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the Southern Hemisphere. He was ap of the dissenting persuasion. Being pointed mathematical master at Christ's sent to the University of Edinburgh, he Hospital, and secretary to the board of there studied mathematics under Dr. longitude, some time previously to his Matthew Stewart, and from him derived decease, which took place in 1798. his taste for pure and elegant demon. Besides the works above noticed, he stration. He completed his education was the author of a treatise On the at the University of Glasgow; and, after Achronycal Rising of the Constellation having gone through the usual course Pleiades, inserted, by Dr. Vincent, in of preparation, commenced dissenting his Nearchus; On the Discovery of minister at Durham, in 1756. He afterthe Longitude by means of Time- wards accepted the charge of a congrepieces; Remarks on Forster's Account gation at Yarmouth, where he married; of Cook's Last Voyage; Inquiry into and, in 1772, removed to Warrington, the Population of England and Wales; on being appointed mathematical rutor Robertson's Elements of Navigation to the dissenting academy of that place. Improved ; and, Restoration of a work In 1775, appeared his Doctrine of the of Apollonius. He also communicated Sphere, containing many plates for the seven papers to the Transactions of demonstration of propositions, of a pethe Royal Society, of which body he culiar construction. This work has was a member.
been highly praised by mathematicians,
and, by some, is considered as an exHORNSBY, (Thomas,) was born in ample of the purest method of geome1734, and educated for the church, but trical demonstration. In the same year, distinguished himself only as a matne he was chosen one of the ministers of matician and astronomer. After having the High Pavement Meeting at Noraken his degree of M. A., he was ap- tingham, where, engaging in the politics pointed Savilian professor of astronomy of the day, he became an eloquent at Oxford, where he was also keeper of speaker at public meetings, and drew the Radcliffe library, and gave lectures up, among other papers, a petition to on natural and on experimental philo- parliament, recominending the recog. sophy. He took the degree of D.D. vition of American independence; of some time previous to his death, which which Mr. Burke declared that he had occurred on the Ilth of April, 1810. rather have been the author, than of all Dr. Hornsby's papers, in the Philuso his own compositions on the same subphical Transactions, are, On the Paral- ject. After he had passed twenty-four lax of the Sun; Observations on the years at Nortingham, Mr. Walker was Solar Eclipse ; Account of the Improve- prevailed upon to undertake the office ments to be made by Observations of of theological tutor, and superintendent the Transit of Venus, in 1769; Ob of a dissenting academy, in Manchester; servations on the Transit of Venus, and but soon resigned it, in consequence of Eclipse of the Sun, on the 3rd of June, his advanced years, and retired to the 1769 ; The Quantity of the Sun's Pa- neighbourhood of Liverpool. In 1807, rallax, as deduced from Observations of he came to London, for the purpose of the Transit of Venus, on the 3rd of superintending the publication of two June, 1769; and, Inquiry into the Quan- | volumes of his Sermons, and two volumes tily and Direction of the proper Motion of Philosophical Essays, when he was of Arcturus, with some Remarks on the seized with an illness, and died in the Diminution of the Obliquity of the same year, at the age of seventy-three. Ecliptic. He also edited the astrono He had published several sermons, in mical observations made by Dr. Brad- addition to those just mentioned; An ley, at Greenwich, and obtained much Appeal to the People of England upon reputation by the manner in which he the Test Laws, much admired by Mr. performed his task, though his delay in Fox; and the first part of a Treatise the production of the work excited' ob on Conic Sections, which added greatly servation and censure.
to his mathematical reputation. Mr.
Walker's private character was highly WALKER, (GEORGE,) was born inestimable: “such," says his biographer, 1734, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where was the kindness of his heart, and his father was a respectable tradesman the ease and cheerfulness of his
Sucial conversation, that they who hated series of experiments on diet, which he his principles, could not hate the man." tried, to such an extent, upon his own
person, that he died, principally of COVENTRY, (John,) was born in debility, on the 23rd of February, 1770. Southwark, in the year 1735. He was An account of these experiments, which more than fifty years painter to the are as whimsical as they proved to be Royal Mint, in the Tower of London, pernicious, is to be found in the quarto but is principally celebrated for his me- volume of his works, published in 1788, chanical powers of invention. He as- by Dr. Carmichael Smyth, entitled, sisted Dr. Franklin, when he came to Works, consisting of Clinical and AnaEngland, in his electrical experiments; tomical Observations, with Experiments, invented an hygrometer upon a new. Dietetical and Statical, revised and pubprinciple; and contrived a method of lished from his original manuscripts. discovering, by the microscope, the It displays great medical knowledge, curious structure of the air vessels, and and an eccentricity of genius, much rethe minute capillary tubes for the cir- sembling that of the celebrated Napier, culation of the sap in wood. He arrived the inventor of the logarithms, who is at such perfection in the art of drawing said to have been Slark's ancestor by oprical instruments, on ivory and glass, both parents. as to be able to draw parallel lines, on glass, the thousandth part of an inch PRICE, (JAMES,) a physician of only asunder. He also made two Guildford, where he was born about chamber organs, and telescopes of con- the year 1740, distinguished himself by siderable power; and terminated his his chemical ialents; his pretensions to ingenious career of invention with the which, however, in a greater degree construction of several curious statical than he was able to support, led to the balances for the assaying of gold, which destruction of his reputation and his would weigh to the thousandth part of life. He professed to have discovered a grain. He died in December, 1812. the secret of making gold, or, at least,
of a metal equal to it; some of which STARK, (WILLIAM,) was born at he sent to the king, and to the Royal Manchester, in July, 1740. Having Society, of which he was a fellow. In received the rudiments of education, relation to his experiments on this subunder his uncle, at Lecropt, in Perth-ject, he published two pamphlets, in shire, he entered the University of which he pretended to have effected his Glasgow, where he studied under Smith transmutations by means of a red and and Black, and “ acquired,” says his while powder, but the composition of biographer, in The Encyclopædia Bri. which he kept secret. The Royal tannica, " that logical precision, and Society, however, insisted that he should that contempt of hypotheses, with which repeat his experiments before two of he prosecuted all his future studies.' their body, on pain of dismissal; and From Glasgow he proceeded to Edin. after having failed in several, he reburgh, and attended the lectures of quested to be allowed delay for another Monro and Cullen, whose friendship exhibition. His dread of exposure he obtained through his superior abili: would not suffer him to wait for the ties. In 1765, he came to London, and appointed time, a few day previous to passed two years in the constant study which he destroyed himself, by, as it is of physic, surgery, and anatomy, in the said, drinking laurel water.
He was last of which he attained to great pro- a man of considerable talents, and was ficiency. Whilst at St. George's Hos- possessed of a large fortune, bequeathed pital, he made several experiments on io him by a relation, in conformity with the blood, and other animal fluids, whose will he had exchanged his oritogether with a few in chemical phar- ginal name of Higginbotham, for that macy, an account of which he leit be- of Price. hind him in manuscript. In 1767, he went to Leyden, and took his degree WITHERING, (WILLIAM.) the son of M. D.; and, shortly after his return, of an apothecary at Wellington, in commenced, partly at the suggestion of Shropshire, was born there some time Sir John Pringle and Dr. Franklin, a in the year 1741; and after studying
pharmacy under his father, proceeded, his day. Ia the meantime, his name for the completion of his medical edu-, had become known through the me. cation, to Edicborgh, where be took his dium of several publications, as a most degree of Y D., in 1766. He then ; abie and accurate geographer. Besides settled, and married, at Stafford; but his account of the Ganges and Burram. finding himse f little encouraged there, pooter rivers, which was inserted in removed to Birmingham, where he soon the Philosophical Transactions, he pubrose to extensive practice, and distin- lished A Chart of the Bank and Current guished himself by his scientific as well of Cape Lagullas; Bengal Arias; Map as medical abilities. In 1776, he pub- of Hindostan; Observations on the To lished, in two volumes, octavo, a work, pography of the plain of Trop; and entitled A Botanical Arrangement of his greatest and best performance, British Plan's, being an Account of the his Geographical System of Herodo us. Indigenous Piants of Great Britain, He also assisted Mungo Park, in the classed according to the Linnæan sis. arrangement of his African Travels; tem. It was very favourably received, Dr. Vincent, in his Commentary on and went through two more editions, Arrian's Voyage of Nearenus ; and Sir one in 1787, in three volumes; and William Jones, in his Oriental Collecanother, in 1796, in four volumes; in tions. He was also a fellow of the both of which he made several im rove. Edinburgh Royal Society, a member ments and additions, “tha: rendered of the Royal Institute of France, of it,” says Dr. Aikin, “an excellent na- the Imperial Academy of St. Peterstional Flora." In 1779, he publisbed burgh, and of the Royal Society of An Account of the Scarlet Fever and Goringen, at the time of his dea:h, Sore Throat, as it appeared in Birming, which took place on the 29th of March, ham, in the year 1778; and, in 1783, he 1830. translated Bergman's Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis. In 1785, he wrote An Ac CURTIS, (WILLIAM,) was born at count of the Foxglove, and some of its Alton, in Hampshire, in 1746, and medical uses; with Practical Remarks brought up under his grandfather, an on the Dropsy, and other Diseases, in apothecary of that place. He com. which he was the first who gave satis- menced the practice of this profession, factory proof to the public of the diuretic on his own account, in London ; but a virtues of the foxglove in dropsies. He decided bent for botanical pursuits inalso contributed many important papers duced him, at length, to relinquish his on chemistry and mineralogy, to the proper business for that of a lecturer in Royal Society, of which he was made natural history, and a demonstrator of a fellow. He died at Birmingham, in plants, from herborisations, and the the latter part of 1799. A genus of specimens cultivated by him in a botaniAmerican plants was called Witheringia, cal garden. He kepe gardens succesafter his name ; and the native car sively at Bermondsey, Lainbeth Marsh, bonate of barytes, which he first dis- and Brompton, which he cultivated with covered and described, bears the appel- great assiduity and success. In 1771, lation of Witherite, in honour of him. he obtained some reputation, as an
entomologist, by the publication of a REYNELL, (John,) was born at pamphlet, entitled Instructions for ColChudleigh, in Devonshire, about the lecting and Preserving Insects, partiyear 1742. At the age of fifteen he cularly Moths and Butterflies, illustrated entered the navy, which, in his twenty- with a copper-plate; and, in the fol. fourth year, he quitted for the army, lowing year, he published a translation and was immediately sent upon active of The Fundamenta Entomologiæ of service to India, as an officer of en Linnæus, entitled An Introduction to gineers. He did not attain a higher the Knowledge of Insects, containing rank than that of major, but received a some valuable additions to the original. very lucrative appointment as surveyor In 1777, appeared the first number of general of Bengal. On his return to his Flora Londinensis, a work which England, he was elected a fellow of the was extended to six fasciculi, each conRoyal Society, and became intimate taining seventy-two places. This is his with the most eminent scientific men of principal production, and one which
has contributed much to the promotion by two objects, &c.; A Treatise on the of a taste for botanical studies in this Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of kingdom. The great accuracy of the Bodies; Investigations founded on the delineations, taken by means of a Theory of Motion, for determining the camera, and the excellence of the ac- Times of Vibration of Watch Balances ; companying descriptions, cannot be too A Dissertation on the Stability of Ships; highly eulogized, and have deservedly and A Dissertation on the Construction given the work a very high rank among and Properties of Arches. Many of local Floras. Mr. Curtis's next publi- these works have materially contrication was The Botanical Magazine, buted to the progress of science, by the plan of which was to render it a multiplying the modes of illustration general repository of garden plants, which experimental displays afford for whether already delineated or not. In the assistance of the instructor; but Mr. 1782, he published A History of the Atwood can scarcely be said to have Brown-tailed Moth, with a view of extended, very considerably, the bounds allaying the extraordinary and almost of human knowledge; or to have possuperstitious alarm, which had spread sessed that extraordinary talent, or through the country, in consequence of energy of mind, by which great diffthe appearance of an unusual number culties are overcome, or new methods of caterpillars. Another of his useful of reasoning invented. productions was Practical Observations on the British Grasses, the object of DRYANDER, (Jonas,) the son of which was to direct the choice of the a clergyman, was born in Sweden, in farmer to the most valuable kinds for 1748, and received bis education at the cultivation. Mr. Curtis, who bore the Universities of Gottenburgh and Upsal. character of an honest, friendly man, and He visited England some time previous an entertaining companion, died in 1799. to 1782, in which year he succeeded to Besides the works before mentioned, Dr. Solander's place in the British he was the author of two excellent ento- Museum. He also held the offices of mological papers in the Transactions of librarian to the Royal and Linnæan the Linnean Society, of which he was Societies; of the latter he was one of an original member. After his death the first founders, and, on its incorporawere published his Lectures on Botany, tion by royal charter, in 1801, he drew illustrated by coloured plates.
up its laws and regulations. His death
took place in October, 1810, at which ATWOOD, (GEORGE,) was born in time he was vice-president of the Lin1746, and educated at Westminster næan Society. Mr. Dryander commilSchool, and Trinity College, Cambridge, nicated four papers on the subject of where he graduated B.A. in 1769, with botany, to the Transactions of the Linthe rank of third wrangler. He sub- næan, and one to th:use of the Royal sequently obtained a fellowship, be- Society. He also superintended the came M A. in 1772, and was elected publication of Mr. Aiton's Hortus Kewa fellow of the Royal Society in 1776. ensis, and Dr. Roxburgh's Plants of At the university, he delivered, for the Coast of Coromandel, in which the several successive years, a course of lec- critical learning and accuracy of Mr. tures on mechanical and experimental Dryander are most usefully displayed. philosophy, which obtained for him His Catalogus Bibliothecæ Historicogreat reputation. The celebrated Mr. naturalis Josephi Banks “is a model," Pitt often employed him in financial says his biographer," for all future calculations, and bestowed on him a writers in this line; but a model rather patent office, which required but little calculated to check than to excite imitaof his attendance, that he might have tion. A work so ingenious in design, the full benefit of his services. He died and so perfect in execution, can scarcely in his sixty-second year, having distin- be produced in any science; so faultless guished himself, as an author, by a a specimen of typography we have never variety of papers, published in the Phi- elsewhere seen. In private life, he losophical Transactions; the principal was respected, though somewhat imof which are, A General Theory for the patient of contradiction, and too apt to Mensuration of the Angle, subtended ireat misconception with a severity due
only to misrepresentation. On being succeeded in cuting a single block of asked what share Dr. Smith had in the wood into a violin, and in making two composition of The Flora Græca, he is violoncellos, which were found to be said to have replied, with a vehemence very tolerable instruments. On the that startled the inquirer, “Every expiration of his apprenticeship, he word." The versatility of his conver. obrained employment with a cabinetsation was equal to that of his genius : maker, in London, and soon after whether the subject, says his biogra- commenced that business on his own pher, was a question in science or a account. His mechanical abilities soon point of history; the politics of Europe displayed themselves in a variety of or the little-tatile of an obscure German useful inventions, for the manufaciure court; the literary talents and per of which he took some premises in formances of any distinguished man, or
Denmark Street, Soho, which, on his his private transactions; the intrigues subsequent removal to Piccadilly, he for a place in court, a professorship, or relinquished for some more extensive a domestic establishment, he was sure ones at Pimlico. In 1783, a patent was to throw some light upon it.
granted him for a water-cock, intended
to allow the fluid a more uninterrupted CRAWFORD, (ADAIR,) was born passage than had hitherto been pracin 1749 ; and, after taking his degree of ticable; and, in the following year, he M. D., practised, with great success, in obtained one for his improvement in London, where he became physician to locks. Their peculiar character des St. Thomas's Hospital, and fellow of pends on the arrangement of a number the Royal Society, and other scientific of levers or sliders, in such a manner bodies. He was also, for some time, as to preserve, when at rest, a uniform professor of chemistry at Woolwich, and situation, and to be only pressed down distinguished himself in that science by by the key to certain unequal depths, his Experiments and Observations on which nothing but the key can ascerAnimal Heat, of which he published an lain ; the levers not having any stop to account that reached a second edition retain them in their required situation, in 1784. It was translated into the except that which forms a part of the German and Italian languages, and key.' A report appears to have been gave rise to a publication by Mr. More spread abroad for the purpose of opegan, in which he examined the theory rating against the inventor's application of Crawford. He also made some ex for an extension of his patent, that one periments on the matter of cancer, and of these locks had been readily opened is said to have been the first wlio re before a committee of the house of coincommended muriate of barytes as a cure mons, by means of a common quill; for scrosula. He died at Lymington, in but this, says one of his biographers, July, 1795. Soine years after his death, was a gross misrepresentation of the a tract, written by hiin, was published, fact, the quill having, in reality, been entitled, An Experimental Inquiry into previously cut into the required shape the effect of Tonics, and other Medicinal from the true key. Mr. Bramah proSubstances, on the cohesion of the cured three patenis for different mudiAnimal Fibres.
fications of pumps and fire-engines; the
two first being dated in 1790, and the BRAMAH, (Joseph,) was born at last in 1798. Between those years, he Stainborough, in Yorkshire, on the 13th obtained a patent for his practical apof April, 1749. His father rented a plication to the purpose of a press, the farm under Lord Strafford, and he was well-known principle of the hydrostatic himself brought up to agricultural pur- paradox, by which, as by a lever with suits, but was prevented from following arms capable of infinite variations, the them after his sixteenth year, in con smallest conceivable weight is enabled sequence of an accidental lameness in to hold in equilibrium a force incom. his ankle. He was then apprenticed to parably greater. For the contrivance of a carpenter, as being the most suitable à retainer, which he added to it, a subtrade to the capacities which he had dis- sequent patent was granted to him. played almosi from his infancy. It The beer-machine, so generally used seems that, when quite a boy, he had in public houses, was also an invention