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So dear to heaven is saintly chastity,
I was all ear,
If this fail,
Under the opening eyelids of the morn.-Line 26.
Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee
And ever, against eating cares
Where more is meant than meets the ear.-Line 120.
What needs my Shakespeare for his honour'd bones,
-Linc 4, Epitaph on Shakespeare.
Peace hath her victories
Thousands at his bidding speed,
But O, as to embrace me she inclin'd,
-On his Deceased Wife.
Truth is as impossible to be soiled by an outward touch as the sunbeam.—The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce.
Behold the bright countenance of truth in the quiet and still air of delightful studies.—The Reason of Church Government. Litigious terms, fat contentions, and flowing fees.
-Tractate of Education. As good almost kill a man as kill a good book; who kills a man, kills a reasonable creature, God's image; but he who destroys a good book kills reason itself.- Areopagitica.
A good book is the precious life-blood of a master-spirit embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond.- Areopagitica. Who ever knew truth put to the worse in a free and open encounter?
Men of most renowned virtue have sometimes by transgressing most truly kept the law.-Tetrarchordon.
NOTE--Many of Milton's “ Best Thoughts” have been quoted under topical classifications, scattered throughout this volume, and we have thought best to omit most of them from the “Who-When-Where" series. The reader will find the index to authors complete in its references to Milton, and all quotations from him, or any other author, can thus be traced.
MARQUIS OF MONTROSE
He either fears his fate too much,
Or his deserts are small,
To gain or lose it all.-My Dear and Only Love.
SIR THOMAS BROWNE.
Rich with the spoils of time.-Gray's Elegy, St. 13.
Do well and right, and let the world sink. Herbert.
LIGHT FROM THE STARS.
How much light does the earth receive from the stars and planets?
The quantity of light received by our globe from the stars is very small. Only recently Professor Nichols measured it by means of a very fine apparatus, about thirty times more sensitive than the instruments hitherto used for this purpose. As a unit of measurement he used the 100,000,000th part of the light of a standard candle at a distance of one metre (about a yard). He found that the brightest star in the northern sky. Arcturus, of the constellation of Boötes, sends to the earth little more light than that received by the eye from that unit. Libra, in the constellation of Lyra, supplies us with but half of this quantity of light, while the planet Jupiter sends us two and a half times as much light.—Londsberg.
THE VARIABLE STAR ALGOL.
This is one of the most conspicuous and noteworthy stars in the heavens. Its remarkable fluctuations of light were probably known to the ancient observers, but the first definite record of its discovery is by Montanari, in 1669, and the accurate determination of its period was not effected until 1782 by Goodrick. At that time the star passed through all its gradations of brilliancy in two days twenty hours fifty-nine seconds, but the period seems decreasing, for Chandler has recently found it eight and one-half seconds less. The star is usually a little fainter than second magnitude, and remains so for about two days eleven hours, when it rapidly declines in lustre, and in about four and one-half hours arrives at a minimum of three and three-quarters magnitude. There is then a revival of its brilliancy, and in five and one-half hours it reaches its normal magnitude of two and one-quarter. From the end of March until the beginning of August the star is riot favorably visible, being immersed in vapors and twilight on the northern horizon, but in the autumn and winter months it may be viewed with advantage.-Londsberg.
By HENRY M. PARKHURST.
Properly speaking, the art of measuring light has not been discovered. We cannot subtract from the given light a determinate amount and subject the remainder to independent determination. What is called measuring light consists in either reducing the given light in a known proportion, making it apparently equal to another standard light, or making it too faint to be perceptible. Both these methods are subject to so many disturbing causes that it is not surprising that many astronomers are inclined to adhere to the ancient method of estimation, by following which Argelander in the northern hemisphere, Gould in the southern hemisphere, and Schönfeld in the intermediate region, have furnished us standard magnitudes for all the lucid stars, and all the brighter telescopic stars, of marvelous consistency. A series of twenty standards, half a magnitude apart, being firmly impressed upon the mind, the observer made his comparison of each star with the corresponding standard, with such interpolation of brightness as was practicable; and those who use their catalogues have many hundreds of thousands of stars to assist them in adapting their own estimations to the same system.
In a perfect photometry, each magnitude corresponds to a certain proportion of the light of the next brighter magnitude. Sensation varies in geometric proportion; and a photometric scale founded upon geometric progression has many advantages. So far as precision is concerned, the ratio of the magnitude is unimportant. Pogson's ratio of 27/2, or more accurately the number corresponding to the logarithm (0.4000) has been extensively used and is remark