he has given ? Or, can he dare self without hope of redemption.

it with impunity ? - But there is still more need for se- What are his wages ? A bare suprious reflection if the nature of the port for the great multitude. They work be recollected which he hires might have earned a better by honest himself to perform. The tasks of ser- industry in a thousand different ways. vants are often laborious, but they put The more distinguished, indeed, gain no force


the conscience. The estates and titles. Their laurels are burden presses not there. Even gilt. One country is impoverished, slavery brought but seldom that ne- to pay them for having desolated cessity for chusing between obeying another. man, and obeying God, which is pro- Childish vanity, hard necessity, inminent in a soldier's life, if he have tractable idleness, greedy avarice, are a clear sense of Christian duty. The not, certainly, the only soldier-making evil is accidental in the one case, motives. There are some of a higher essential in the other. The first class, according to the common estiChristians might be slaves, but would mation. There is the desire of renown. not be soldiers. With this station The field of battle is the temple of they were told to be content, but were glory, and while the many fight only never told so as to that. How could for their pence a day, some are worthey indeed, when its works are only shipping that idol, recognized in the New Testament as

“ Fame is there, to say who bleeds, among the works of the devil, which

And Honour's eye on daring deeds." Christ came to destroy? The soldier's labour is immense. He has to make While the rest have only their anonybodily exertions the recital of which mous share in a “passing paragraph fills us with astonishment, and under of praise,” these are celebrated by which nature often sinks, and he pe- name, they have each his niche in hisrishes, without the stroke of the enemy, tory, and their deeds will be sung in of mere fatigue and exhaustion. Vio- the ballads of future generations. lent occasional exertions, long conti- And is this the crown for which an nued endurance, and severe priva- immortal being should strive? Has tions, make up the sum of his existence his Creator placed him in this probain the scene of warfare; and all for tionary world to peril all for such a what? To make ruins of towns, and tinsel prize! Grovelling ambition ! deserts of fruitful fields, and on some Grovelling, even though we put out great day of contest to stretch as many of view the mighty realities, the awful as possible of his wretched fellow la- judgment of another world. The bourers in the opposite ranks lifeless fame of Alexander, or Cæsar, or on the ground,

Charles 12th, is vulgar to that of To burn and waste, and maim and Howard. In the dawn of knowledge,

their glory is waxing dim, but his sciousness of having served their king brighter and brighter. Public opi- and country. And in religion, pernion will soon demand histories in secutors have thought they were doing which heroes shall be no longer ca- God service. No king, who is what nonized, but the benefactors of man- he ought to be, the father of his peokind shall be those

ple, can be served by what impo

verishes and demoralizes them; and, “ Around whose name the varying style refines.”

to what people has war, even the most But they boast the delightful con- successful war, proved a blessing?

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To R. Marsden, Esq. Treasurer of as a measure of their society the the Society, fc.

intentions of ours; but the individuals

composing them may still form themDEAR SIR,

selves into associations for the purIn the packet of tracts of the pose, the objects of both being so Peace Society, which you sent me

very similar; and indeed the more before I left England, No. 12 was

that peace is promulgated and estawanting. In The Sun of 8 March blished, the more will the circulation 1814 is to be found a heart-rending of the Scriptures be aided and enpicture of the calamities of warfare.

couraged. I hope the circulation of I wish you could prevail on some

your tracts in the most 'general lanof our friends who possess time and

guages on the continent, is forwarded ability for the undertaking, to prepare by every possible means. a statement, for one of the next

Believe me, Yours, Dear Sir, publications, of the various evils all attributable to war, from which man

Very truly, kind suffer. I mean especially such Malta, Christmas-day 1820. as although they may not appear to a superficial observer to have imme- To J. Bowring, Esq. Hon. Sec. of the diate connexion with war, are yet

Society. ultimately referable to it alone, such Sir, as the endless prohibitions and re- I have the honour to acknowledge strictions upon trade and commerce, the receipt of your obliging commuand on the free intercourse of nations nications of the 7th ult. to which with each other. The more the subject I have delayed my reply, until I was is considered, the more will it be in possession of the parcel which you found that war is the source and had the goodness to forward to me; main-spring of almost every evil, and and it was only on the 20th inst. of almost every grievance under that the long-wished for parcel reached which mankind are suffering. Warniy hands. I beg to offer you my is the chief and primary engine sincere thanks for your compliance of the kingdom of Satan, and his with my request, and I shall feel efforts will not be wanting to counter- truly happy should an opportunity act every thing attempted by your offer to enable me to reciprocrate so excellent Society. I hope and trust much kindness. My wishes to be ere long to see a co-operation be- made acquainted with the interesting tween us and the Bible Societies concerns of the Society for the proestablished in so many parts of the motion of permanent and universal world: they cannot, it is true, adopt Peace, have been fully gratified, and


I beg to assure you, that I shall give though in the utmost misery in those the subject that attention and con- very homes they clung to, may be sideration which the noble object deduced from the following facts, out of the promoters of the Society so of many more we were told of :justly challenge, and that I shall not

At the time already specified, we omit to communicate their proceedings to the Friends of Religion and Peace passed several days in the island

of Cherso, and in the course of our in this country.

rambles about the country, found many I must, however, beg leave to state,

men secreted in the bushes to avoid that I had been given to understand the conscription, as the drawing of that the Peace Society was closely lots was just then taking place. They allied to the British and Foreign urgently begged for food, fearing to Bible Society, and that the number make their hiding-places known even of its members had been much more to their countrymen. considerable: nor can I help re

On our arrival at Pola a few days gretting that the exertions for the

after, we found the same persecution promotion of Peace, founded on the going on there, and the cultivation Gospel, should not have been more

of the country at the same time migenerally recommended both in the serably neglected for want of hands. higher and lower ranks of society.

Here we were told, and the story The Friends and promoters of your was confirmed by the Austrian officer highly laudable Society, have my commanding the District, that a poor best wishes and prayers for the en- woman finding her husband was forced tire success of their exertions; and to leave her, was driven to such with the assurance of my personal despair, (women never being able to regard and esteem, I have the honour

earn above the merest trifle in those Sir,

countries) that taking her five children Your most humble and

up to a cliff overhanging

the sea, she obedient Servant,

threw them all in, and herself after

them! The Hague, 30 March 1821.

To the Editor. Extract from a Letter on the Con

Sir,-You have directed the regard scription, in the Italian Possessions

of your readers, in a fornier Number, of the Austrian Government,

to Mr. Sheppard's “ Inquiry on the In the month of August 1819, Duty of Christians with respect to we were cruising in the Adriatic, War;" but your attention was on that and found that the system of con- occasion exclusively directed to the scription was still in exercise in first part of his publication, where he most of the Austrian possessions we attacks the peculiar principle of the touched at, indeed it was acted upon Peace Societies, and maintains, that in with peculiar rigour just then, and to certain circumstances it may be lawinduce men to quit their homes with ful for Christians to engage in warfare. less repugnance, they were told, that To my mind, the observations brought they would be kept only three weeks forward in opposition to his reasonings (at Fiume and the other places ap- were as satisfactory as the spirit with pointed for the re-union of recruits, which they were expressed was plea

) to learn their exercise, and then be sing. If all theological controversies sent home again, free of expence, till had been conducted with the same patheir services should be required. cific dispositions which usually characHow little the poor people depended terize the pages of The Herald, the on these promises, or how averse religion of Jesus would have flourished they were to the system altogether, more extensively; recommending itself

to be


by the amiable character of its disci, when their serivces are most needed, ples, to the consciences of all men. may see fit to disband themselves ? Because they have not known what Mr. S. would meet this objection by spirit they were of, therefore, in all alleging, that if the Governments were ages of the church, Christians have truly Christian, there could be no been found imitating the conduct of disagreement in the views of themselves James and John, and in their unin- and their subjects. But as the Governstructed zeal have been ready to call ments of Europe, though professedly down fire from Heaven to consume Christian, are notoriously influenced their adversaries.

by motives of state policy, and not by No such feelings as these, however, the spirit of the gospel, the system animate the mind of the author of the advocated by the Inquirer is wholly Inquiry. Whilst in a proper spirit inapplicable to the present state of he contends that Christians may, under things. Indeed he appears perfectly peculiar circumstances, take up arms,

aware of this, and exhibits in a very he is evidently inspired with an anxious striking manner the motives by which desire for the universal prevalence of States are in general actuated ; and pure Christianity, when of necessity which we think is sufficient to deter wars would come to a perpetual end. the Christian from yielding himself

up He is, therefore, the advocate for to the unlimited military service of defensive war only, and is as invete any Government. rately principled against the usual « Now there is no doubt that the grounds of hostility among nations, as State itself, as comprising the legislaare the warmest friends of Peace. tive and executive power, is the After having taken a general view of supreme court of the realm ; and if the Christians' rule in regard to War, it were true, that it is, or supposable and noticed the objections which might that it will be, always actuated by prinbe made to it, he says,

ciples of justice, as to national affairs, “ The other system, that of unre- in the same degree as its own inferior stricted, unsanctioned warfare, has courts are, as to municipal affairs, then been tried ever since Nimrod's time; the Christian subject needs not, on and has repeatedly ended in the my principles, scruple to become a destruction of nineteen mutual aggres- member of an armed force, at the unsors by the twentieth ; an Alexander, limited disposal of the State. But noCæsar, or Tamerlane. History ex- thing is more certain than that this hibits the effects of this system ; con- time is not yet arrived. It is apparent jecture foretels, with alarm, those from all history and experience, that, of the defensive. Can they be worse

while the force of its civil courts may than the former ?

be employed in doing justice and Considering no martial operations maintaining peace, the greater force as justifiable to the view of a Christian, of the State may be wielded in violation but those which result from judicial of every rule of Christian justice, and · authority, national or international, peace. The pride, resentment, cove

it follows, that he cannot tousness, or ambition, of a sovereign use arms at the unlimited direction or a minister, or the sanie spirit preof the State."

vailing in the nation, and exciting a But it may be asked by the advo- popular cry, may lead to the most cates for the War system, What kind unjust use of that force. While the of reliance can be placed on that civil court may be punishing the national force, the individuals of which duellist, and reprobating his lawless are to decide how far they will chose notions of personal honour, the State to comply with the directions of judicial may engage in a duel, where myriads authority; and who, at the moment of lives are to be sacrificed to național

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