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lished a statement of the motives which of Durham; besides Anecdotes of Izaak had led to his conduct; and, coming to Walton's Love and Truth; and also of London, in 1776, he studied medicine, his Lives of Donne, Watton, Hooker, and, having obtained a diploma from St. Mr. George Herbert, and Sanderson; Andrew's, was admitted a licentiate of together with a Life of Walton himseli, the College of Physicians, and practised He was likewise the author of some his new profession with tolerable suco assize and other sermons, which are cess. Equally open in his political and printed. religious opinions, he took an active part in the discussions respecting the GEDDES, (ALEXANDER,) the son of war with America, and was a frequent humble parents, of the Roman catholic speaker on that subject at the various persuasion, was born in Banffshire, meetings which were held in the metro- Scotland, in 1737. He received the rudipolis. He died deservedly respected and ments of education at a free Roman esteemed, on the 2nd of March, 1786 ; catholic seminary, at Scalan, in the and a collection of his works, with Highlands, and, at the age of twenty, memoirs of his life, was published, by was removed to the Scotch College, at Dr.Disney, in three volumes, octavo, Paris, where he studied divinity, and in 1787.
made himself master of the Greek,
Latin, French, German, Spanish, and ZOUCH, (THOMAS,) was born at low Dutch languages. He returned to Sandal, in Yorkshire, in 1737, and edu Scotland in 1764, and was ordered to cated at Wakefield, and Trinity College, Dundee, to officiate among the catholics Cambridge. He graduated' B.A. in at Angus. In 1765, he became chap1761; became a fellow of his college in lain to the Earl of Traquaire, but left 1763; and, having taken orders, was, that nobleman, in consequence of his in 1770, presented to the rectory of vow of celibacy being in danger from Wycliffe, in the North Riding of York an attachment he had formed to a relashire. In 1791, he was appointed live of the earl. After passing some deputy.commissary of the archdeaconry time in Paris, he, in 1769, accepted the of Richmond ; and, in 1793, chaplain charge of a congregation at Auchinto the master of the Rolls, and rector of halrige, in Banffshire, where he reScrayingham. In 1795, on the death mained till 1779, when the University of his brother, the Rev. Henry Zouch, of Aberdeen conferred on him the dehe succeeded to an estate at Sandal, gree of LL.D., being the first catholic where he resided till his decease. to whom it had been granted since the In 1805, Mr. Pitt gave him the second Reformation. In 1780, he came to Lonstall in Durham Cathedral; and, in don, with a view of carrying into effect the same year, having previously pro his long-cherished design of a new ceeded M. A. and B.D., he took his translation of the Bible; in which, degree of D.D. In 1808, he declined though opposed by the majority of his the profferred see of Carlisle, on account own persuasion, he was encouraged to of his age, and died, at his native place, persevere by Lord Petre, who allowed on the 17th of December, 1815. He him £200 per annum. He published the was a learned, pious, and amiable man, first volume in 1792, and the second in and obtained merited reputation by his 1797 ; but displayed such latitude of several publications. Besides the Cru- opinion, particularly with respect to the cifixion, a poem that gained the Cam- divine mission of Moses, that he was susbridge University Seatonian prize, and pended from his ecclesiastical function, some anonymous publications, he printed and both catholics and protestants looked An Inquiry into the Prophetic Cha- upon him as an infidel. He replied racter of the Romans, as described to the animadversions which the work in Daniel; The Good Schoolmaster, called forth, with a power of irony and exemplified in the Character of the argument by, no means contemptible; Rev. John Clarke ; An Attempt to and, in 1800, he published his first and Illustrate some of the Prophecies of the only volume of Critical Remarks on the Old and New Testameni; A Memoir Holy Scriptures, corresponding with his of the Life and Writings of Sir Philip new translation. He died on the 26th Sidney; also of John Sudbury, Dean of February, 1802 ; leaving behind him,
in addition to the works before-men- vals, a variety of pamphlets, up to the tioned, a variety of tracts, some indif- period of his death, in June, 1799. Exferent poems, three papers inserted inclusive of the share he had in the Bio. the Transactions of the Edinburgh graphia Britannica, and the British Antiquarian Society; besides numerous | Biography, of which he composed the contributions to the various newspapers greater part, most of his works will and magazines of the day; and a Trans- be found in three volumes of pamlation of the Psalms, as far as the Hun- phlets, printed, by subscription, in 1756. dred and Eighteenth, printed after his He also wrote Memoirs of the Life death. His life has been written by and Reign of Frederick the Third, Dr. Mason Good, wlio thus describes King of Prussia, in two volumes, which him on his first introduction. “ He was reached a second edition. Dr. Towers, disputing,” says the doctor, “ with one who is said to have been a modified of the company when I entered; and Arian, was an industrious and forcible the rapidity with which, at this moment, writer; but the bias of his own political he left his chair, and rushed, with an and religious opinions, is too apparent elevated tone of voice, and uncourtly in his biographical compilations, and dogmatism of manner, towards his renders them but an exceptionable auopponent, instantaneously persuaded thority in regard to character. me, that the subject upon which the debate turned was of the utmost mo- MACPHERSON, (JAMES,) a native ment. I listened with all the attention I of Inverness, was born in 1738, and could command; and, in a few minutes, educated at Aberdeen and Edinburgh, learned, to my astonishment, that it re- where he attracted the notice and culated to nothing more than the distance riosity of the literary world, in 1760, by of his own house in the New Road, the publication of his Fragments of Paddington, from the place of our Ancient Poetry, collected in the Highmeeting,
which in Guildford lands of Scotland, and translated from Street.
the Gaelic, or Erse Language. They
were received with mingled suspicion TOWERS, (JOSEPH) was born in and applause, and Dr. Blair and others 1737, at Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, but, enabling the author, by means of a subaccording to some accounts, in South- scription, to pursue his researches in wark, where his father dealt in second- the highlands, he produced, succes. hand books. He received no regular sively, in 1762 and 1763, his Fingal, education, and is said to have acquired and Temora, and other poems, all prohis first taste for literature by listening fessedly translated from the Gaelic of to the conversation of Hawkesworth and Ossian, the son of Fingal, a prince of others, who used to meet at the shop of the third century. These publications Goudby, the bookseller, in the Royal gave rise to a literary controversy, which Exchange. In 1754, he was apprenticed ended, if it may be said to have yet to a printer, at Sherborne, and, on terminated, in contributing to the fame, coming again to London, he for some without either satisfactorily establishing time supported himself as a journeyman or destroying the credit, of the subject in that trade. In 1763, he published of our memoir. Whether authentic or his first work, entitled A Review of the not, they certainly contain many pas. Genuine Doctrines of Christianity; and, sages of pure poetry, and, in general, subsequently, contracting a profitable forcibly remind us of the sublime marriage, he opened a bookseller's style of the Bible, and Homer. Many shop, in Fore Street; but, in 1774, he of the ideas of Byron, and other of our resigned his business, and became a subsequent poets, may be traced to the dissenting preacher. He was, in the poems of Ossian, though we are insame year, chosen pastor of a congrega- clined to question both the originality tion of dissenters at Highgate ; and, in and fidelity of Macpherson, in some of 1778, was elected one of the ministers his passages. The following, delivered at Newington Green. In 1779, che by Dithona, "Why did I not pass away University of Edinburgh conferred upon in secret, like the flower of the rock, him the degree of LL.D., from which that lifts its fair head unseen, and strews time he continued to publish, at inter- its withered leaves on the blast ?" only
differs in the application from Gray's for Wives, which was received with celebrated lines :
great applause. He next wroie The Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
Romance of an Hour, and The Man of And waste its sweetness on the desert air. Reason, and appears to have been called And the same poet's “ Bard,” begin- his death, which took place on the 3rd
to the bar about three years previous to ning
of February, 1777. He lett five children Ruin seize thee, ruthless king,
and a widow, for whose benefit his play Coufusion on thy banners wait!
of A Word to the Wise, was performed would seem to have suggested to Comala after his decease, and his works were the exclamation
also published, in quarto, with a lile of
the author. None of his pieces keep Confusion pursue thee over thy plains! Ruiu overtake thee, thou king of the world!
possession of the stage, but most of them
may be read with pleasure; they are Mr. Macpherson went out to Florida, deficient, perhaps, in energy and point, in 1764, as secretary to Governor John but are pathetic and interesting, and stone, and was subsequently appointed ingeniously written. agent to the Nabob of Arcot, and sat in parliament from 1780 to 1790. He died VINCENT, (WILLIAM,) the son of in February, 1796, leaving behind him, a merchant's packer, was born on the in addition to the works before-men 2nd of November, 1739, in Lime Street tioned, The Highlander, a poem; a Ward, London. in 1748, he was sent prose translation of Homer's Iliad ; An to Westminster School, and from thence Introduction to the History of Great elected to Trinity Coilege, Canıbridge, Britain and Ireland; The History of where he graduated B.A. in 1761, M.A. Great Britain, from the Accession, to the in 1764, and obtained a fellowship. House of Hanover; besides some histo He had, in the meantime, been aprical collections and political pamphlets. pointed an usher of Westminster School;
and, in 1771, was made second master. KELLY, (Hugh) was born in Ire- Having been previously chosen chaplain land, in 1739, and apprenticed by his in ordinary to the king, and taken the father, who was of good family, but in degree of D. D., he was, in 1777, apreduced circumstances, to a stay-maker pointed sub almoner to his majesty; in Dublin, whence, on the expiration of and, in the following year, obtained the his indenture, he proceeded to London, rectory of Allhailows, but resigned it at and commenced business on his own the end of five years. In 1788, he was account. Meeting, however, with no made head master of his school ; in success, he became clerk to an attorney; 1801, a prebend; and, in 1802, Dean of and, subsequently, turning his attention Westminster ; six years after which, he to literature, was employed as editor to presented himself to the rectory of The Ladies' Museum, and other pe. Islip. He died on the 21st of Decemiriodical publications. His industry and ber, 1815, having acquired some fame prudence keeping pace with his ability, as an author by his Commentary on he was soon enabled to marry; after Arrian's Voyage of Nearchus, and his which, politics and the drama, as well Periplus of the Erytherean Sea ; the as literature, occupying his attention, he former of which was translated into published, in succession, A Vindica- French, by Billecoq. He also published tion of the Administration of Mr. Pitt, A Traci on Parochial Music, The Greek a collection of essays, called The Babbler; Verb Analysed, A Defence of Public Louisa Mildmay, a poem; and False | Education, and A Charity Sermon. He Delicacy, a comedy, which was acted likewise wrote several articles in The with success. It was followed by A British Critic, and a volume of his Word to the Wise, and a tragedy, called discourses, with a memoir of his life, Clementina; but both were unsuccess was published posthumously. He was ful, in consequence of a supposition married to a Miss Wyait, by whom he that he was employed to write for the left two sons. ministry, and he was, in consequence, induced to get a friend to assume the PIOZZI, (HESTER LYNCH,) was authorship of his next piece, The School born at Bodvel, Carnarvonshire, in
1739. She was the daughter of John of her greatness of mind, he tells the Salisbury, Esq., and was early distino following anecdote:—When Gifford had guished, in fashionable life, by her per- abused her, in his Baviad and Mæviad, as sonal charms and mental accomplish- | Thrale's grey widow, she contrived to
In 1763, she married Mr. get herself invited to dine at the same Thrale, a brewer of great opulence, table with him, just after the publication and then member of parliament for of his poem, when she sat opposite to Southwark; and soon after, she com him, and removed his perplexity by menced that acquaintance with Dr. proposing a glass of wine as a libation Johnson, which has given the chief to their future good fellowship. notoriety to her name. On the death of her husband, in 1781, she retired to BOSWELL, (JAMES,) born at EdinBath; and, in 1784, gave her hand to burgh, on the 29th of October, 1740, a Florentine, of the name of Piozzi, by was the son of Alexander Boswell, Lord which union she greatly offended the Auchinleck, one of the judges of the doctor, though he does not seem, as supreme courts of session, in Scotland. stated in various accounts, to have dis He received his education at the school continued his intercourse with her alto- and university of his native city, and gether. Shortly after her marriage, there, as well as at Glasgow, studied she accompanied Mr. Piozzi to Flo- civil law. His own desire seems to rence, and there joined Mr. Merry and have been for a military life, but, in others in the production of a collection compliance with his father's request, he of pieces, in verse and prose, called followed the profession he had studied; The Florence Miscellany. On her re for improvement in which he proceeded turn, she devoted herself to the pleasures to Utrecht, in 1763, having, in his way of literary society, and published, suc thither, been introduced to Dr. Johnson, cessively, a tale, in imitation of La in London. While abroad, he visited Fontaine, called The Three Warnings; Switzerland and Italy, and became ina translation of Boileau's Epistle to his timate with General Paoli, at Corsica, a Gardener ; Observations made in a memoir of whom he subsequently pubJourney through France, Italy, and lished, together with an account of that Germany, two volumes, octavo; British country. In 1766, he returned to ScotSynonymy, two volumes; and Retro- land, and was called to the bar of advospection, or a view of the most striking cates, and about the same time gained events which the last one thousand some creditable notoriety by the publicaeight hundred years have presented to tion of a pamphlet, under the title of the view of mankind, two volumes, Essence of the Douglas Cause. In 1773, quarto, 1801. She survived her second he accompanied Dr. Johnson in his celehusband, and died at Clifton, on the brated tour to the Hebrides; and having, 2nd of May, 1821, having, a few mo in 1782, succeeded to his family estate, ments before her death, says the author he, shortly afterwards, procured his adof Piozziana, suddenly sat up, and, mission to the English bar, and devoted with a piercing aspect, and slow, distinct himself to literary leisure. The fruits utterance, said, " I die in the truth, of his connexion with Dr. Johnson apand the fear of God." As an au
peared in 1790, when he printed, in two thoress, Mrs. Piozzi held but a very volumes, quarto, his celebrated life of inferior rank among the writers of her that great man. Boswell was also the age; and, from the specimen given in author of a series of essays in the Lonthe work just mentioned, her conver don Magazine, entitled The Hypochonsational sallies do not seem to have driac; of several fugitive pieces in prose been of the wittiest kind. The writer and verse; two political pamphlets ; of Piozziana, however, gives her a very and was made recorder of Carlisle some high character for learning and gene- time previous to his death, which took rosity; telling us, in proof of the for place on the 19th of June, 1799. His mer, that she read and wrote Hebrew, | Life of Johnson, and the various critiGreek, and Latin, and, for sixty years, cisms upon it, are too well known to had constantly and ardently studied need a 'dilation in this place, either the Scriptures, and the works of com upon the style or contents of the work. mentators, in the original languages. It is universally acknowledged as one
of the most interesting and amusing however, is requisite in reading this biographical compositions in our lan- valuable work, especially with respect guage ; and, though the author is often to the Roman coins, the value and contemptibly minute, and ostentatiously names of which were too frequently diffuse, he has, upon the whole, pre-changing, to allow of an implicit adopsented us with such a portrait of the tion of the ordinary interpretations. subject of his memoir, as to make us There are many inaccuracies also in wish all retained, for the sake of Dr. the section on the Roman year; but, Johnson, though the omission of some even with these and other drawbacks, things might have raised, in our esti- the work still remains creditable to the mation, the dignity of his biographer. author, and a valuable auxiliary to the Johnson seems to have formed about a readers of Roman literature. Dr. Adam just estimate of Boswell's capacities, in was a man of great boldness of characdescribing him as one, whose acuteness ter, amounting sometimes to indiscrewould help inquiry, and whose gaiety tion; he never concealed what he felt, of conversation, and civility of manners, and he would sometimes, it is said, give were sufficient to counteract the incon- vent, with considerable emphasis, to his veniences of travel. He was married to political opinions, which were liberal, Miss Montgomery, in 1769, whom he in the presence of his class. survived, and by whom he had two sons and three daughters.
MALONE, (EDMUND) son of an
Irish judge, was born in Dublin, on the ADAM, (ALEXANDER,) was born of 4th of October, 1741. After having humble parents, in Morayshire, Scoto graduated B. A. at Trinity College, land, in June, 1741; and, after having Dublin, he became a student of the received the rudiments of education, Temple, and was called to the Irish entered himself of the University of bar in 1767 ; but, though he gave great Edinburgh, in 1758. His privations at promise as an advocate, the acquisition college were such, that he was some- of a competent fortune induced him to times in want of a mouthful of bread, give up his profession, and devote himyet his perseverance in study remained self to literature. The writings of unchecked; and, in 1761, he was ap- Shakspeare first occupied his attention, pointed one of the teachers in Watson's and he was employed by Mr. Steevens Hospital, which he held until 1767, to assist him in his forthcoming edition, when he was chosen assistant to the but, quarrelling with that gentleman, rector of the high school. He suc- he published an edition of his own, in ceeded to the situation of rector in eleven octavo volumes, in 1790; which, 1771, and retained it till the period of though partly superseded by the subsehis death, which took place on the 18th quentone of Steevens, has been esteemed of December, 1809, when he was ho- by Porson, and others, in some respects, noured, by his fellow-citizens, with a the better of the two. In 1796, he public funeral. In the early, part of his printed a pamphlet, denying the authenrectorship, he was involved in a dispute ticity of Ireland's Shakspeare Papers ; with the under masters, respecting the and he also wrote the 'Lives of Sir introduction of his work on the Prin- Joshua Reynolds, Dryden, W. Gerard ciples of Latin and English Grammar, Hamilton, and the celebrated statesman, as a substitute for Ruddiman's Gram- Windham; those of the three first being mar; but the former was at length prefixed to collections of their respecprohibited, by an order of the magis- tive works. A pamphlet on the subject trates, as patrons of the school. His of Rowley's Poems, which he proother works are, Roman Antiquities; A nounced a forgery, is also attributed to Summary of History and Geography; him. He died, much respected, on the A Dictionary of Classical Biography; 25th of May, 1812. and a Latin dictionary, entitled Lexicon Linguæ Latinæ Compendiarum. The ENFIELD, (William,) born at first is that by which he is most known, Sudbury, in 1741, was educated at Daand, besides having gone through seve- ventry, for the dissenting ministry, and ral editions, has been translated into he was chosen pastor of a congregation German, French, and Italian. Caution, at Liverpool, in 1763. In 1770, he was