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which year he married Angelica, daugh- pose, industry of research, and extent ter of Sir William Beaumaris Rush, and variety of observation, few travellers he succeeded to the college living of are to be compared with Dr. Clarke. His Harlton, in Cambridgeshire;

and shortly works have, on this account, become afterwards to the vicarage of All Saints, more popular than any other of a similar Cambridge, where he officiated with nature, though containing an account great popularity, and upon which he be- of countries both before and since stowed an altar-piece, after the Grecian visited and described. They would model. In the year last-mentioned, he certainly bear abridgment; but it commenced a course of lectures on would require a most skilful hand to mineralogy, the excellence of which in- select from pages where few paragraphs duced the university, in 1808, to found a appear worthy of rejection, if of curtailprofessorship for the encouragement of ment. Although he expresses himself that branch of learning when he was with enthusiasm, and many of his reunanimously elected to the chair. About flections are hastily and inconsiderately the same time he received_ £1,000 formed, his style is chaste and clear, from the curators of the Bodleian and he details' the most curious facts Library, Oxford, for the manuscripts he with a simplicity incompatible with had collected during his travels, in- exaggeration. In speaking of the secluding the famous one known as the cond volume, Lord Byron says, in a Patmos Plato, to which Professor Porson letter to the author, “'in tracing some assigned a very high antiquity. In of my old paths, adorned by you so 1810, the first volume of his travels beautifully, I receive double delight. appeared; and was succeeded, at subse- How much you have traversed! I must quent periods, by five others. The pub- resume my seven-leagued boots, and lication of them produced him a sum of journey to Palestine, which your de£6595; and by no means a more than scription mortifies me not to have seen, adequate one, when it is considered

more than ever." that the work occupied five thousand A peculiar feature in the character of pages of quarto letter-press; a task, Dr. Clarke is the rapidity with which under which, he says, “ I should cer- he passed from one pursuit to another. tainly have sunk, had I not been blessed “ I have lived to know," he says in a with double the share of spirits which letter to Dr. D'Oyley, " that the great commonly belong to sedentary men.” secret of human happiness is this :Yet amidst all this toil and multifarious never suffer your energies lo stagnate. employment, he pursued the study of The old adage," he adds, " of 100 many chemistry both with zeal and success, irons in the fire, conveys an abominable as appears in one of his letters to a lie. You cannot have too many: poker, friend, in September, 1816, in which he tongs, and all-keep them all going.” says, " I sacrificed the whole month of “ His ardour for knowledge," says his August to chemistry. Oh, how I did biographer, the Rev. Mr. Otter," not work! It was delightful play to me; unaptly called by his old tutor, literary and I stuck to it, day and night. At herois, was one of the most zealous, last, having blown off both my eye- most sustained, and most enduring prinbrows and eye-lashes, and nearly blownciples of action that ever animated a out both my eyes, I ended with a bang human breast.” As a preacher, his that shook all the houses round my biographer speaks of " the sublimity lecture-room. The Cambridge paper and excellence of his discourses," and has told you the result of all this says that his ardour in the pursuit of alchemy, for I have actually decom- science, was “softened by moral and posed the earths, and attained themi social views.” In private life he was in a metallic form." The death of amiable and benevolent; and, to conthis accomplished traveller took place versation equally interesting and intelliat the residence of his father-in-law, gent, joined the most kind and caption the 9th of March, 1822, and he was vating manners. He was survived by buried on the 18th, in the chapel of five sons and two daughters. Jesus College, Cambridge, with acade- In addition to his Travels, Dr. Clarke mic solemnities.

was the author of Testimony of different For ardent enterprise, energy of pur- Authors respecting the Colossal Statue

of Ceres; The Tomb of Alexander; Archipelago, and Mediterranean; beDescription of the Greek Marbles sides some letters and painphlets, on brought from the Shores of the Euxine, / subjects relating to science and antiquity.

MUNGO PARK.

THIS ill-fated traveller, the son of a acquainted with the modes of life, and farmer, at Foulshiels, near Selkirk, was character of the natives. If I should born there on the 10th of September, perish in my journey, I was willing 1771. He was educated at the gram- that my hopes and expectations should mar school of Selkirk; and, on account perish with me; and if I should sucof the studious and thoughtful turn of ceed in rendering the geography of his mind, was at first destined for the Africa more familiar to my countrymen, Scottish church; but, in consequence

I knew that I was in the hands of men of his partiality for the medical pro- of honour, who would not fail to bestow fession, was apprenticed to a surgeon that remuneration, which my successin the town, about 1786. In 1789, he ful services should appear to them to entered the University of Edinburgh, merit. My instructions," he continues, where he remained for three sessions as "were very plain and concise. I was a medical student; and, in his summer directed, on my arrival in Africa, to vacations, pursued the study of botany, pass on to the river Niger, and to asfor which he had always evinced a par- certain the course, and, if possible, the tiality. Having completed his acade- rise and termination of that river; that mical education, he repaired to London; I should use my utmost exertions to and, through the influence of Sir Joseph visit the principal towns or cities in its Banks, he was appointed assistant- neighbourhood, particularly Timbuctoo surgeon to the Worcester East India- and Houssa; and that I should be afterman. He sailed, in 1792, for the East wards at liberty to return to Europe, Indies; and having visited Bencoolen, by the way of Gambia, or by such in the island of Sumatra, returned to other route as should seem to be most England in the following year, and adviseable." communicated to the Linnæan Society Mr. Park landed at Ilifree, on the the observations in botany and natural 21st of June in the year last-mentioned; history he had made, which were ac- and proceeded, shortly afterwards, to cordingly printed.

Pisania, on the river Gambia, where In May, 1795, he was engaged in the he remained till the following Decemservice of the Society for the Promotion ber, when he continued his course to of African Discoveries; and, on the Jarra, the frontier town of the Mons. 22nd of May, set sail from Portsmouth In his way thither, he was made priin the Endeavour, an African trader. soner by the king of that territory, and “ Previously to my starting," says detained from the 7th of March till Mr. Park, in his preface to the Account July, 1796, when he succeeded in of his Travels, "I had been informed escaping, after having endured innuthat a gentleman of the name of Hough-merable hardships. He wandered in ton had already sailed to the Gambia, wretchedness for three weeks in the and that there was reason to apprehend African desert, and at last came in he had fallen a sacrifice to the climate, sight of the river Niger, when he made or perished in some contest with the the discovery that it flowed from west natives; but this intelligence, instead to east, which was the grand object of of deterring me from my purpose, ani- his voyage. At length he arrived at mated me to persist in the offer of my Sego, the Capital of Bambarra, when services with the greater solicitude. Í the king refused to see him, but furhad a passionate desire to examine into nished him with the means for prothe productions of a country so little ceeding on his journey. At Wonda, known, and to become experimentally he was confined nine days by a fever,

where he felt himself a burthen to his standard book. In the summer of the landlord, on account of the scarcity last year, Mr. Park returned to Scotland; that was prevalent, which was so great, where, on the 2nd of August, he married that mothers sold their children for a Miss Anderson, the daughter of the scanty supply of provision. At Kamalia, gentleman to whom he had served his his life was preserved by the benevo apprenticeship, and resided for two lence of a negro, in whose house he years with his mother at Foulshiels. In resided for more than seven months; October, 1801, he settled, as an apotheat the termination of which, he set out cary, at Peebles; but not content to with a caravan of slaves towards the remain in so obscure a capacity, he, in Gambia, on the 17th of April, and December, 1803, left Scotland, having reached the banks of the river on the gladly accepted a proposal to undertake 4th of June, 1797. After some other à second expedition to Africa. After difficulties, trifling in comparison with some delay, of which he took advantage those he had before endured, he sailed to improve himself in the science of from Antigua, on the 24th of November, astronomy, and to acquire some knowand arrived at Falmouth on the 22nd ledge of the Arabic language, a brevet of the following month.

commission of captain in Africa was His return to London was hailed granted to him, and he at length set with triumph by his friends, and the sail, in the Crescent transport, on the African Association allowed him to 30th of January, 1805. He proceeded, publish an account of his travels for his without inierruption, as far as Kayee, own benefit. The interest excited by a small town on the Gambia, where he the announcement of the work was remained, making preparations for his almost universal; and the manner in expedition, till the 27th of April. which it was executed, as well as the The very interesting journal of Mungo matter it contained, fully answered the Park, gives the full particulars of his expectations that had been raised con last mission to Africa. He encountered cerning it. The publication of it took difficulties at every stage; at Pisania, place in 1799, but the favourable recep he was obliged to leave five hundred tion it met with, was accompanied by a weight of rice, not having a sufficient suspicion that the author had lent him number of asses to carry it; and when self as the tool of a party inimical to the he had proceeded some distance furabolition of the slave trade. Whatever ther, the caravan experienced an attack may have been his motives, there can from bees, by which seven beasts were be no question of his inconsistency; for, killed or losi ; and the baggage was though in conversation he always spoke nearly destroyed by a fire the men had with abhorrence of a traffic in slaves, yet, kindled to cook their provisions, from in his travels, his arguments in sup. which they had been driven. On the port of the system are the strongest that 4th of July, the guide was nearly dehave ever been adduced. It has, how stroyed by a crocodile ; and, on the ever, been said, in palliation of bis 12th of August, Park was in danger conduct with respect to this transaction, from three lions; but he succeeded in that being a young man, inexperienced getting rid of them by firing his piece, in literary composition, and in a great and afterwards, when one of them remeasure dependent, as to the prospects turned, he drove it away by a loud of his future life, on his intended pub whistling lication, he was obliged, by policy, to On arriving at the Niger, out of succumb to the opinions of the friend thirty-four soldiers who had left the who assisted him in his work, Mr. Ganibia, six only remained ; and out Bryan Edwards, a West India planter, of four carpenters, there was but one and a systematic advocate of the slave who survived. The rest of the men trade.

had either died, or dropped away, Mr. Park's work, however, was re unable to proceed on the voyage; and ceived with avidity and applause ; two all, with the exception of Park himself, impressions were rapidly sold off'; se were seriously affected by the disease veral other editions have since been of the climaie. He, however, seems called for; and it continues, even at the to have consoled himself that he had present time, to be a popular and been able to proceed so far, and that

over an extent of five hundred miles, are unwilling to believe Fatouma's he had preserved the most friendly un- story, presume that, at least, he pederstanding with the natives. On the rished on his passage down the Niger. 28th of October, he lost his brother- The character of Mungo Park was in-law, Mr. Anderson ; and “then," eminent for a spirit of enterprise, unhe says, “I felt myself as if left a shaken resolution, and calm fortitude, second time lonely and friendless amidst together with an exceedingly sanguine the wilds of Africa.” On the 16th of temperament, which often blinded him November, he finished his journal, to the difficulties of his situation. He every thing being ready for his em- seems to have acted on the maxim, barkation on an utterly hopeless enterprise. His voyage was to be under

“ Possunt quia posse videntur;" taken on a vast and unknown river, in a crazy canoe built by his own hands, and, indeed, had this been an infalible manned by a few negroes, and four truth, there is nothing that would not European soldiers, one of whom was in have been within his power to accoma state of mental derangement. By plish. In his journals, he showed a the letters, however, which he wrote correctness of judgment, and an ad. at this time to some of his friends herence to bare facts, seldom united and his wife, in which he informs her with an enthusiastic mind. He rarely of the death of Mr. Anderson, he seems indulged in conjecture; though he ven to have been full of hope, and talks of tured to give it as his opinion that the reaching England before the arrival Niger could only terminate in the sea. of his letters.

In private life, he was a good husband Nothing, however, was heard of him and father, as well as a sincere friend, till 1806, when reports of his death having though he was slow in forming acbeen received, permission was given by quaintances, owing to an aversion to government to ascertain their truth, and general society. His popularity never i saaco, his guide, was appointed to the made him vain, but he always premission. The result of Isaaco's expe- served his original simplicity of manner. dition was the confirmation of Park's In conversation, he generally disapdeath, which was ascertained from pointed those who expected to find it Amadi Fatouma, who had been of the striking and remarkable. His person, party that had gone down the Niger; which was well proportioned, and six and, as circumstances have corrobo- feet in height, was robust, and well rated his count, his testimony cannot fitted for exertion and the endurance reasonably be doubted.

It appears, of hardships, and his whole appearance from this evidence, that Mr. Park was was extremely prepossessing. drowned in jumping from his canoe, to Mr. Park's journal of his last mission escape an attack that had been com- was published in 1815, together with a menced by the natives; but those who sketch of the author's life.

NATHANIEL PEARCE.

NATHANIEL PEARCE was born mind a fogging for a pocketful of at East Acton, Middlesex, on the 14th apples or a jackdaw's nest.' He, subof February, 1779. At an early age, seguently, passed five months at a he was sent to an academy at Thirsk, school at his native place; after leaving in Yorkshire, where he remained six which, he was bound apprentice to a years; during which time, he says in carpenter, in London, but shortly afterhis autobiography, " I was given to all wards ran away, and offered his services manner of wild tricks, for which I was to the master of a merchant brig, saycontinually punished severely, till I got ing, when his father urged him to reso hardened that, at last, I did not turn, that he would tie a shot to bis

VOL. III.

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neck and jump overboard sooner than hometan. He, however, soon grew

tired of his situation, and on meeting After having made a voyage to Pe- with Mr. Coffin, who had just arrived tersburgh, he visited his home, and, at at Mocha, in the Panther, he said, “he the request of his father, became bound would give worlds to get away, begging to a leatherseller; from whom, how Mr. Coffin to use all the means in his ever, he eloped, in a few weeks, to power to get him removed from his Deptford, where he entered himself, as forlorn and miserable condition." a sailor, on board the Alert. On the Having, at length, contrived to escape, 10th of May, 1794, his vessel, while on he sailed to Massowa, whence he was its way to Newfoundland, being cap- permitted to accompany Mr. Salt and tured by the French, he was conducted Captain Rudland in their expedition to to Vannes, whence, after three ineffectual | Abyssinia. attempts, he, at length, succeeded in On his arrival at Tigré, he expressed escaping; and was put on board the a desire to remain there; and having Bellerophon. On the arrival of that obtained from the ras a promise of proship at Portsmouth, he deserted, and, tection during his stay, and a present having changed his name to Clark, of some land, he built himself a house worked his passage, in a coal brig, to at Chelicut, married a Greek girl, South Shields; proceeded thence to and commenced studying the various London, and, shortly after, set out, in Abyssinian languages ; of which he the Thames East Indiaman, on a voyage acquired a speedy knowledge, and was to China. On his way thither, while subsequently enabled to act as Mr. stopping off Amboyna, he, in company Salt's interpreter on many important with two others, swam ashore at night, occasions. During the early part of his and, falling in with a party of Malays, residence at Chelicut, he continued to made them intoxicated with arrack; enjoy the favour of the ras, who, howfor which, on returning to the vessel, ever, at length, began to treat him with he received twenty-four lashes; and suspicion and coldness, which lasted subsequently, at Canton, underwent the till 1807, when the latter being attacked same punishment, on a discovery of an by his enemies, Pearce, running through attempt he had made to desert.

the flames of the ras's palace, awakened On reaching the Cape of Good Hope, him and saved his life. In consequence in his passage homewards, he went on of a subsequent quarrel, he left Antalo, board the Sceptre, and declared him- where he then resided ; and, after self a deserter, which compelled the crossing the lofty mountains of Samen, captain of that vessel to detain him, arrived at Inchetkaub, where he was and carry him to Bombay, where he attacked with ophthalmia, and, during again deserted, and a third time re his confinement, robbed of almost the ceived corporal punishment. In 1798, whole of his effects. On his recovery, while at anchor in a bay near the Isle hearing that the Ras of Tigré was about of France, the Sceptre was shipwrecked, to be attacked by the Ras Gojee, he and himself and forty others were thé hastened back to the assistance of the only survivors out of a crew of four former, who, on seeing him return, hundred. He was now taken on board exclaimed, with tears in his eyes, to his the Adamant, in which he sailed to attendants, “ Look at that man ; he Madras, Trincomalee, and Bombay; came to me a stranger, about five years where, having wounded a sepoy, in ago, and not being satisfied with my attempting to pass the hospital gates treatment, left me in great anger; but without leave, he was put in prison ; now that I am deserted by some of from which, with his usual good for- my friends, and pressed upon by my lune, he escaped. Having changed his enemies, he is come back to fight by name to Francis Dilvaro, he went on board the Antelope, in which he sailed In the battles which followed bis to Mangalore; whence he proceeded, reconciliation with the ras, who, alluding with Lord Valentia, to the Red Sea; to Pearce, would often cry out in the and on his arrival at Mocha, swam on midst of them, “Stop that madman," shore from the ship at night, gave him he distinguished himself by his daring self up to the dola, and turned Ma. and courage, and contributed greatly to

my side."

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