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LITERATURE.

HICKES, (GEORGE,) the son of a he immediately drew up a protest ; and, fariner, was born at Newsham, in in 1691, affixed it over the entrance Yorkshire, on the 20th of June, 1642. into the choir of the cathedral, in conHaving received the rudiments of sequence of which, he was obliged to education at a grammar-school in the remain, for some time, in concealment, county, he was sent to Oxford, where to avoid prosecution. In 1693, he was he became, successively, a member of sent, by the non-juring clergymen, on St. John's and Magdalen's, and, in the dangerous mission of conferring, at 1664, a fellow of Lincoln College. In St. Germains, with the exiled James, the following year, he graduated M.A.; respecting the appointments of English and, after taking holy orders, in 1666, bishops from their party; and, on his he remained some years at the univer return, in 1694, he was consecrated sity, in discharge of his duties as college Bishop of Thetford. He continued to tutor. In 1673, he proceeded, with one live in London, in secret, till May, of his pupils, Sir John Wheeler, to | 1699, when Lord-chancellor Somers, Paris, where he became acquainted with out of regard to his uncommon abilities, Henry Justell, who intrusted him with procured an act of council in his favour, the care of the original Greek manu- by which the attorney-general was script of the Canones Ecclesiæ Univer- directed to drop all proceedings pending salis, which had been published by his against him. He now seems to have father, as a present to the University of devoted himself entirely to literary purOxford. After his return, in May, suits; and, after being grievously tor1675, he took his degree of 'B. D., and mented with the stone, for several was presented to the rectory of St. years, he died, of that disease, on the Ebbes, Oxford ; and, in 1677, he ac 15th of December, 1715. Dr. Hickes was companied to Scotland, in the capacity a man of profound learning, both as a of his chaplain, the Duke of Lauder divine and antiquary; he was deeply dale, the lord high commissioner; shortly read in the primitive fathers of the after which, he was presented, by the church, and no one understood better University of St. Andrews, with the the doctrine, worship, constitution, and degree of D. D. In 1679, he received discipline of the catholic church, in the the same honour at Oxford ; and, in early ages of Christianity, to which he 1680, he was made a prebend of Wor constantly endeavoured to prove the cester, and presented, by the Arch- church of England to be conformable, bishop of Canterbury, to the vicarage in his controversial writings, he has of Allhallows, Barking, when he re proved himself a sound and acute reasigned his fellowship. In December, soner ; but the violence of his pre1881, he was made chaplain in ordinary judices seems, occasionally, to have to the king ; and, in August, 1683, obscured his judgment, and party spirit Dean of Worcester, but he obtained no to have driven him to the use of unjust further advancement during the reign and offensive epithets against his opof James the Second, owing to his de ponents. His theological works, howtermined opposition to popery. At the ever, consisting of three volumes of revolution of 1688, however, he became sermons, and a multitude of tracts a non-juror; and, refusing to take the against popery, and in defence of the oaths to William the Third and his con- non-jurors, sink into insignificance, sort, he was suspended, in August, compared with the treasury of Gothic 1689, and deprived of his benefices, in literature which he has left behind him. the February following. On the ap Indeed, perhaps, it is only as a Saxon pointment ot his successor to the deanery, scholar' that Dr. Hickes has attained

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permanent celebrity; but, in that cha fair, but to act in them himself. In a racter, he stands' unrivalled. The farce called St. George and the Dragon, works which have so deservedly ren he played the dragon: a circumstance dered his name famous are, Institu to which Dr. Young refers, in his tiones Grammaricæ Anglo-Saxonicæ et Epistle to Pope, in the following lines : Mæso-Gothicæ, and Thesaurus Gram

Poor Elkanah, all other charges past, matico-Criticus et Archæologicus Lin For bread, in Smithfield, dragoas hiss ed at last, guarum Veterum Septentrionalium, Ox Spit streams of fire, to make the butchers paper, ford, 1705, iwo volumes. folio. This

And found his manners suited to bis shape. splendid and laborious work, as it has He at length, however, obtained adbeen justly called, was admired and mission on the charitable foundation of sought after by the most learned of all the Charter-House, provided for decountries, and is now not to be pur cayed gentlemen, where he died, on chased under five times the original cost. the 12th of February, 1723-4. In addi

tion to the works before-mentioned, sertle, (ELKANAH,) was born at Settle wrote ten tragedies, three operas, Dunstable, in Bedfordshire, in 1648. a comedy, and a pastoral, all of which In 1666, he was entered a commoner are now forgotten, though they obof Trinity College, Oxford, but left the tained temporary reputation, and were, university without taking a degree; and, some of them, acied with applause. coming to London, wrote a pamphlet Settle was a man of wit and learning; in favour of the exclusion bill, entitled and Dryden, with whom he had some The Character of a Popish Successor. literary controversies, did not think him It produced a reply from Sir Roger a contemptible opponent. L'Estrange and others, and induced Settle to publish another pamphlet, PRIDEAUX, (HUMPHREY,) born at called The Character of a Popish Suc- Padstow, in Cornwall, in 1648, received cessor Complete, which was considered his education at Westminster, and the cleverest piece that had been written Christchurch, Oxford, where his pubupon the subject. Both his pamphlets, lication of the inscription, from the however, together with the Exclusion Arundel Marbles, under the title of Bill, were burnt, on the accession of James Marinora Oxoniensia, procured him the the Second; about two years previous patronage of Lord-chancellor Finch ; to which, Settle is said to have changed who, after Prideaux had taken orders, sides, and turned Tory, with as much gave him a living, and a prebend in violence as he had forinerly displayed

Norwich Cathedral. He subsequently in espousing the interests of the Whigs. became D. D., and obtained, among This is, in some measure, confirmed by other preferments, that of the deanery his Narrative, a work written against of Norwich, in 1702, being the highest Titus Oates; and he is also reputed to which he was raised. Physical into have been the author of some ani firmity, however, brought on by an madversions on the last speech and con unskilful operation for the stone, alone fession of William Lord Russel ; and of prevented him from being promoted to Remarks on Algernon Sydney's Paper, a bishopric; and, at the same time, indelivered to the Sheriffs at his Execu duced him to resign all his livings, and tion. He also wrote a poem on the to devote the remainder of his days to Coronation of James the Second, com- literature. He died on the 1st of Nomenced a journalist for the court, and vember, 1724, leaving behind him, published, weekly, an essay, in behalf besides other theological works, his of the administration ; and is even said celebrated and oft reprinted one, ento have entered himself a trooper in the titled The Old and New Testament king's army, when encamped at Houn connected in the History of the Jews slow. The revolution of 1688, brought and neighbouring Nations. Prideaux with it a great change in his fortune ; was no less respected for his virtue than and, though he obtained a pension from his learning; he was often consulted on the city, for writing an annual panegyric the affairs of the church; and the work in celebration of lord mayor's day, he last-mentioned justifies any deierence became so poor, that he was not only that might have been paid to the opinion obliged to write drolls for Bartholomew of its author.

SHEFFIELD, (John, Duke of commissioner for treating with the Scots Buckingham,) the son of Edmund, Earl about the union, created Duke of Norof Mulgrave, to whose title he suc- manby, and then of Buckingham. ceeded, in 1658, was born in 1649, and Jealousy of the Duke of Marlborough was early distinguished for his bravery induced him to resign the privy seal, and accomplishments. The inefficiency and he refused to return to office, though of his tutor induced him, al twelve years the queen courted him back with an of age, to educate himself'; and, betore offer of the chancellorship, till 1710, he was eighteen, he engaged as a volun- when he was made lord-chamberlain of teer in the Dutch war, and was in- the household. After the accession of trusted with important commands both George the Second, he became a conin the army and navy. He also entered stant opponent of the court party, and the French service, for the purpose of died on the 24th of February, 1720, studying the art of war under Turenne; leaving a son by his third wife, a natural previous to which, in 1674, he had been daughter of King James, by the Couninstalled knight of the Garter, and made tess of Dorchester. He was buried, with one of the lords of the bedchamber to great pomp, in Westminster Abbey, Charles the Second, with whom he was where a monument is erected to his a great favourite. He afterwards lost memory, bearing an inscription of his the favour of that inonarch, who, in own composition, beginning, Dubius sed 1680, sent hiin out to Tangiers, inten- non improbus vixi. Incertus morior, tionally, it is said, in a leaky ship, sed inturbatus. (In doubt, but not hoping that he would either perish at in wickedness, I lived. In doubt, sea, or in battle with the Moors, but not in fear, I die.) He wrote on land. He, however, returned in The Vision, and other poems; two safety, and was well received by the tragedies, called Julius Cæsar, and king, whose anger had been previously | Brutus; and several prose works, conaroused by the earl's seduction of some sisting, chiefly, of historical memoirs, of his mistresses ; whilst others affirm, speeches in parliament, characters, that he was sent on the above expedi- dialogues, essays, &c. As a poet, he tion for the purpose of removing him scarcely exceeds mediocrity ; though from the lady (afterwards Queen) Anne, Pope and others were sufficiently inwho it is said, encouraged the addresses Auenced by his rank and patronage, which he had the boldness to make to place him high among the votaries her. On the accession of James the of the muse. His best performances Second, he was admitied into the privy are, his Essay on Satire, and Essay council, and made lord-chamberlain ; on Poetry; in the former of whicti, accepted a place in the ecclesiastical however, he is said to have received commission; and attended the king to great assistance from Dryden. His

He was, however, no papist ; style in history is praised by Johnfor, on the priest's attempting to convert son, who awards him the merit of perhim, he replied, that he had taken spicuity and elegance; but, as a poet, much pains to believe in God, who had thinks him deficient, both in fire and made the world, and all men in it; but fancy. The same authority describes "that he should not be easily persuaded his character somewhat harshly; he that man was quits, and made God was, undoubtedly, in the early part of again;" an expression that had been his life, immoral and unprincipled; and, used by Anne Askew, in the reign of to the last, haughty and passionate, Henry the Eighth. Being much at- though always ready to atone for his tached to James ihe Second, he lamented, violence by acts of kindness and benethough he acquiesced in, the revolution ; ficence. He was accused of covetousvoted for the conjunctive sovereignty ness; and “has been defended," says of William and Mary; was made Mar- Johnson, " by an instance of inattention quess of Normanby, in 1694; and, to his affairs; as if a man might not shortly before the accession of Queen at once be corrupted by avarice and Anne, was received into the cabinet idleness." council, with a pension of £3,000. In 1702, he was made lord privy seal, and D'URFEY, (THOMAS,) the son of a was afterwards, successively, named a French refugee, was born at Exeter, 508

mass.

APPENDIX.

about the year 1650. He was bred to the title of Laugh and be Fat, or Pills to the law, but soon forsook that profes- purge Melancholy; of which Addison sion, and passed the remainder of his says, in a humorous panegyric upon life as an author, being distinguished the author, “ It is my opinion that ihe for the humour and variety of his above pills would be extremely proper writings. Both as a dramatist and poet to be taken with asses' milk, and might he obtained some fame in his time; but contribute towards the renewing and his reputation has scarcely survived him restoring decayed lungs." in the former character; for, although he produced no less than thirty-one KING, (WILLIAM,) was born at plays upon the stage, they are all now Antrim, in 1650, and studied, for the banished from the boards. He appears, church, at Trinity College, Dublin, also, to have survived the benefit of where he graduated B. A., in 1670, and what emolument his performances may M. A., in 1673. He obtained several have produced hin, which induced preferments, and was ultimately, in Addison to draw the attention of the 1702, made Archbishop of Dublin ; but public towards him, in the sixty-seventh it is as the author of a treatise, entitled number of The Guardian, in a paper De Origine Mali, that the subject of our advertising his distresses, and a play memoir is now principally known. This about to be performed for his benefit. work was written to prove that the pre"I myself,” says Addison, “ remember sence of natural and moral evil is not King Charles the Second's leaning on incompatible with the power and goodTom D'Urfey's shoulder, more than ness of the Deity, and was translated once, and humming over a song with into English by Bishop Law, who anhim. It is certain, that monarch was swered the animadversions of Bayle, not a little supported, by Joy to Great Leibnitz, and other opponents of the Cæsar ; which gave the Whigs such a original author. Archbishop King died blow, as they were not able to recover on the 8th of May, 1729, highly disin that whole reign. My friend afterwards guished for his wit and learning. The attacked popery, with the same success, following anecdote is told of him:-On having exposed Bellarmine, and Porto receiving a visit from Dr. Boulter, who carero, more than once, in short, satirical had just been appointed Archbishop of compositions, which have been in every Tuain, an elevation to which King had body's mouth. He made use of Italian not been called, in consequence of his tunes and sonatas for promoting the advanced age, he saluted him, sitting ; protestant interest; and turned a con- apologizing, by saying, “ I am sure siderable part of the pope's music your grace will forgive me, because, against himself. In short, he has you know, I am too old to rise." obliged the court with political sonnets ; the country, with dialogues and pasto- ASGILL, (John,) born about the rals ; the city, with descriptions of a year 1650, was, by profession, a lawyer, lord mayor's feast; not to mention his but attained more eminence as a writer, little Ode upon Stool-ball, with many though, in the former capacity, he others of the like nature.' In this amassed wealth enough to purchase an miscellaneous kind of authorship, he estate, and obtain a seat in the Irish continued to employ himself, with his parliament. From this, however, a usual spirit and humour, until his death, previous publication, which was consiwhich iook place on the 26th of February, dered blasphemous, caused him to be 1723. His best dramatic performances, expelled, when he went back to England, of which a list will be found in Cibber's and found means to obtain a return to Lives of the Poets, are The Plotting the British house of commons, for Sisters, and Cynthia and Endymion; Bramber, in Sussex, in 1705. Here, and it is probable that many of his also, he lost his seat, in 1707, in conseplays would still have kept possession quence of his arrest during an interval of the stage, but for the licentiousness, of privilege, though the publication so common to that age, which pervades before mentioned was made ihe ground them. As a poet, his reputation is pre- of his expulsion. This work, entiel-d served by a collection of sonnets, pub- | An Argument, proving that, according lished, in six volumes, duodecimo, under to the Covenant of Eternal Life, re

vealed in the Scriptures, Man may be quently procured his admission to translated from hence without passing 1'rinity Hall, where he graduated M. A. through Death, &c.; has been described, He then went abroad, and, on his reby Dr. Aikin, as rather absurd than turn, the Duke of Marlborough gave impious; and the author, he adds, de- him a place in the Custom-house, worth served rather to be pitied or ridiculed £120 a-year; but this, together with a as an enthusiast, than to be condemned fortune left him by his uncle, was inas a blasphemer. Asgill passed the last sufficient to keep him out of pecuniary thirty years of his life in the rules of the difficulties ; to remedy which, he sold King's Bench Prison, and died there bis situation. Lord Halifax, who had in 1738, as some say, at the age of near endeavoured to dissuade him from the a hundred. Besides the work before- sale of it, insisted that it should be with mentioned, he wrote Several Assertions some reversion to himself for the space Proved, in order to create another of forty years; a term which Dennis species of Money than Gold and Silver ; outlived. His earliest productions were An Essay on a Registry for Tithes of pieces, both in prose and verse, in saLands ;

and a variety of pamphlets vour of the Whigs; and, in particular, against the Pretender.

he wrote several letters and pamphlets,

for the administration of the Earl of TATE, (NAHUM,) was born at DubGodolphin; in which he inveighed lin, about the year 1655. He received against the French with all the virulence his education at the university of his which fear, aided by conceit, could innative city; and, afterwards, coming to spire. Carried away by the idea of his London, fell into pecuniary difficulties, own importance, he, in the anticipation from which he was relieved by the pa- of being demanded as a hostage by the tronage of the Earl of Dorset. 11692, French, called upon the Duke of Marlhe succeeded Shadwell as poet laureate borough, and begged he might not be to King William the Third. He held sacrificed to them, as he had always that situation till the accession of George been their enemy. The duke gravely the First, whose birth-day ode he wrote, assured him he should not be given up which is considered his best composi- to the French, adding, “ I have been tion of the kind. He died about three a greater enemy to them than you, and, months afterwards, on the 12th of Au- you see, I am not afraid of being sacrigust, 1715, leaving behind him nine ficed.” This absurd notion, however, did dramatic pieces, all of which were acted not forsake him ; for, afterwards, whilst but two, and a variety of miscellaneous on a visit to a friend, who resided near poems, now deservedly forgotten. He the sea-shore, seeing a ship approach, also assisted Dr. Brarly in his version which his imagination portrayed to him of the Psalms, generally affixed to the as a French one, he left bis friend's Liturgy of the Church of England, and house precipitately, declaring that he by which his name is now principally was in league with that nation to carry known. His dramatic works are, the him off. Some time after the death of tragedies of Brutus of Alba; The Loyal | Dryden, our author took it into his head General ; Richard the Second, altered to abuse Pope, out of mere zeal for the from Shakspeare ; The Fall of Corio fame of the former. P'ope, in return, lanus ; Lear, King of England, altered lashed him in The Dunciad, and held from Shakspeare; and, Injured Love, him up to further ridicule by publish. or the Cruel Husband : iwo farces, ing, in conjunction with Swift, a sarcalled The Cuckold's Haven, and A castic piece, entitled A Narrative of the Duke and no Duke ; and a tragi- | Deplorable Frenzy of Mr. John Dennis. comedy, altered from Fletcher, entitled Pope, however, was a generous antagoThe Island Princess.

nist; for when Dennis, in the latter

part of his life, was reduced to indi. DENNIS, (John) the son of a gence, he assisted in procuring a play saddler, was born in London, in 1657. to be acted for his benefit, and himself He was educated at Harrow and Cam

wrote the prologue. He died, as his bridge ; but after having taken his biographer in Cibber's Lives of the bachelor's degree, was expelled his Poets observes, after a life exposed to college, though, it seems, he subse. vicissitudes, habituated to disappoint.

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