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The thunder, the darkness, and the Verde Islands, and the river Gambia, huwlings of the wild beasts were awful; of which, just previously to his intended but the loud and continued crashings of departure for Sierra Leone, he comlarge trees which fell very near to me menced a trigonometrical survey, in the during the storm, was even more so, to course of which, by his frequent exmy ear. The Ashantee had dragged posure to heat and cold alternately, he me along, or rather through, in this was attacked with a fever, and after manner, until I judged it to be midnight, great suffering, expired in the arms of when, quite exhausted, with the rem- his wise, on the 16th of January, 1824. nants of my clothes scarcely hanging Besides the works already mentioned, together, I let go his cloth, and falling he published, during his residence ai on the ground, was asleep before I París, Translations of Mollien's Travels could cali out to him."

to the Sources of the Senegal and GamMr. Bowdich's work excited great bia, and a Treatise on Taxidermy; also publicinterest, and received the eulogies an Essay on the Geography of North of the principal literary and scientific West Africa, accompanied by a map men of the day; but he felt somewhat compiled from his own discoveries; An disappointed at receiving no official en- Essay on the Superstitions, Customs, couragement to pursue his researches in and Arts, common to the Ancient Africa, to which country, he at length Egyptians, Abyssinians, and Ashantees; determined to make a second tion, besides three works on Natural History, at his own expense. With this inten- exemplifying the modern classification tion he proceeded to Paris, for the pur- of mammalia, birds, and shells. Whilst pose of studying mathematical and phy- at Lisbon, he collected from various sical science, and the various branches of manuscripts, an account of all the disnatural history, with which he was but coveries made by the Portuguese in imperfectly acquainted. On his arrival Southern Africa, which was published in that city, he received great assistance in 1824, together with a memoir, called and attention from Humboldt, Cuvier, The Contradictions of Park's last Jourand other celebrated Frenchmen; and, nal Explained; but the work which in testimony of the idea entertained of most distinguished him, and which rehis merits, a public eulogium was pro- ceived the encomiums of all the scientific nounced upon him at an assembly of institutions and individuals of the day, the four academies of the Institute. was his Mathematical Investigation,

After devoting to the preparation of with Original Formulæ for ascertaining himself for his expedition into Africa, the Longitude of the Sea by Eclipses a space of three years and a half, in of the Moon. which time he also published several Mr. Bowdich was a nian possessing works, he, in August, 1822, embarked both personal and mental attractions; at Havre, for Lisbon; whence he pro- his countenance was animated and inceeded to Madeira, and passed several telligent, his heart sensitive and suscepmonths on the island, of which he cible, benevolent and affectionate; he completed a geological description, be- pursued his enterprises with an ardour sides several other interesting notices and perseverance that insured their relating to it, which have been since success; and his writings, as well as his published, edited by Mrs. Bowdich. actions, evince how dear to his heart From Madeira, he sailed to the Cape de was the cause of genius and science.


This distinguished voyager, fourth | school of that city; and, in 1803, went son of Dr. Parry, a physician of emi- to sea with the Honourable William nence, was born at Bath, on the 19th Cornwallis, in the Ville de Paris, where of December, 1790. He received the his conduct gained him the esteem and rudiments of education at the grammar approbation of his commander. Speak

ing of him, in a letter dated August, On the 28th of July, our voyager 1804, Admiral Cornwallis says, “I never reached the entrance of Lancaster's knew any one so generally approved Sound, just one month earlier than the of: he is a fine, steady lad; and will, preceding expedition had done, although I am sure, be fit for promotion before Captain Ross had sailed above a forthis time of servitude is out ;" and, on night sooner. “ We were now," says his quitting the admiral's ship, in 1806, Captain Parry, “about to enter and the latter, recommending young Parry's explore that great sound or inlet, which friends not to send him to Portsmouth, has obtained a degree of celebrity beadded, " though he is so well disposed, yond what it might otherwise have been that I do not think even a sea-port considered to possess, from the very guard-ship could hurt him, who, at opposite opinions which have been held fifteen, has been the pattern of good with regard to it." After a sail of two conduct to all our young people." or three days, during which he disco

In May, the subject of our memoir vered Croker's Bay, and Navy Board's joined the Tribune, of thirty-six guns, Inlet, and was now flattering himself and was employed until the end of the that he had fairly entered the Polar year in blockading a squadron of the Sea, he was informed, on the 4th of enemy off L'Orient. In May, 1808, August, six p. m. that land was a-head. he removed to the Vanguard ; and, on It, however, turned out to be only an the 6th of January, 1810, was promoted island, which, together with a second to the rank of lieutenant; shortly after one subsequently discovered, he named which he joined the Alexandria, and after Prince Leopold; and, about the was employed in the Baltic, and in pro same time, he added to his discotecting the Spitzbergen whale fishery. veries Maxwell Bay. On the 6th, he Whilst upon this service, he passed entered a large inlet, ten leagues wide part of the nights and days in studying at its mouth, to which he gave the the situation of the fixed stars, and he name of Prince Regent's Inlet; after also made a survey of Balta Sound and an accurate examination of which, he che Voe, in Shetland, the chart of arrived off a channel of eight leagues which he presented to the admiralty. in width, which he named after the In 1813, he was ordered to join the La Duke of Wellington ; at the same time Hogue, seventy-four guns, at Halifax, distinguishing the magnificent opening which he reached in June, and conti- | by which he had effected his passage nued to cruise in that vessel until the into it, by the appellation of Barrow's summer of 1816, when he was ap- Strait. On the 23rd, he made sail for pointed first lieutenant of the Niger. Cape Hotham, to the southward of In 1817, in consequence of the death which, it was his intention to seek a of his father, he obtained leave to visit direct passage towards Behring's Strait. England; and, in 1818, was appointed His progress was, for some time, unin. to the command of the Alexander, the terrupted, and animating in the highest second ship destined to explore the degree ; but he had no sooner reached north-western passage, under the orders Cape Hotham, than an obstruction apof Captain Ross, in the Isabella. peared, which proved insurmountable.

On his return, Lieutenant Parry was But although thus thwarted in this and appointed to the command of a new his subsequent attempt to trace out a expedition; and in May, 1819, he left passage, he, on the 4th of September, Deptford, in his own ship, thé Hecla, had the satisfaction of crossing the accompanied by the Griper, under the meridian of 110 deg. west from Greencommand of Lieutenant Beechey, the wich, in the latitude of 74 deg. 44 min. united crews of which amounted to 20 sec., by which the expedition under ninety-four. His principal instructions his orders becaine entitled to the sum of were, to make the best of his way to | £5,000. On the following day, he sucthe entrance of Davis's Strait; to ad. ceeded in rounding Cape Hearne, at vance,

when the ice would permit, along the distance of a mile and a quarter ; the western shore to Baftin's Bay; to and our sanguine navigator again gave enter Lancaster's Sound; explore the way to flattering hopes, when a coinbottom thereof; and, if possible, pass pact body of ice once more put an end through it to Behring's Strait.

to them. Towards the end of Septem

“ Upon

ber, the expedition took up its winter ably parted by the numerous icebergs, quarters in Winter Harbour ; when by the pressure of which, both the Captain Parry made every arrangement Hecla and Fury were slightly dafor rendering the dreary sojourn of maged, the former having already lost himself and crew as comfortable and her anchor. Whilst in latitude 61 deg. cheerful as possible. Among the enter- 50 min. 13 sec., longitude 67 deg. 07 tainments got up under his superin- min. 35 sec., our voyager discovered tendence, were the performance of several islands, called Saddle-back, by plays, and the compilation of a weekly the inhabitants of which they were newspaper, under the name of The visited, and where two Esquimaux woNorth Georgia Gazette and Winter men offered to barter their children for Chronicle; and, " perhaps," says Cap- a few articles of trifling value. tain Parry, "for the first time since the whole,” says Captain Parry, " it theatrical entertainments were invented, was impossible for us not to receive a more than one or two plays were per very unfavourable impression of the formed on board the Hecla, with the general behaviour and moral character thermometer below zero on the stage." of the natives of this part of Hudson's

It was not before the end of July, Strait, who seem to have acquired, by 1820, that the ships were under sail an annual intercourse with our ships, again, and able to leave their winter quar- for nearly a hundred years, many of ters, from which they were at length the vices which unhappily attend a first steered, after lying in latitude 74 deg. intercourse with the civilized world, 26 min. 25 sec., and longitude, by chro- without having imbibed any of the vir. nometers, 113 deg. 54 min. 43 sec.; the tues or refinements which adorn and westernmost point to which, according render it happy." to Lieutenant Marshall, the navigation of In the beginning of August, the exthe Polar Sea, to the north ward of the pedition being about to enter upon American continent, has yet been car- ground hitherto unexplored, Capiain ried. Our voyager now deeming any Parry, after a most anxious consideraattempt to penetrate further useless, tion of all the contradictory evidence of turned his course towards home; and, Dobbs and Middleton, respecting the after having named and discovered seve- hydrography of these parts, came to the ral other islands and capes, he arrived resolution of attempting the direct pas. in England about the beginning of sage of the Frozen Strait, " though I November, and was immediately made confess," he says, “not without some a commander. He also received £1,000 apprehension of the risk I was incuras his proportion of the reward before ring." Having arrived in sight of Cape mentioned ; and in March, 1821, he comfort, in latitude 64 deg. 54 min., was presented with the freedom of the and longitude 82 deg. 57 min. the point city of Bath.

where Baffin relinquished his enterOn the 30th of December, in the pre- prise, our voyager, persisting in his vious year, Captain Parry had received course, discovered a magnificent bay, his appointment to the command of a which he named after the Duke of second expedition, and his final instruc- | York, and penetrated through Frozen tions being delivered to him on the 4th Strait to Repulse Bay, through which, of May, 1821, he, on the 8th, left the according to his instructions, he atNore, in the Fury, accompanied by the tempted, but found impracticable, a Hecla, Captain Lyon, and the Nautilus passage to the westward. His subsetransport, which was destined to relieve quent researches were equally fruitless, the two former vessels of part of their up to the month of October, when the stores on their passage across the Atlantic. expedition was unable to proceed furThe ships were, on this occasion, much ther, and the ships were placed, after better fitted out than on the first expe- much difficulty and danger, in a secure dition; their united crews amounted to position for the ensuing winter. " In one hundred and eighteen men, and reviewing, however," says Captain the two commanders were instructed, Parry, " the events of this our first on no account, to part from each other. season of navigation, and considering The expedition reached Hudson's Strait what progress we had made towards the in July, when the ships were unavoid attainment of our main object, it was

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impossible, however trifling that pro- command of another expedition, for gress might appear upon the chart, not the purpose of again exploring the to experience considerable satisfaction. hyperborean regions. The same ships Small as our actual advance had been were employed as in the last voyage ; towards Behring's Strait, the extent of the Hecla, however, being commanded coast newly-discovered and minutely by Captain Parry, and the Fury by explored in pursuit of our object, in the Captain Hoppner. Having reached course of the last eight weeks, amounted Port Bowen, our voyager remained to more than two hundred leagues, there from the 28th of September until nearly half of which belonged to the the 20th of July, 1825, when the ice continent of North America." During damaging the Fury to such a degree the winter, Captain Parry, as in his that it was necessary to abandon her, former expedition, contrived both he found himself obliged, under all the amusement and employment for the circumstances, to return to England, ships' companies, by means of a thea- where he arrived about the middle of tre, and a school where the sailors October. His proceedings giving satislearned to read and write.

faction to government, his appointment In the beginning of July, 1822, the to superintend the hydrographical ofvessels being disencumbered of the ice, fice was confirmed by the admiralty, Captains Parry and Lyon continued on the 22nd of November, 1825; and, their operations with vigour during the in the following December, the freedom summer months; and on iwo occasions, of Lynn was voted to him by the corthey imagined themselves on the point poration, “in testimony of their high of discovering the long-sought passage. sense of his meritorious and enterprising The winter, however, again set in with- conduct." out the object of the expedition being In April, 1826, Captain Parry proaccomplished; and it was not until the posed to the admiralty to attempi to August of the following year, that Cap- reach the North Pole, from the northern tain Parry was able to resume his re- shores of Spitzbergen, by travelling searches. It had been his intention to with sledge-boats over ihe ice, or have despatched the Hecla to England through any spaces of open water that about this time; and after having taken might occur. "By the recommendation a year's provisions fro:n her stores, to of the Royal Society, the expedition remain in the Fury another summer, in was determined on, and he accordingly the hopes of penetrating through some of sailed in the Hecia, from Deptford, on the inlets he had discovered, before the the 25th of March, 1827. On the 20th end of the year 1824. In consequence, of June, he anchored in Treurenberg however, of the appearance of the scurvy Bay, latitude 79 deg. 55 min. 20 sec., among a part of the crews, and of the longitude 16 deg. 48 sec. 45 min. E.; incertitude respecting the breaking up and on the following day, started with of the ice, he resolved on returning to two sledge-boats, which he named the England, where he arrived, in company Enterprise and the Endeavour, across with the Hecla, on the 16th of October, the ice. On the 28th of July, he reached 1823. This expedition, though unsuc- the highest latitude he was able to cessful in its main object, led to many attain, being a little beyond 82 deg. discoveries both by land and sea, which 45 min., at which point the expedition would tend considerably to lessen the had traversed nearly three hundred difficulties of a future voyage, and to miles. After giving the name of Lieuuse Captain Parry's words," at least tenant Ross to a small islet, which is served the useful purpose of shewing interesting as being the northernmost where the passage is not to be effected." known land upon the globe, Captain

On his arrival in England, Captain Parry set out on his return to his Parry found he had been promoted to ship, in which he sailed from Treu. post rank; and in the December of the renberg Bay, on the 28th of August, year of his return, he was appointed and arrived in the Thames, in the acting hydrographer to the admiralty, following October. In his narrative of and presented with the freedom of the this expedition, he says, “ sincerely as city of Winchester; and on the 17th of we regretted not having been able to January, 1824, he was placed in the hoist the British flag in the highest latitude to which we aspired, we shall, Stanley, Bart.; and, in addition to his perhaps, be excused in having felt some other distinctions, is a fellow of the little pride in being the bearers of it to Royal Society; member of the London a parallel considerably beyond that | Astronomical Society; and honorary mentioned in any other well-authen. member of the Imperial Academy of ticated record."

Sciences at St. Petersburgh. As some reward for his services, he, The name of Parry cannot fail to be on the 29th of April, 1829, received perpetuated as that of one of the most the honour of knighthood; and, in the intrepid, and comparatively successful July following, the honorary degree of navigators of this or any other age or D.Ć. L. was conferred upon him in a country. For an idea of the dangers he convocation at Oxford. In the course underwent, and the difficulties he surof the same month, having previously mounted, the reader is referred to his own resigned the office of hydrographer to accounts ofthem, publislied, successively, the admiralty, he sailed to New South in three quarto volumes, than which few Wales, as commissioner for the entire will be found more replete with interest management of the Australian Agricul- and information. As a writer, he aspires tural Company's affairs, with a salary, successfully to something more than a it is said, of £2,000 per annum. mere recorder of events, but it must be William Edward Parry has issue by his confessed, that the whole of his works marriage, in October, 1826, with Isabella might be reduced, with advantage, to Louisa, fourth daughter of Sir Thomas at least one-half of their present bulk.



ALEXANDER GORDON LAING, the inhabitants to trade and industry; son of a celebrated schoolmaster at and to know their sentiments and conEdinburgh, was born in that city on duct as to the abolition of the slave the 27th of December, 1794. He com

After remaining at Kambia a pleted his education at the University sufficient time to fulfil his instructions of Edinburgh, with the intention of relating to commercial transactions, he following the profession of his father, crossed the river Scarcies to Malacouri, in whose academy he, for some time, where, learning that Sanassee, an inacted as usher. Having, however, in ferior Mandingo chief, was about to be 1810, entered a volunteer corps, he be- put to death, by Amara, the king of came so captivated with a military life, inat country, Lieutenant Laing, by his that he determined to adopt it; and, personal exertions, saved the life of the accordingly, in 1811, went out to the former. He was induced to do this in West Indies, where he performed the consequence of the friendly disposition duties of deputy quarter-master general of Sanassee towards the English. On at Jamaica, and of fort-major at Hon his return to Sierra Leone, Lieutenant duras. The assiduity with which he Laing, finding the life of the same chief served in these capacities, brought on a to be in danger from Yarradee, an ally disease which compelled him to return of Amara's, undertook a second expeto Scotland, about 1817; but in the latter dition, and again secured the safety of part of 1819, he was appointed lieu- Sanassee. tenant and adjutant of his last regiment, On his return to Sierra Leone, he the second West India, and shortly communicated to the governor that "he afterwards, set out for Sierra Leone. had observed, that many men who About eighteen months after his arrival accompanied the Soolima army, were in that colony he was employed by the in possession of great quantities of gold, governor, Sir Charles M'Carthy, to and had ascertained an abundance of undertake a mission to Kambia, prin- ivory to be in the country ;" facts, cipally with a view “to ascertain the which he suggested might render a state of the country; the disposition of third expedition serviceable to the com


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