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the fatness of his head, to be a Chris- to put his manuscripts in form for the tian, but threatening his detector with press, and in 1786, published, in London, the confiscation of an estate he found his Sketches of the Mythology and him to possess at Benares, in the event Manners of the Hindoos. Returning of his discovering him, he escaped ex- some time after this to India, he pubposure, and, immediately afterwards, lished, at Calcutta, in 1790, the first solicited his passport, and left the city. voluine of his travels, under the title of On the 10th of July, he crossed the A Journey from Bengal to England, Indus, about twenty miles above the and was just about to print a second, town of Altack, and, on the following when he died at Nagpoor, whither he day, passed the Kabul river to Akorah; had been sent on an embassy, some whence, after a journey, in which he time in the year 1792. In 1798, a was nearly discovering his true religion, complete edition of his travels was and a few transient dangers, he pro- published in two quarto volumes, but ceeded to Kabul, which he reached on so negligently edited, that it has been the 2nd of August. A few days after doubted whether the second volume his arrival, he was attacked by a malig- was compiled from the manuscripts of nant fever, which appeared on his body Forster, of whom no account was given, in bright blue spots, and left him nor of the manner in which his papers scarcely strength to move for some time were obtained. The work, though not after his recovery. Having hired one gaining the reputation it deserved, reside of a canel, where he was placed ceived great commendation from the in a pannier, he set out for Kandahar; in literary world, and was translated into the course of his journey whither, he German by Meineis, and into French, was much annoyed, by the insults and with the addition of notes and two reviling of the whole kafila, in conse- maps, by Langlès, who has written a quence of his no longer wearing his short memoir of Forster, in the BiograMohammedan disguise, which, conse- phie Universelle. quently, on his arrival at Herat, he Few travels have been more adventhought it prudent again to assume. turous and hazardous than those of Here he joined another kafila, about Forster; yet the gay and spirited manner to proceed to Tursheez, and obtained in which the account of them is written, great respect the whole way, by repre- gives no indication of any apprehension senting himself as a pilgrím going to on the part of the author, who seems to visit the shrine of Meshed. On the have been as much at home in the 28th of December, he left Tursheez, deserts of Khorasan, as on the banks with a body of pilgrims proceeding to of the Thames. Indeed, had he not Mesanderan, whence he journeyed to preserved, during his travels, the unMushedsir on the Caspian Sea; em- reserved, unsuspicious, and familiar barked at that city for Baku, shaved manner which his disguise of a Mohamoff his beard, which had grown to an medan rendered necessary, he would enormous thickness, and sailed to As- neither have had so good an opportunity trachan, where he arrived in the begin- of seeing the manners and dispositions ning of 1784, and, in the following of his infidel associates, nor have lived, July, landed in England.

perhaps, to relate them. Immediately on his arrival he began


GEORGE VANCOUVER, born about In the latter end of the last-mentioned the year 1750, accompanied Captain year, he was appointed a lieutenant of Cook in his second voyage round the the ship Fame, part of Lord Radney's world, and, on his return, went out with feet, then on its way to the West him, in the Discovery, to the North Pole, Indies, where he remained till 1789, and arrived again in England in 1780. being employed, during the last six


years, on the Jamaica station, in the passed Trinity Isles, and discovered an sloop Europa. On his arrival in Eng- island uninhabited and covered with land, in 1790, he was made master and sbow, which he called Tschericow. He commander of the Discovery; in which then proceeded up Cook's River, and ship he was sent out to ascertain if after minutely examining several bays, there existed in North America, be. straits, and inlets, and discovering King tween the thirtieth and sixtieth degrees George the Third's Archipelago, he of latitude, an interior sea, or any canals terminated his operations in Port Conof communication between the known clusion, which he reached on the 22nd gulfs of the Atlantic and the Great of August, where he made the followSea; a point about which Cook and ing remarks in his journal :-"The other navigators had been able to give principal object which his majesty apno satisfactory information.

pears to have had in view, in directing On the 17th of August, 1791, he ihe undertaking of this voyage, having reached the southern coast of New Hol at length been completed, I trust the land, where he discovered King George precision with which the survey of the the Third's Sound ; and, after leaving coast of North West America has been Dusky Bay, in New Zealand, ascer carried into effect will remove every lained the situation of some dangerous doubt, and set aside every opinion of a rocks and an inhabited island, giving to north-west passage, or any water comthe former the name of the Suares, and munication navigable for shipping, ex. to the latter that of Oparo. On the isting between the North Pacific and 24th of January, 1792, he set sail from the interior of the American continent, Otaheite; and in the following March, within the limits of our researches." arrived at Owhyhee, where he was On the 6th of July, 1795, he arrived at visited by the chiefs of the island. He St. Helena, and observed that, having then proceeded along the north coast made the tour of the world by the east, of New Albion to De Fuca's Straits, he had gained twenty-four hours; it Noorka, and Monterrey Bay. Here he being, according to his estimation, passed some days, and having received Monday, instead of Sunday, the 5th of an important communication from the July, as in the island. Spanish commandant relative to the He arrived in London in November, cession of Monterrey, he forwarded | 1795, and, in a state of declining health a despatch to England, by Captain from the effects of his voyages, devoted Broughton, in the ship. Dædalus, to himself to the arrangement of his gether with his journal of discoveries manuscripts for publication until within up to that time.

a short time of his death, which oc. In Febrnary, 1793, he sailed to the curred on the 10th of May, 1798. In Sandwich Islands, where he endea the same year, his work, edited by voured to establish peace between the his brother, was printed at the expense different chiefs, and compelled them to of government, entitled, A Voyage of execute two islanders, whom he dis Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean covered to have been the murderers of and round the World, in which the Lieutenant Hergest and other seamen Coast of North West America has been of the Dædalus. In April, he sailed carefully examined and accurately suralong the American shore as far as veyed, undertaken by his Majesty's Cape Decision ; and, after coasting command, and performed in the Years along the western side of Queen Char- | 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795; lotte's Islands to Nootka, proceeded to and was, shortly after its appearance, the Spanish settlements of New Cali. translated into French, German, and, sornia, and discovered, to the south of Swedish. Monterrey, a double chain of moun The world is indebted to Vancouver tains, and that the one nearest the sea for ascertaining the precise knowledge was the least in height. In January, of the North West American coast, of 1794, in which year he was made a posi which he entered parts never before captain, he reached Owhyhee, which duenied accessible but to the smallest was, shortly after his arrival, ceded by sea boats, and travelled in a canoe the King Tamaahmæah to the King of nearly nine thousand miles among the England. On leaving Owhyhee, he labyrinth of isles which border that

part of the coast. His maps afford an in reference to the various inhabitants exact description of the discoveries, of the north-west coast, the Russian which he determined with great pre- and Spanish colonies, and the isles of cision. Zealous, and indefatigable in the Great Sea; which, by their frequent the pursuit of his object, he was, at the intercourse with Europeans, had sufsame time, benevolent and unassuming, ferred much change in an interval of and insisted on his companions sharing thirty years. His narrative, in addition in the credit of his undertakings. In his to the information it contains, is also account he offers some curious notions replete with interest.


WILLIAM GEORGE BROWNe, Browne, “ a ferocious clan, and differ the son of a wine-merchant, was born in person from other Egyptians." He on Great Tower Hill, London, on the passed the winter in visiting Lake 25th of July, 1768. After having been Mæris and the pyramids, and in March, sone time under the tuition of Dr. 1793, having previously made an excur. Whalley, the editor of Ben Jonson's sion to Mount Sinai and Suez, returned works, he went to Oriel College, Ox to Kahira, and prepared for his journey ford, where he studied, very frequently, into the interior of Africa. He was, from twelve to fifteen hours a day, however, unable to proceed beyond the Being left a moderate competence by kingdoms of Darfur and Bornou, which his father, he declined following any countries he was the first to make profession, and devoting himself to lite known to Europeans. He remained rature and politics, republished some nearly three years in the former propolitical tracts, among which was part vince, during which he chiefly resided of Buchanan's De Jure Regni apud at El Pasher; where he experienced a Scotos. Excited, however, by the faine variety of dangers and disasters. He of Mr. Bruce's travels, and of the first did not reach Egypt till 1796, and after discoveries made by the African Asso- having passed a year in Syria, he reciation, he determined to be among the turned to England, and, in 1799, publist of adventurers, and leaving, Eng- lished his Travels in Africa, Egypt, and land in 1791, arrived at Alexandria in Syria, from the year 1792 to 1798, in Egypt on the 10th of January, 1792. one quarto volume.“ The work," says Hence he made an excursion to Siwa, our traveller's biographer, in the Ency. the supposed site of the temple of Ju- clopædia Britannica,“ was highly piter Ammon, but returned in April to esteemed, and is classed, by Major Alexandria, without having been able Rennell, among the first performances to effect “the discovery of that cele of the kind; but from the abruptness brated fane." He next visited Aboukir, and dryness of the style, it never beRashed, Terané, Pué, and Kahira," the came very popular." only mint for Egypt," and of which In 1800, Mr Browne ag in left Engcity he gives a most animated and in- land, but returned, after having passed teresting description. He then made a three years in visiting Asia Minor, voyage down the Nile to Assouan, stop- Greece, and Sicily, and spent his time ping on his way thither to examine the in retirement and study until 1812. In magnificent ruins and temples of this year he set out with the intention Thebes. In the course of this voyage, of penetrating into central Asia; anit landing at Kourna, he was asked by whilst at Constantinople, made himself one of the women, if he was not afraid master of the Turki:h language, and of crocodiles ? On his replving in the assumed the character and costume o: negative, she said, emphatically, “ We that country, in order to facilitate his are crocodiles ;" and proceeded to de progress among the Asiatics. He had pict her own people as thieves and mur proceeded on his journey to Persia, as derers. “ They are, indeed," says Mr. far as Oujon, whence, after an audience

with the king, he continued his journey Mr. Browne was ikinly shaped, and to the pass of Irak, where he stopped slightly above the middle size. His to take refreshment at a caravansera. countenance was grave and pensive, " That over," says Sir R. K. Porter, and with a fondness for every thing “ ne remounted his horse,” but “had eastern, he imbibed the reserved and scarcely proceeded half a mile, when silent manners of the orientals, almost suddenly two men on fuot came up be to a repulsive degree. Even with his hind him, one of whom, with a blow friends he was taciturn and gloomy, from a club, struck him senseless from until he had taken up his pipe, when his saddle." He was at the same mo he would relate, in the most animated ment seized and bound by several other conversation, the account of his advenvillains, whom, on his recovery, he saw tures. He was a strict adherer to plundering his baggage. The robbers truth; of a generous and liberal disponow told him he should die, but that sition; and beneath a cold exterior che. they had not arrived at the spot where rished an ardent desire to distinguish they intended to despatch him. At his himself by some memorable achiev. request, however, they spared the life ment, in pursuit of which he was ready of his servant, and even made the man to brave danger and death. Mr. Pina present of his master's gun and pistols. kerton says of him, that “in courage, They then carried him away into a prudence, love of science, and intimate valley on the opposite side of the Kiz- | acquaintance with the eastern lanzilouzair, where his body was after guages and manners, he has never been wards found, stripped of every garment. exceeded."


This distinguished traveller and anti-English declamation. He devoted himquarian, son of the Rev. Edward Clarke, self, however, with great assiduity to was born at Willingdon, in the county his self-selected studies, which conof Sussex, on the 5th of June, 1769. sisted of history, antiquity, and every Whilst very young, he gave proofs of a variety of learning comprehended under roving disposition, and of à fondness the term of belles lettres. Natural hisfor natural history and chemistry, and tory, and particularly mineralogy, also many amusing anecdotes are related of occupied great part of his time, and his conduct under the influence of these he evinced a capacity for scientific purpredilections. He received the rudi- suits, by the construction of a large ments of education at an academy in the balloon at Oxford, and of an orrery at village of Uckfield; and, in 1719, was home, for the purpose of delivering sent to the grammar school at Tunbridge, lectures to his sister, his only auditor. then under the superintendence of the His sole means of support at this celebrated Vicessimus Knox. Here he time were derived from an income of made but little classical progress, but his about £96 per annum, the source of fondness for books was evinced by his which was a Rustat scholarship, and habit of reading late at night, when all his exhibition from Tunbridge. Thus his schoolfellows were asleep, for which situated, and having made a vow to purpose he spent great part of his accept no pecuniary assistance from his pocket-money in purchasing candles. mother, whose income was extremely In 1786, shortly after which his father small, he determined to exert himself, died, he entered Jesus College, Cam- and accordingly, as the time approached bridge, where he obtained the situation for his examination, he, for the first of chapel clerk, to the duties of which time, entered upon a regular course of office he was scrupulously attentive, but study, and on proceeding to his degree, distinguished himself in no branch of in January, 1790, he obtained the university learning, excepting that of mathematical honour of a junior optime,



which, though it did not confer a high On the 26th of January, 1800, he distinction, enabled the college, will arrived at Petersburgh, whence he consome shew of justice, to elect hiin tinued his course

to Moscow, and afterwards to a fellowship. In the fol Taganrog on the sea of Azoff ; and, on lowing April, on the recoinmendation of his reaching Achmedshid, in the Crimea, the Bishop of Gloucester, he became he passed some time with his pupil in tutor to the Honourable Henry Tufton, the house of Professor Pallas. He next nephew of the Duke of Dorset, with visited Constantinople, where he was whom he made the tour of Great employed in searching for, and examBritain; and, on his return, published ining, Greek medals; and, among an account of it; but the work is by other curiosities of the Turkish capital, means on a level with his sub

he contrived to enter the seraglio, sequent performances.

" where,” he says,

“no Frank had beIn 1791, he went with his pupil to fore set his foot.' Hence he made an Calais; and, in the following year, he excursion to the Troad, at the prospect obtained an engagement to accompany of beholding which, he had previously Lord Berwick on a tour to Gerinany, said in a leiter to a friend, 1 Tears of Switzerland, and Italy. " He joy stream from my eyes while I write." now," says Mr. St. John, one of his | Egypt and Syria nexi claimed his attenbiographers, " in the position for which tion; and whilst near the lake of Genė. nature had originally designed him." sareth, he took particular observation * An unbounded love of iravel," are of the Druzes, whom he describes as the words of Clarke himself,“ influenced “the most extraordinary people on me at a very early period of my life. earth,” and whose custom of prostrating It was conceived in infancy, and I shall themselves weekly before the molten carry it with me to the grave. When calf, he observes, “ is exactly that worI reflect upon the speculations of my ship at which Moses was so incensed in youth, I am at a loss to account for descending from Mount Sinai." a passion, which, predominating over In 1801, he returned to Egypt, and every motive of interest, and every tie whilst in that country, a dispute arising of affection, urges me to press forward, | between the French and English geneand to pursue inquiry, even in the ra!s respecting the literary treasures bosoms of the ocean and the desert. collected by the former, he was deputed Sometimes, in the dreams of fancy, I by General Hutchinson to point out am weak enough to imagine that the those most worthy of being conveyed map of the world was painted in the to England, which country is indebted awning of my cradle, and that my to him, amongst other things, for the nurse chaunted the wanderings of pil- | acquisition of the famous sarcophagus of grims in her legendary lullabies." He Alexander the Great. From Europe remained abroad about two years, and he proceeded to Greece, where his enon his return, became tutor, succes thusiasm seems to have reached its sively, to Sir Thomas Mostyn, and to highest stretch. “ It is necessary,” he two sons of the present Marquess of exclaims, " to forget all that has preAnglesey. In 1798, having previously ceded--all the travels of my life-all I taken his degree of M. A., he resumed ever imagined-all I ever saw! Asia, his residence at Cambridge; and, in Egypt, the Isles, Italy, the Alpsthe following year, set out with his Whatever you will! Greece surpasses pupil and friend, Mr. Cripps, on a tour all! Stupendous in its ruins!-awful through Denınark, Sweden, Lapland, in its mountains,-captivating in its Finland, Russia, Tartary, Circassia, vales,-bewitching in its climate. NoAsia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Greece, thing ever equalled it, no pen can and Turkey. Having arrived at the describe it- no pencil can portray it!”. gulf of Bothnia, Clarke declared he Our traveller returned to Cambridge would not return until he should have in 1802, when, in consequence of his "snuffed the polar air," and he ac presents to the university, of which the cordingly proceeded as far as Enontakis, principal was a Grecian statue of Ceres, in latitude 68 deg. 30 min. 30 sec. he was presented with the degree of north ; beyond which, illness prevented L. L. D.

It does not appear at what him from venturing.

time he took orders, but in 1806, in

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