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song of The Storm, which he is said to CUMBERLAND,(RICHARD,) grandhave written, and of The Shipwreck, son of the celebrated Dr. Bentley, and that he is to be considered as a poet. great-grandson of the Bishop of PeterThe latter is not only remarkable for borough, was born at Cambridge, on the harmony of versification and fidelity of 19th of February, 1732. His father, description, with unrivalled imagery, who was Bishop of Clonfert, sent him but as containing within itself the rudi- first to school at Bury St Edmund's, ments of navigation, sufficient to form and afterwards to Westminster, whence a complete seaman. “I have heard he proceeded to Trinity College, Cammany experienced officers declare," bridge, where he graduated B. A., in says his biographer, Mr. Clarke," that | 1750; and, shortly afterwards, obtained the rules and maxims, delivered in this a fellowship, having, in the meantime, poem, for the conduct of a ship in the become private secretary to Lord Halifax. most perilous emergency, are the best, Whilst in London, he published An indeed the only opinions which a skil- Elegy, written on St. Mark's Eve; of ful mariner should adopt.” Falconer which, he says, the result was neither was married, but it does not appear fame nor profit. Declining to take holy whether he left any issue.
orders, he resigned his fellowship, and
obtained a lay one, but forfeited this JOHNSTONE, (CHARLES,) was also on his marriage, in 1759, when he born in Ireland, about the year 1730 ; was appointed crown agent for Nova and, after having practised some time Scotia." When Lord Halifax went to at the Irish and English bars, turned Ireland, as lord-lieutenant, our author his attention to literature, in conse accompanied him; and is said to have quence of deafness preventing his fur. been offered a baronetcy by his patron, ther attendance at court. His first who, however, on becoining secretary production appeared in 1760, when he of state, refused Cumberland a higher published two volumes of Chrysal, or station than that of clerk of the reports, the Adventures of a Guinea, professing in the office of trade and plantations. to be a dispassionate, distinct account, Having before indulged his taste for of the most remarkable transactions of dramatic composition, he now comthe present times, all over Europe, with menced writing, with assiduity, for the curious and interesting anecdotes of the stage, and produced a variety of plays, public and private characters of the of which his comedy of The West Indian parties principally concerned in those was the most successful On the acscenes, especially in England, &c. The cession to office of Lord Germaine, he success this met with induced him to was made secretary to the board of bring out two additional volumes, in trade, but of this office he was sub1765, which were read with equal avidity sequently deprived, by Mr. Burke's and interest. The scenes he developes economy bill, after having been prehaving some foundation in truth, though viously obliged to part with the whole highly exaggerated, excited general of his hereditary property, to defray the curiosity; and a remarkable sensation expenses of a mission, upon which he was produced by that part relating to a had been sent to the courts of Lisbon and club of fashionable profligates, said to Madrid. His loss, upon this occasion, have been held at the house of a dis amounted to £5,000, which government sipated nobleman in Buckinghamshire. refused to pay, though for what reason His other works, displaying great sati was never stated to him. With a very rical talent and knowledge of the world, inadequate pension, he now retired to are, The Reverie, or a Flight to the Tunbridge Wells, and devoting himself Paradise of Fools ; Arbaces, Prince entirely to literature, produced, in sucof Betlis; The Pilgrim, or a Picture of cession, a variety of works ; and, among Life ; and The History of John Juniper, other dramatic pieces, his comedies of Esq., alias Juniper Jack. He also The Jew, and 'The Wheel of Fortune. wrote essays for, and was a joint pro- He also projected and edited, during its prietor of, The Bengal Newspaper, brief existence, The London Review; having gone out to India in 1784; in and, in 1806, published memoirs of his which country he died, about the year life, which terminated, in London, on 1800.
the 7th of May, 1811. Cumberland is
distinguished more by the quantity than WALKER, (John) was born near the quality of his writings, which, in Barnet, Herts, on the 18th of March, 1732. too many instances, bear evident marks His aversion to trade, for which he was of haste and necessity. His most destined, induced him to appear on the popular performances we have already stage, but though a respectable, he never mentioned ; and these, together with became a popular, actor; and he finally The Fashionable Lover, are his only quitted the boards in 1768. In the dramatic efforts that display more than following year, he opened a school at ordinary merit. As a poet he can Kensington Gravel-pits, in conjunction scarcely be mentioned; and the reputa- with a catholic clergyman, but a distion he has gained, as a critic, by his agreement arising between the parties collection of essays, entitled The Ob- Mr. Walker relinquished his situation, server, was no longer accorded to him, and commenced teaching elocution, after the confession of his obligations to
which he did with a success that pro. Dr. Bentley's manuscripts. His charac- cured him great celebrity, both at the ter, allowing for the drawback of an universities and capitals of England, equal addiction to flattery and detraction, Scotland, and Ireland. As an author, had some estimable and honourable he also acquired considerable reputation traits, of which the following anecdote by the publication of several useful is an instance :-Being presented, by a elementary works, of which the most distant relation, with a deed of gift in popular are, his Rhetorical Grammar, his favour of some considerable property, Elements of Elocution, and Pronounhe positively refused to accept it, ili cing Dictionary: He also published a assured it had not been made to the Rhyming Dictionary: a compilation prejudice of a near relation, and, in- from the English classics ; The Acade. sisted finally, on the insertion of a clause mic Speaker; a key to the Correct Pro. of resumption, of which the giver sub- nunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripsequently took advantage. His man- tural Names; the Teacher's Assistant ; ners were those of the courtier and the and Outlines of English Grammar. Mr. gentleman; and his powers of conversa- Walker was one of the best speakers at tion would seem, from an observation the Robin Hood Debating Society, and of Dr. Johnson, to have been of no com- had qualities which procured him the mon order. “The want of company," esteem of Dr. Johnson, Garrick, Burke, says the doctor, in a letter to Mrs. 'I'hrale, and others. He died on the 1st of “is an inconvenience, but Mr. Cumber- | August, 1807; having, some time preland is a million." He was extremely vious to his death, become a Roman sensitive to hostile criticism ; on which catholic, though, in the early part of account Garrick called him “the man his life, he had been a strict Calvinistic without a skin;" and Sheridan is said dissenter. to have intended Sir Fretful Plagiary as a satire upon this part of Cumberland's LLOYD, (ROBERT,) the friend and character. His principal literary pro- associate of Churchill, was born in 1733, ductions, in addition to the before- and educated at Westminster School, of mentioned, are Anecdotes of Spanish which his father was second master, Painters; the Novels of Arundel, and where Robert himself was, for some Henry, and John de Lancaster; Calvary, time, an usher. His classical attaina poem; A version of fifty of the ments were considerable, and gave proPsalms of David; and two pamphlets, mise of his future eminence; but, preone addressed to Dr. Lowth, in defence ferring the wit to the scholar, he soon of Bentley; and another to Dr. Parr, resigned his situation, and, in connexion entitled Curtius restored from the Gulf. with Churchill, took to dissipation, and Among other of his plays may be became an author. The Rosciad of the mentioned The Summer's Tale ; The latter was suggested by Lloyd's poem Brothers; The Widow of Delphi; The of The Actor, which, together with Natural Son; The Choleric Man; The a miscellaneous volume of poems, proBattle of Hastings, and several tragedies, cured him considerable reputation. He of which the Carmelite was least un- also wrote for the St. James's Magazine, successful.
and other periodicals; and, among other dramatic pieces, a comic opera, callepl
The Shepherd's Wedding. The same several theological works, the chief of carelessness and extravagance which he which, entitled Remarks on the dehad inanifested throughout his literary finitive uses of the Article in the Greek career, at length led to his confinement Testament, has obtained permanent in the Fleet prison, where he died, in reputation for its defence of the doctrine 1764, with the reputation of an able of the divinity of Christ against the writer, rather to be condemned, than arguments of the Unitarians. pitied, for his misfortunes.
LANGHORNE, (John,) the son of SHARP, (GRANVILLE,) youngest a clergyman, was born at Kirby S:e. son ut Dr. Thomas Sharp, a prebendary phen, in Westmorland, in March, of Durham, and grandson of Dr. J. 1735. He was first placed at Winton Sharp, Archbishop of York, was born in School, afterwards ai Appleby, where 1734, and educated for the bar, but he continued till his eighteenth year, never practised his profession. He had when he became private tutor to a a place in the Ordnance office, till the family near Ripon, 'in Yorkshire, and commencement of the Ainerican war, was next assistant in the free-school of when he took charnbers in the Temple, Wakefield. Ilaving taken deacon's and, soon afterwards, became known to orders, he obtained suine popularity as the public by his philanthropic conduct a preacher; and, in 1759, becaine tutor and writings. A negro, named Somer- to the sons of Robert Cracroft, Esq., of set, who had been brought, by his Hackthorn, near Lincoln ; but lett inat master, from the West Indies, and gentleman's house, in consequence o! turned into the streets, in consequence an attachment to one of his daughters, of illness, was placed, by Mr. Sharp, in whom, however, he subsequently marBartholomew's Hospital; and, on his ried. Having previously published a restoration to health, established by his volume of pooms, he, in 1760, became benefactor in a comfortable situation. a member of Clare Hall, with a view oi His former master, on ascertaining this, proceeding to ine degree of B. D.; and, thought proper to seize him, and com- in the saine year, he printed luis Tears mit hiin to prison, as a runaway slave, of the Muses, a poem to the memory when the subject of our memoir brought of Handel. In 1761, ne ufficiated as the case before the Lord Mayor, who curate at Dagenham, in Essex, and decided in favour of the slave's freedom. shortly afterwards he obtained consiHis inhuman master, however, grasping derable reputation in the literary worid him by the collar, and attempting tu by the publication of his eastern tale of detain him, Mr. Sharp cominenced an Soiynian and Almena, and other man action against che forner, in the court of works. His Leliers on Religions keKing's Bench ; and the result was, by a tirement, which followed, received the decision of the twelve judges, that slavery approbation of Warburton, and led to could not exist in Great Britain. Thus Langhorne's composition of The Letters encouraged, he continued his exertions that passed between Theodo-ins and in opposition to slavery, for the abolition Consiantia, founded on the well-known of which he instituted a society; and, story in The Spectator. In 1764, he about the same time, sent over, at his came to reside in London, on obtaining own expense, a number of negroes to the curacy and lectureship of St. John's, Africa. "Another instance of his public Clerkenwell; and, about the same time, spirit was shown in his obtaining the became a writer in The Monthly Rerelease of a citizen of London, who had view, being the only one in that period. been impressed into the navy; to effect ical who escaped the animadversion of which, he procured a habeas corpus Smollett. In 1765, he was appointed asfrom the King's Bench, and himself sistant preacher at Lincoln's Inn Chapel; addressed the court. He died, beloved and, about the same time, published, and respected by all who knew him, among other pieces, a poem called July the 6th, 1813. Besides some Genius and Valour, in vindication of the treatises on the Slave Trade, Duelling, Scots, against the satire of Churchill and &c., and a pamphlet in favour of others, and for which the University of parliamentary reform. Mr. Svarp, who | Edinburgli crealed him D.D., in 1766. was an able Biblical linguist, wroie In 1707, he married Miss Cracroft, whose relations procured for him the knowledge of the writings of the ancients rectory of Blagdon, in Somersetshire; through the mediun of translations ; but, losing his wife in the following and if the mass of evidence he brings year, he removed to Folkestone, in forward is to be relied on, his conciuKent, the residence of his brother Wil- sion is indisputable. This work, both liam, who assisted him in his celebrated from its style and matter, procured the translation of Plutarch's Lives, which author considerable reputation; and, in appeared in 1770. In 1771, he pub- a few years, reached' a third edition. lished his Fables of Flora, and a poem In 1769, previously to which, the subject called The Origin of the Veil ; and, in of our memoir had graduated B. D., he the following year, on his marriage with was appointed one of the preachers at a Miss Thomson, he made a tour in Whitehall; in 1775, master of his colFrance. On his return, he fixed his lege; and, shortly afterwards, viceresidence at Blagdon, where he prac- chancellor of the university. In 1778, tised both in a magisterial and clerical he was chosen principal university libracapacity: and, after having been made rian; obtained, subsequently, a stall and a prebendary of Wells, in 1777, died in chancellorship in Lichfield Cathedral, April, 1779. Dr. Langhorne, though whence he removed, in 1782, to occupy an easy and elegant poet, is principally one at Canterbury, and finally to St. known as the translator of 'Plutarch's Paul's, of which he was appointed a Lives, and few of his other writings are canon residentiary, in 1788. He died now popular. In addition to the works at Cambridge, on the 8th of September, before-mentioned. he wrote Effusions of 1797, leaving behind him a library, Friendship and Fancy, in two volumes, the sale of which occupied thirty-five after the manner of Sterne; Letters to days, and produced £2,200. Dr. FarEleanora, being his correspondence mer was held in general respect and with Miss Cracroft, previous to his mar- esteem; and Parr, who wrote his epitaplı, riage with her; Precepts of Conjugal describes both his intellectual and mural Happiness; The Couniry Justice ; be- character in glowing terms of admirasides some poems, sermons, an edition tion. He appears to have had a few of the Poems of Collins, a translation of peculiarities; and, like Sheridan, is said Milton's Italian Sonnets; and a tragedy, to have thrown letters into the fire uncalled The Fatal Prophecy. His death opened, which he was too indolent to is said to have been accelerated by a read. There were three things, it was too convivial course of living; but he is said, which the master of Emanuel described as having been of an amiable loved above all others, viz. :-old port, disposition, a friend to morality and old clothes, and old books; and three religion, and a refined wit.
things which nobody could persuade
him to perform, viz. :-10 rise in the FARMER, (RICHARD,) the son of a morning, to go to bed at night, and maltster, at Leicester, was born there to settle an account. He was generous on the 28th of August, 1735. He was and philanthropic in the distribution of educated at the grammar-school of his great part of his income, and was a native town, and at Emanuel ('ollege, liberal patron both of learned men and Cambridge, where he obtained a fel- learned publications. lowship, and graduated B. A, in 1757, and M.A. in 1760. Having entered GOUGH, (RICHARD,) the son of a into holy orders, he obtained a curacy captain in the East India Company, near Cambridge, of which university he and a member of parliament, was born was elected junior proctor, in 1765, and in London, in 1735. As early as his had been previously admitted a mem- eleventh year, he commenced a translaber of the Antiquarian Society. His well tion, from the French, of a History of known taste for the study of antiquities, the Bible, and gave other indications of procured bis admission to this body; a taste for literature and antiquities. and, in 1766, he established his repu- In 1752, he was admitted a fellow-comtation, both as a critic and an antiquary, moner of Benet College, Cambridge, by the publication of his Essay on the and left the university without taking a Learning of Shakspeare. In this, he degree, in 1756. He then made visits maintains that the poet acquired his to various parts of England, Scotland,
and Wales ; and, in 1762, published, Johnson, in ten volumes, in 1773; of anonymously, The History of Carausius, which a second edition appeared in or an Examination of what has been 1785, and a third, in fifteen volumes, in advanced on that subject by Genebrier 1793, the most complete and accurate and Dr. Stukeley, a work displaying of all. Mr. Steevens, in the meantime, great industry and critical skill. In had been engaged in a literary dispute 1768, appeared his Anecdotes of British with Mr. Malone, and others, which Topography, and the same work was was conducted, on his part, with a virupublished, in 1780, in two volumes, lence and malignity that reflected great quarto, to which the manuscript of a discredit on his character. He is also third was added, in 1806, but was un- said to have rendered himself odious fortunately destroyed by the fire which in private society, by his sneers and burnt down Mr. Nichols' printing-office. calúmnies, till he was at length so His next works, in succession, were a shunned, that Dr. Johnson observed he new edition of Camden's Britannia, in lived “the life of an outlaw." He is, three volumes, folio; editions of Mar. however, said to have been generous tin's History of Thetford, and Vertue's and humane, and to have given away Medals, &c.; and his most important great part of his fortune with equal dispublication, the Sepulchral Monu- crimination and liberality. Besides his ments of Great Britain, applied to illus- edition of Shakspeare, of whom he is trate the history of families, manners, the best illustrator we have, he is the and arts, in two folio volumes. This is author of several contributions to Hotermed, by Dr. Aikin, a splendid per- garth's Biographical Anecdotes, and the formance, the result of industrious re- Biographia Dramatica. search, and replete with the most valuable and curious particulars. He wrote JEBB, (John,) was born in London other works of minor consideration, in 1736, but received his education in edited many publications similar to his Ireland, where his father was Dean of own, was a contributor to The Gentle- Cashell. He was entered first of Triman's Magazine, to the Vetusta Monu- nity College, Dublin, and afterwards of menta, and to the Archæologia of the Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he gra. Society of Antiquaries, of which he was duated B. A., in 1757, and M.A. in a director, as also a member of the Royal 1761, when he obtained a fellowship. Society. From both of these institu- This he relinquished in 1764, on his tions he withdrew himself, for some presentation to the rectory of Ovington, reason not apparent, several years pre- in Norfolk; and, in the following vious to his death, which took place in year, he published, in conjunction with February, 1809. Nichols speaks highly the Rev. R. Thorpe, and J. Wollaston, of his private character; but even from a work, entitled Excerpta quædam the account given by this somewhat e Newtoni Principiis Philosophiæ Napartial biographer, it may be inferred turalis, cum notis variorum, &c. In that Mr. Gough was disposed to indulge 1768, he delivered, at Cambridge, a strong aversions. He was married to a course of lectures on the Greek TestaMiss Hall, but had no issue by her. ment; and, in 1769, having married a
relation of the Earl of Harborough, he STEEVENS, (GEORGE,) the son of was appointed chaplain to that noblean East India director, was born at man; and, in the same year, obtained Stepney, on the 10th of May, 1736, and three livings in Suffolk. "The freedom, received his education at the grammar- however, of the opinions he had exschool at Kingston, and at King's Col. pressed in his lectures, which were still lege, Cambridge. Having a taste for more openly avowed, on his endeavours, literature, he, in particular, examined with Archdeacon Blackburne, to prothe writings of Shakspeare, twenty of cure the abrogation of clerical subwhose plays he published, with notes, scription to the thirty-nine articles, and in four octavo volumes, in 1766 ; and, to improve the mode of education at about the same time, advertized for as- Cambridge, raised such a party against sistance in an intended edition of the him, as induced him, in 1775, to resign whole of that poet's works. This he all his benefices and academical appublished, in conjunction with Dr. pointments. At the same time, he pub