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for which he obtained a sum that laid sagacity in instantly detecting the cause the foundation of his pecuniary inde of accidental failures. Besides the pendence. He soon after proceeded to works before-mentioned, he wrote some ine United States, in the quality of very valuable treatises on different Tutor to one of the family of the Ran- branches of physics, in the supplement dolphs; and, after his return, made a to The Encyclopædia Britannica, and tour to the continent, in company with some admirable articles in The EdinMr. Thomas Wedgewood. We are not burgh Review. Mr. Leslie is distininformed at what precise period Mr. guished for his inventive genius and Leslie struck out his discoveries respect. vigorous powers, a most recentive meing radiant heat, and the connexion mory, and a stock of knowledge which between light and heat ; but his dif- his various reading and active curiosity ferential thermometer must have been have rendered very extensive. In that invented some time previous to 1800, creative faculty, which leads to disin which year it was described in covery, few scientific men have excelled Nicholson's Journal. The results of him ; but in profundity of understand. the inquiries, in which he was soling, in philosophical caution, and in much aided by this instrument, which logical accuracy, he has many superiors. has been justly pronounced one of the Yet however transient may be his faine most beautiful and delicate that indica as a speculative philosopher, his extive genius ever contrived as a help to quisite instruments, and his original experimental inquiry, were published and beautiful experimental combinain his celebrated Essay on the Nature tions, have secured to him lasting reand Propagation of Heat. This ap- putation. peared in 1804, and was rewarded, in 1805, by the Rumford medal. In the MARCET, (ALEXANDER,) was born same year, he was appointed mathe. at Geneva, in the year 1770. At an matical professor in the University of early age, he shewed a great inclinaEdinburgh; but had some difficulty in tion to studious pursuits ; but, on the retaining the chair, in consequence of death of his father, who entreated him the strenuous opposition of the strict to adopt a mercantile life, he, for some presbyterian clergy, on the ground of ime, turned his attention to commerce, his supposed scepticism. In 1809, he which, however, he soon relinquished, published his Elements of Geometry, and applied himself to the study of the Geometrical Analysis, and Plane Trigo. law. On the breaking out of the French nometry; and, in the following year, revolution, he was thrown into prison, he arrived, through the assistance of and with much difficulty saved his life, his hygrometer, (another of his own by submitting to banisti himself for the contrivances,) at the discovery of a space of five years. Accordingly, in process which enabled him to convert 1794, he repaired to Edinburgh, where water and mercury into ice. In 1813, he became a medical student : and, in he published An Account of Experi- the latter part of 1797, took his degree ments and Instruments depending on of M.D. Shortly after, he commenced the relations of Air to Heat and practising, as a physician, in London, Moisture. In 1819, he succeeded Pro- where he was successively appointed fessor Playfair, in the chair of natural assistant-physician to the Carey Street philosophy, a situation for which he Dispensary, and physician to the City was eminently qualified. He made Dispensary. In 1799, he married a such an improvement in the apparatus | Miss Haldiinand, the daughter of a belonging to this class, that the number merchant; in the following year he of instruments was, on the whole, in was naturalized, by a special act of parcreased tenfold, some of the most deli- liament; and, in 1802, succeeded Dr. cate and beautiful being constructed by Harvey, as one of the physicians to his own hands. Of all his great and Guy's Hospital. Although he strictly varied gifts, says one of his biographers, performed the duties atiached to his none was more remarkable than the public situation, and took notes of the delicacy and success with which he principal points which occurred to hiin, performed the most difficult experi- both in hospital and private cases, he ments, excepting, perhaps, his intuitive found time io render himself eminent
as a chemist, particularly for “his skill and medical subjects. They amount to in analytical researches, and his exireme nearly forty, and have been considered precision in the mode of conducting as valuable additions to science, and ihem.” His talents procured for him afford, at the same time, a proof of the the office of chernical lecturer, in con rectitude of his judgment, and the junction with Mr. Allen, at Guy's Hose variety of his talents. He was a most pital, the reputation of which he helped fortunate man, both in his profession greatly to establish in that department. and circumstances : "It was his lot," In 1809, at the time of the Walcheren says his biographer, "to be placed in a fever, having volunteered his services situation peculiarly calculated to insure to the infected troops, he was appointed happiness." He was cheerful, benesuperintendent of the General Military volent, and had a keen relish for the Hospital at Portsmouth, where, after a enjoyments of life, which he was able, zealous performance of his hazardous as well as desirous, to procure ; and was duties, he was himself taken ill, and, endeared, by the excellence of his heart, with difficulty recovered. A short while the warnith of his affection, and high afterwards, a large fortune being left sense of honour, to a wide circle of him by his father-in-law, he retired friends, in whose society, it was obfrom practice, continuing, however, his served, “his death left a mournful and chemical lectures ai Guy's Hospital. a irreparable chasm.” year after he had resigned his office of physician. In 1815, on the ces BIRKBECK, (GEORGE,) was born sation of political troubles at Geneva, about the year 1770, and educated for ne visited that city, with his family, the medical profession ; but is chiefly and remained there till 1821, having, eminent as ihe founder of the Me. in the meantime, been appointed a chanics' Institute, an establishment member of the Representative Council having for its object the diffusion of of Geneva, and professor of chemistry scientific knowledge among the lower to its university. On his reaching orders. This laudable design had been England, he made a tour into Scotland; entertained by Dr. Birkbeck as early as and, after returning to London, was the year 1800, when he announced, at making preparations to remove with his Glasgow, where he was professor in the family to Geneva, when he was at Anderson College, a course of lectures tacked with gout in the stomachi, and on natural philosophy, and its applidied on the 9th of October, 1822. Dr. cation to the arts, for the instruction of Marcet possessed a high reputation at mechanics. The extraordinary perspithe time of his death, both here and on cuity of his method of teaching, the the continent; and the indefatigable judicious selection of his experiments, exertions he used in the promotion of and the natural attractions of the subscience, and all objects of public utility, ject, combined to draw together very made him much esieemed and lamented. numerous audiences, composed, chieflv, He rendered material service to the of men who now, for the first time, were medical school at Guy's Hospital; pro made acyuainted with the principles cured for the patients i here an ameliora- of those operations, in directing or wit. tion of their diet, and introduced the nessing which, they had spent the plan of clinical lectures. In conjunction greater period of their lives. Notwith. with Dr. Yelloly, he established the standing, however, the success with Medical and Chirurgical Society of Lon which these lectures met, it was twenty don; materially promoted the objects years before the experiment was reof the Royal Society, Geological So- peated in any other town; a fact which ciety, Royal Institution, and Northern is attributed, by a writer in The EdinDispensary; and was chiefly instru- burgh Review, to “ the founder of the mental in obtaining, from parliament, a system having somewhat gone before the grant for the support of the London age." However, in 1821, lectures, upon Fever Hospital. From 1799, up to the the mode of Dr. Birkbeck's plan were year in which he died, he continued to established in Edinburgh, and with some contribute to the various periodical jour- material iniprovements. Upon this plan nals, and Transactions of learned so of the institution, the London one and all cieties, a number of papers on chemical others have been founded; and a short
account of it may not, therefore, be un hundred workmen speedily entered, acceptable. An outline of the plan having paying £1 each; and others soon been drawn up, copies were circulated followed their example, “crowding from among the principal master mechanics, great distances, in the worst weather, who read it to their workmen. Such and after the toils of the day were of them as chose, entered their names over, to slake that thirst of knowledge, as members: nearly one hundred which, as it forms so glorious a characnames having been thus obtained, some teristic of these times, so will assuredly private gentlemen encouraged the prove the source of improvements in scheme by a subscription; and in April, the next age, calculated to throw all 1821, they issued a prospectus, announc that has yet been witnessed into the ing the commencement of a course of shade." Such are the results to be lectures on mechanics, and another on anticipated from the exertions of Dr. chemistry, in October following; with Birkbeck, to whom the country will the opening of a library of books upon ever owe a debt of gratitude, as having the same subjects, for 'perusal at home been the first to procure, for the use of as well as in the room; the hours of the working classes, the knowledge of lecture to be from eight to nine in the sciences till then almost deemed the evening, twice a week, for six months; exclusive property of the higher ranks and the terms of admission to the whole, of society. both lectures and library, fifteen shillinys. At the same time, the establish VINCE, (SAMUEL,) was born of ment of a school of arts was announced, humble parentage, at Tressingfield, in to which the subscribers became suffi. Suffolk, about the year 1755. His ciently numerous to enable the directors abilities were encouraged by Mr. Tilney, to open it, on the 16th of October. Of of Harleston, who afforded him the this institution, the report stated the means of entering as a student of Caius great object was to supply, at such College, Cambridge, in 1775. He soon an expense as the working tradesmen distinguished himself by his mathemacould afford, instruction in the various tical abilities; gained one of Smith's branches of science which are of prac prizes; and became the senior wrangler tical application to mechanics, in their of his year. In 1781, he published A several trades, so that they might better Treatise on the Elements of Conic Seccomprehend the reason for each indi- tions; in 1790, A Treatise on Practical vidual operation that passes through Astronomy; in 1793, Plan of a Course their hands, and have more
of Lectures on Natural Philosophy; rules to follow than the mere imitation and, in 1795, in two volumes, octavo, of what they may have seen done by The Principles of Fluxions. In 1796, another. The success of the plan was at which time he was a fellow of Sidney most triumphant, and the number of Sussex College, he was elected Plumian students that, at first, applied for ad- professor of astronomy and experimental mission, was than could be philosophy, at the University of Camaccommodaied. Mathematics
bridge, an office which he filled with added to the lectures on chemistry and distinguished reputation until his death. mechanics ; having been previously Alter he had entered into holy orders, introduced by one Gale, a joiner, who he obtained several preferments in the had agreed to teach the students, church, the last being that of archdeagratuitously, the elements of geometry, con of Bedford, which he held together and the higher branches of arithmetic. with the rectory of Kirkby Bedon, and Dr. Birkbeck, finding his plan com the vicarage of South Creak, both in pletely established at Glasgow and Norfolk. He died in 1821. His other Edinburgh, attempted, about the com works are, The Principles of Hydromencement of the year 1823, to intro statics; A Complete System of Asduce it into London; and, in January, tronomy, two volumes, quarto, 1797-9, 1324, the London Mechanics' Institution and ihree volumes, quarto, with adwas opened, with an address by Dr. ditions, 1814; A Vindication of ChrisBirkbeck, and a lecture by Professor tianity against the Objections of Hume ; Millington on mechanics, and upon che A Treatise on Trigonometry, the Nature mistry by Mr. Phillips. Nearly thirteen and Use of Logariihins, &c.; A Con
futation of Atheism, from the Laws of rudiments of education is remarkable : the Heavenly Bodies ; and, On the he was perfect in all the letters of the Hypotheses accounting for gravitation alphabet in the first lesson, and disfrom mechanical principles.
played similar quickness in every suc
ceeding step. After having been placed DODD, (Ralph,) was born in the at several schools, at each of which he county of Northumberland, about the distinguished himself, he was, in 1792, year 1775, and came to London, in his entered a student of the University of sixteenth year, to study painting at the Edinburgh, where his attention was Royal Academy. He had also some first directed to metaphysical studies, eniployment at the London Docks; and by Dr. Currie, to whom he was introafter having prepared himself, in other duced, in 1793. This gentleman lent ways, to carry on the business of a civil him to read the first volume of Stewart's engineer, returned to his native county. Elements of the Philosophy of the In°1798, he again visited London, for Human Mind, with which 'Brown was the purpose of laying before govern so delighted, that he immediately bement his plan for a tunnel under the came one of Mr. Stewart's pupils. At Thames; which scheme, since entered the close of one of his lectures, he went upon by Mr. Brunel, was approved of, up to him, though personally unknown, biit abandoned soon after its commence and modestly stated some difficulties ment, from the operation of circum which had occurred to him respecting stances out of the control of the en
one of the professor's theories. Mr. gireer. About the same time, Mr. Stewart heard him with attention, and Dodd obtained an act of parliament for candidly confessed to him that he had making a canal between Gravesend and just received a communication from the Chatham, to unite the rivers Thames distinguished M. Prevost, of Geneva, and Medway by a nearer navigation containing a similar objection. From than previously existed. The South this time, the professor and his pupil Lambeth Water-works, the Grand Sur contracted a friendship, which contirey Canal, the East London Water nued throughout their lives. At the works, and Vauxhall Bridge, were pro age of nineteen, Mr. Brown assisted in jected by him; and he was the first who founding a private society in Edinburgh, gave an impetus to steam navigation in under the name of the Academy of England, by sailing round the coasts of Physics, interesting in the history of England and Ireland in a steam vessel. letters as having given rise to the pubAn accident which he met with in one lication of The Edinburgh Review, and of these vessels, from the explosion of to the early numbers of which the subthe boiler, proved fatal to him: after ject of our memoir contributed several lingering some months, he died at well-written articles. In 1793, he pubCheltenham, in April, 1822. In the lished his Observations on the Zoono. various public works planned by Mr. mia of Dr. Darwin; and, when it is Dodd, he displayed great ingenuity: considered that ihe greater part of these biit, says his biographer, a fluctuating were written in his eighteenth year, bis temper and warmth of manner some. biographer, perhaps, only does him tiines precluded the execution of his justice, in saying it may be doubted, if, schemes, and thus prevented him from in the history of philosophy, there is to enriching himself or his fainily by his be found any work exhibiting an equal exertions. His works are, An Account prematurity of talents and ariainments. of the Principal Canals in the known In 1803, after having gone through the World, with Reflections on the great usual course of medical study, he took Utility of Canals ; and Letters on the his degree of M.D.; and, in the same Improvements of the Port of London, 1 year, publi-hed two volumes of his without making Wet Docks.
poems. They were followed by An
Examination of the Principles of Mr. BROWN, (THOMAS.) was born on Hume respecting Cau:alion, a work the 9th of January, 1778, at Kirkman- highly recommended by Dugald Stewvreck, in the stewartry of Kirkculd- | art, and which Sir James Mackintosh is bright, of which his father was minister. said to have pronounced the finest model The facility with which he learnt the in mental philosophy since Berkeley
and Hume. It reached a third edition | He has, however, acquired a high and a short time previous to the author's merited reputation, and science is indeath, with so many additions and debted to him for some very accurate alterations, as almost to constitute a and useful elementary books on chenew work, under the title of An Inquiry mistry and mineralogy. He also edited, into the Relation of Cause and Effect. for many years, a quarterly scientific In 1806, Dr. Brown entered into parl- journal, with great ability. His works nership with Dr. Gregory; but his phi- are, Outlines of Geology; A Manual of losophical pursuits continued to occupy Chemistry; Observations on an Astrinmuch more of his time than he devoted gent Vegetable Substance from China; to the practice of his profession. In A Dissertation, exhibiting a general 1808-9, he appeared, as Mr. Stewart's view of the progress of Chemical Phisubstitute, in the chair of moral pisilo. losophy; and A Descriptive Catalogue sophy; and filled it with such reputation, of the British Specimens deposited in that, in the following year, he was ap the Geological Collections of the Royal pointed joint professor in that class. In Institution. 1814, he published a poem called The Paradise of Coquettes ; and, subse DODD, (GEORGE,) son of Ralph quently, several other poetical effusions, Dodd, whose memoir we have prefor the most part, anonymously, though viously given, was born about the year they generally met with a favourable 1783. He was the original designer of reception. His health beginning to Waterloo Bridge, to which he was apdecline in the autumn of 1819, he found pointed resident engineer, with a salary some difficulty in delivering his lectures of £1,000 a-year ; which situation he, in the following winter, on the conclu- however, thought proper to resign. He sion of which he went to London, and then engaged in the building of steamfrom thence to Brompton, where he boats and other speculations; the failure died, on the 2nd of April, 1820. After of which is supposed to have affected his death, were published his Lectures, his intellect. Being found, one night, which have gone through numerous intoxicated in the streets, he was placed editions, and upon which his fame, as a in Giltspur Street Compler, where he philosopher, chiefly rests. He was pos- died, about a week after, on the 25th sessed, in an eminent degree, of that of September, 1827. comprehensive energy, which, to use his own words,“ sees, through a long SADLER, (WILLIAM WINDH 1M) train of thought, a distant conclusion; born in 1796, possessed no niean abili. and separating, at every stage, the ties as a cheniist and engineer, but is essential from the accessory circum chiefly celebrated for his aërostatical stances, and gathering and combining experiments, to which he at length tell analogies as it proceeds, arrives, at a victim. After having made thirty length, at a system of harmonious aërial voyages, in one of which he truth."
crossed the Irish channel, he ascended
from the neighbourhood of Blackburn, BRANDE, (WILLIAM Thomas,) in Lancashire, on the 30th of September, was born about the year 1780, and has, 1824, when the balloon, in its descent, of late years, rendered himself very striking against a chimney, he was eminent by his experiments in che thrown out of the car, from a very conmistry, of which science he is professor siderable height, and so severely in. at the Royal Institution. He succeeded jured, that his death soon followed. At Sir Humphry Davy in that situation, the period of his death, he was resident having acted as assistant to that emi at Liverpool, in the employ of the first
Mr. Brande is an able ex gas company established there, and he perimentalist, but has made no brilliant had also opened an establishment for discoveries, nor is his elocurion, as a the use of warm, medicated, and vapour lecturer, equal to that of his predecessor. baths.