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of the subject of our memoir: and he Mother-of-pearl Micrometer; An Essay made several improvements in the con- on the Mechanical Properties of Facstruction of steam-engines, for which titious Airs, with an appendix on the he obtained a patent in 1801. In 1802, Nature of the Blood; and Elements of one was granted to him for a very ela- Natural or Experimental Philosophy.. borate and accurate machine for pro- These works are distinguished by ducing smooth and parallel surfaces on perspicuity of style, proper selection wood and other materials : this has materials, and clearness of arrangebeen tried, with success, on a very largement, and may be justly classed among scale, in the arsenal at Woolwich. His the best elementary books in the Engnext inventions were, an improvement lish language.
Mr. Cavallo died in in the process of making paper; in the London, in 1810. process of printing, by a mode which enabled the Bank to perform the labour BRAITHWAITE, (John,) deserves of one hundred and twenty clerks with notice as the inventor of a diving matwenty; in the construction of main-chine, with which, in 1783, he descended pipes ; in wbeel carriages; and a me- into the Royal George, at Spithead, thod for the prevention of the dry rot ; and brought up the sheet anchor, and for all of which he obtained patents. several of the guns. In 1788, he deHe died, highly respected for his scien- scended into the Hartwell, East Indiatific acquirements and private worth, man, lost near one of the Cape de Verd on the 9th of December, 1814. “ It is islands, and saved from the wreck, surely,” says Dr. Brown, Mr. Bramah's besides other property, dollars to the biographer, “on the characters of such value of L38,000. From the Abergaindividuals that the wealth and pros. venny, East Indiaman, wrecked off the perity of the British empire most essen- isle of Patiain, he is said to have brought tially depend; an inventive imagination up property worth £105,000. He died controlled by a sound judgment, an in 1818. incessant activity of mind and body, a head that can direct, and a heart that MILNER, (Isaac, Dean of Carlisle,) can feel, are the genuine sources of that a native of Leeds, in Yorkshire, and practical superiority which is well known the son of a poor weaver, was born on to distinguish the productions of our the 11th of January, 1751. His elder national industry."
brother, Joseph, who, by some generous
individuals, was placed at the grammarCAVALLO, (TIBERIUS,) the son of school of Leeds, taught him the elea Neapolitan physician, was born at ments of Latin and Greek, for which Naples, in 1749, and came to England languages the future dean felt so great in 1771, for the purpose of qualifying a predilection, that, being brought up himself for a merchant. Science and to his father's trade, while working in philosophy, however, formed the chief the loom, he contrived to study Tacitus objects of his pursuit, and soon induced and Euripides. His brother, on becomhim to quit commercial occupations al. ing master of the grammar-school at together. He was a fellow of the Royal Hull, appointed him junior assistant at Society, and contributed several valu- that establishment, and in 1769, he beable papers to the Philosophical Trans- came a sizar at Queen's College, Camactions. His separate publications are, bridge, where, on taking his degree of A Complete Treatise on Electricity in B. A., in 1774, he was not only senior Theory and Practice, with Original Ex-wrangler, but complimented as being periments; An Essay on the Theory incomparabilis. Shortly afterwards, he and Practice of Medical Electricity ; ) obtained the first mathematical prize; Treatise on the Nature and Properties and, becoming tutor, had for his pupils of Air, and other permanently Elastic | Mr. Pitt and Mr. Wilberforce, with Fluids, with an Introduction to Che- whom he travelled abroad. In 1777, mistry; The History and Practice of he proceeded to the degree of M. A. ; Aërostation; Mineralogical Tables; A in 1780, he served the office of junior Treatise on Magnetism in Theory and moderator; and, in 1783, he had the Practice, with Original Experiments; honour of being appointed first JackDescription and Use of the Telescopial sonian professor of natural and experi
mental philosophy. In 1788, he pro-denced his zeal in the cause by receeded to the degree of B. D.; and, in linquishing the external ornaments of 1789, he became master of his college. the peerage. As a man of science, he In 1792, he proceeded to the degree held a high rank, and invented, among of D. D.; during the same year, he ob other things, a method for securing tained the deanery of Carlisle ; and, in buildings from fire, an arithmetical ma1798, he succeeded Barrow in the lu- chine, a new printing press, a monocasian professorship of mathematics, chord for tuning musical instruments, worth about £350 a year. He died at and a vessel to sail against wind and the house of Mr. Wilberforce, on the tide. He died on the 14th of DecemIst of March, 1820. “ The literary pro- ber, 1816, having been twice married ; ductions of Dr. Milner," says one of his first, to Lady Hester Pitt, daughter of friends,“ are but few; yet, as they the first Earl of Chatham, by whom he bear the stamp of genius, they pro had three daughters ; and, secondly, to cured him much reputation, and a fel Miss Grenville, by whom he had three lowship in the Royal Society." They He was the author of several consist chiefly of some learned and in- philosophical and a few political tracts. genious communications to that body, and a vindication of his brother's His NICHOLSON, (WILLIAM,) was born tory of the Christian Church, of which in London, in 1758, and passed the he published a new edition. He also early part of his life in the maritime wrote in favour of the Bible Society, service. On his return from India, he against Marsh, and produced a post was engaged by Mr. Wedgewood, the humous collection of sermons by his manufacturer of Staffordshire ware, as brother, with a nemoir of the author his agent on the continent; and shortly prefixed. As master of his college, he afterwards settled in London, as a maabolished the custom of sizars standing thematical teacher. He also opened a behind the chairs of the fellows at din- school, but failed, and became bank
On his frequent visit to Leeds, he rupt; nor did he derive more profit from never failed, it is said, to call on the ob various inventions for which he took scure friends of his boyish days, among out patents. The appointment of enwhom he often " delivered the poor gineer to the Portsea Water-works and the fatherless, and caused many a Company, relieved his necessities, for widow's heart to sing for joy." He a time; but he ultimately lost this situfound manual labour a great source of ation, and died, in poverty, in 1815. As hanpiness, and passed much of his an author, he is principally known by leisure time at a'turning lathe, which, The Journal, which bears his name, of with its appendages, had cost him one Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the hundred and forty guineas.
Arts; An Introduction to Natural Phi
losophy; The First Principles of CheSTANHOPE, (CHARLES, Earl of,) mistry; and A Dictionary of Chemistry. son of the second earl of that name, These are chiefly compilations; but the was born on the 3rd of August, 1753. judgment with which ihey are executed He was educated at Eton and Geneva, renders them extremely useful : in the and displayed, at the latter place, a encyclopædia, published under his name, genius tor mathematics, which he cul he is said to have had but little concern. tivated with such success, that he obtained a prize, from the Society of PARKES, (SAMUEL,) was born at Stockholm, for a memoir on the pen- Stourbridge, in Worcestershire, in the dulum. In 1774, he was an unsuccess year 1759. He became eminent as an sul candidate for Westminster, but came experimental chemist, and the
epuinto parliament, in the same year, as tation he acquired by his various works member for the borough of Wycombe, caused him to be elected a fellow of which he represented until the death of the Society of Arts, and of various other his father, in 1786. As a speaker, he literary and philosophical associations. was distinguished by a strong vein of He died in Mecklenburg Square, Lonsense and humour: he was an advocate don, on the 23rd of December, 1825. of the French revolution, and not only His principal works are, A Chemical avowed republican sentiments, but evi- Catechism, a most interesting and valu
able treatise, which has gone through lungs, and taken from the atmosphere many editions ; Essay on the Utility of received into them, and that in its cir. Chemistry in the Arts and Manufac- cuit through the body it became detures; Rudiments of Chemistry, illuso composed. Having studied three trated by examples; An Abridgment years at Guy's Hospital, he visited the of his First Treatise; and Chemical continent; and, on his return, made Essays, principally relating to the Arts some experiments relative to the cause and Manufactures of the British Domi- of animal heal, which, with his knownions, in eight volumes, octavo.
ledge of medicine, enabled him to effect
several cures, in cases that had been THORNTON, (JOHN ROBERT,) a given up by the first physicians and son of the celebrated Bonnell Thornton, surgeons in London.
His success, was born in London, some time previous which went very far to establish the to the year 1760. He received the first soundness of the Brunonian system, part of his education at a public, but then deemed by many empirical, inthe latter at a private, school, and was duced him to publish a work in support remarkable for passing the whole of his of it, entitled The Philosophy of Meholydays in making collections in natu- dicine, or Medical Extracts on the ral history. He also devoted his play. Nature of Health and Disease, includhours at school to the same pursuit, and ing the Laws of the Animal (Economy, established there a small garden and and the Doctrines of Pneumatic Medimenagerie, in which he kept a large cine, five volumes, octavo. “ Never," assortment of pigeons, besides having says his biographer in The European every species of the English hawk. At | Magazine, “ was work more eagerly an early period of his life, he was read, or generally approved of; it soon nearly killed, by drinking, in mistake, went through five editions, and stamped a phial full of eau-de-luce, the effects instantly for the author a reputation of which, for a time, almost drove him that can never be effaced.” It appeared mad. At the age of sixteen, he was in 1798; and, in the following year, ho sent to Cambridge, where, though des- published, upon the same plan, a syster tined for the church, he gratified his of modern politics, entitled, The Philoinclination for the study of physic, by sophy of Politics, or Political Extracts attending the anatoinical and chemical on the Nature of Governments and lectures at the university, as well as their Administration, three volumes, those on botany and natural history. octavo. His most important He also appears to have attended a work appeared in 1808, under the title of course on optics; and being asked by Botanical Plates of the New Illustration the lecturer in that science, to describe of the Sexual System of Linnæus, folio, the anatomy of the eye, he proceeded €30, which was pronounced, and conto give such a minute and masterly tinues to be, the most splendid botanical account of it, that the lecturer, finding work extant. “ Whatever ideas," says himself puzzled, exclaimed, amid the the author of Literary Sketches, “ might suppressed laughter of the students, have been excited when this work was “ That will do, sir; that will do, sir." first announced, the mind of man was Shortly after this, having acquired a inadequate to conceive the splendour large fortune by the death of his bro- and magnificence of the execution when ther, he resolved on making medicine | published. It was, indeed, a trophy of his sole pursuit; and, going to London, national taste, which the surrounding he became a pupil at Guy's Hospital, nations may look upon with envy and attending also the lectures of Mr. Cline, astonishment.” Dr. Darwin, also, speakand of Dr. Babington, under whom he ing of the work, observes, " that the attained to great proficiency in che. botanical picturesque plates of the new mistry. On taking his degree of B. M., iilustration excite wonder in every beat Cambridge, he gave a proof of this, holder, and have no equal.” As a furby proposing for his thesis a discovery ther proof of his admiration of the work, he had himself made, contrary to the he sat for his portrait, about a week received opinions, " That the animal before his death, to be placed in it, deheat arose from the oxygen air im- claring to his friends that his features, bibed by the blood flowing through the in Dr. Thornton's work, would possess
immortality. In the meantime, Mr. practice, he gave up this appointment Thornton 'took his degree of M. D., also, at the expiration of a twelvemonth, and rose to great eminence in the me and took a house in Great Marlborough tropolis, both as a practitioner and Street. Here he began to give rewriter, in medicine. He was a great gular lectures on experimental philoadvocate for vaccination, and published sophy and chemistry, and also a new several tracts in defence of ii, against course on zoonomia, according to the the attacks of Dr. Rowley. His prac Brunonian system, of which he was a lical talents procured him the appoint- strong advocate and admirer. He also ment of physician to the Marylebone commenced two courses on botany; Dispensary; and whilst holding that one at his own house, and the other at office, he added to his fame, by discover- Brompton. In the midst of these puring, in the virtues of the foxglove, almost suits, he was engaged in an extensive a certain cure for the scarlet fever. He practice, in the gratuitous exercise of continued his situation at the dispen- which, he received, by infection from sary for four years; and became, aiter a poor patient, a fever which proved wards, lecturer on medical botany, at fatal to him, on the 28th of July, 1802. Guy's Hospital, in which science he has His works are, Outlines of a Course of subsequently published several very Lectures on Chemistry; Lecture on valuable works; among which may be the Preservation of Health ; A Tour mentioned, The Plants of Great Britain through the Highlands, two volumes, arranged after the reformed Sexual | quarto, with map and fifty-two plates; System, &c.; An Easy Introduction to a volume of Annals of Philosophy, the Science of Botany ; and several Natural History, Chemistry, &c., for others.
the Year 1800, besides three treatises
on the Harrowgate waters, four papers GARNETT, (Thomas) was born in The Medical Commentaries and at Kirby-Lonsdale, in Westmoreland, Transactions, and Zoonomia, whic
the 21st of April, 1767. After was published by subscription, after his having received the rudiments of edu- death, for the benefit of his children. cation in his native town, and laid the foundation of his medical and philoso WOLLASTON, (WILLIAM HYDE,) phical knowledge, under Mr. Dawson, descended from a respectable family in at Sedburgh, he studied physic at Staffordshire, and the son of Francis Edinburgh, and took there his degree Wollaston, Esq., was born on the 6th of M. D. in 1788. He then attended of August, 1766, in Charter-house the London hospitals, and afterwards Square, London.
He was sent to settled at Harrowgate, where he married, complete his education at Caius Coland soon acquired an extensive prac- lege, Cambridge, where he studied tice. In 1795, he proceeded to Liver- medicine, and took his degrees of M. B. pool, with the intention of emigrating and M. D., successively, in 1787 and io America ; but being requested, by 1793. In the latter year, he was elected Dr. Currie, to give a course of chemical a fellow of the Royal Society, to the lectures, he met with su much success, Transactions of which he communicated that he was induced to defer his de his first paper, in 1797, entitled, On the parture. He also delivered a course on Gout and Urinary Concretions. His experimental philosophy, which, to subsequent communications almost all gether with that on chemistry, he re relate to experimental chemistry. To peated, by invitation, at Manchester. this science he began to devote his time He was also invited to Dublin, but was soon after he had commenced the pracprevented from going there in conse tice of his profession, which, however, quence of his election to the philo- he was induced to relinquish, in consophical professorship of Anderson's sequence of an unsuccessful attempt to Institution, at Gla:gow. This situation obtain the appointment of physician to he relinquisired for that of professor of St George's Hospital. In 1806, he was natural philosophy and chemistry to elected second secretary to the Royal the New Royal Institution of London, Society; and, in 1812, he was elected a where he seitied in 1800. Being de member of the Geological Society. His birous, however, to get into general most important papers in the Philoso
phical Transactions are, Experiments on ciety, stock to the amount of £1,000, ihe Chemical Production and Agency of the interest of which was to be annually Electricity; A Method of Examining employed towards the encouragement Refractive and Dispersive Powers by of experiments. His character stood Prismatic Reflection; On a New Metal high in every respect, and his merit has found in Crude Platina; On the Discovery been appreciated and distinguished by of Palladium; On the non-existence of most of the principal scientific estabSugar in the Blood of Persons labouring lishments of Europe. At the annual under Diabetes Mellitus ; On the meering of the Geological Society, in Primitive Crystais of Carbonate of | 1829, Dr. Fitten, the president, in the Lime, Bitter Spar, and Iron Spar; On course of his eulogium upon Dr. Wollasa Periscopic Camera Obscura and Mi- ton, said :-" It would be difficult to croscope; and On a Method of render- name a man who so well combined the ing Platina malleable, for which he was qualities of an English gentleman and awatded, by the Society, one of the a philosopher.” Among other anecdotes royal medals. He also communicated respecting the manner in which Dr. several papers to Dr. Thomson's Annals Wollaston resented an intrusion into of Philosophy, who says,
speaking of his workroom, is related the following: modern British chemistry, that a dis- - Finding a gentleman in his laboratinct school has been established by the torv, one day, who had walked in subject of our memoir. “ Dr. Wollas- whilst waiting to see him, he took him ton," he adds, “possesses an uncommon by the arm, and, pointing to the furnace, neatness of hand, and has invented a said, “ Do you see that, sir?" "I do." very ingenious method of determining “ Then make a profound bow to it; for the properties and constituents of very as this is the first, it will also be the minute quantities of matter. This is last time of your seeing it.” attended with several great advantages; it requires but very little apparatus, LESLIE,(John,) was born at Largo, and therefore the experiments may be in Fifeshire, in April, 1766. His father performed in almost any situation; it was a small farmer, and had destined saves a great deal of time and a great his son for the same occupation; but deal of expense; while the numerous the extraordinary genius which he be. discoveries of Dr. Wollaston demon- gan to evince with respect to calculation strate the precision of which his method and geometrical exercises, induced him is susceptible.” Among other instru- to seek for him some more suitable menis, he constructed a sliding rule of employment. Young Leslie was early chemical equivalents, highly useful to introduced to Professor Robison, and the practical chemist; and he made a by him to Professors Playfair and galvanic battery of such small dimen- Stewart, who strongly recommended sions that it was contained in a thimble. that he should receive an education at By a very ingenious process, he was one of the universities. The patronage enabled to make wire of platina much of the Earl of Kinnoul being abont the finer than any hair, and almost imper- same time obtained for him, his parents ceptible to the naked eye. The opera- were induced to enter him as a student at tions which he carried on in his labora- the University of St. Andrew's, whence tory brought him considerable profit as he removed to that of Edinburg!ı. Here well as fame: his discovery of the he was employed, by the celebrated malleability of platinum, it has been Adam Smith, to assist the studies of his asserted, alone produced about £30,000. nephew, Mr. Douglas (afterwards Lord Geologists are much indebted to him Reston), and displayed considerable for his camera lucida ; and his in- abilities in the academical course which vention of the goniometer has intro. he himself went through. Not being duced into the department of crystal. inclined to enter the church, he came lography a certainty and precision to London, and obtained employment which the most skilrul observers were from Dr. Thompson, in writing and before unable to obtain. This eminent correcting the notes of his new edition man died, unmarried, on the 22nd of of The Bible. In 1793. he published, December, 1828 ; having, a short time in nine octavo voluires, A Translation previously, presented, to the Royal So- of Bution's Natural History of Birds,